Language and culture. culture fusion. revised.


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  • Source: HU Wen-zhong
  • Source: Valdes (1986) Source: Byram (1988)
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  • Language and culture. culture fusion. revised.

    1. 1. Language and CultureLecture ThreeCulture Fusion
    2. 2. Culture Fusion What we will be talking about: The many different types of Fusion that take place between Chinese cultures and other cultures The advantages and disadvantages of this fusion Is this fusion helpful or harmful?
    3. 3. Types of Fusion Language Fusion Cuisine Fusion Tourist Fusion Medicinal Fusion (next week)
    4. 4. Language Fusion Chinese has started to be recognized as a upcoming super power which has sparked the interest for many to learn how to speak Chinese English is a universal language but in order to do business and close deals without an interpreter, many people are trying to learn the language
    5. 5. Language Fusion In order to work for places such as the United Nations, you are required to know more than one language at least (3 is ideal) Because a lot of business trades and deals are being done with China at a rapid pace and a lot of attention is being focused on China’s economy and social standing, it would be beneficial to be able to communicate with important members of the country in their mother tongue
    6. 6. Language Fusion English has also made its way into the Chinese culture Sayings such as “ok” “bye-bye” “no problem” are words that are frequently used instead of using the Chinese version of these words Increasingly, the use of idioms are being used by Chinese ESL learners in order to converse more naturally with English native speakers
    7. 7. Language Fusion Idioms: A group of words established by usage as having a meaning not deducible from those of the individual words (e.g., raining cats and dogs). Examples of some idioms: A Chip On Your Shoulder: Being upset for something that happened in the past.
    8. 8. Idioms A Dime A Dozen: Anything that is common and easy to get. Close but no Cigar: To be very near and almost accomplish a goal, but fall short. A Piece of Cake: A task that can be accomplished very easily.
    9. 9. Idioms Eighty Six: A certain item is no longer available. Or this idiom can also mean, to throw away On The Fence: Undecided. Hold Your Horses: Be patient. No Dice: To not agree. To not accept a proposition.
    10. 10. Idioms Icing On The Cake: When you already have it good and get something on top of what you already have. Let Bygones Be Bygones: To forget about a disagreement or argument When It Rains, It Pours: Since it rarely rains, when it does it will be a huge storm.
    11. 11. Discussion Are there any idioms that you are familiar with either because you hear them often or because you use them yourself? Explain 5 minutes
    12. 12. Language Fusion The rise of ESL schools in China has a significant impact on the fusion of Chinese and Western Culture When learning English you also learn the basic communication practices of the Western World (Canada, United States, Great Britain and other English speaking countries)
    13. 13. Language Fusion Cultural mistakes are said to make people more uncomfortable than grammatical mistakes This means that along with the ESL teaching, there is an element that includes cultural education
    14. 14. Language Fusion Culture is a key part of every language which makes it virtually impossible to teach a foreign language without also teaching students about the culture You cannot teach a language separate from its culture Learning about the culture along with the language helps students gain a deeper insight into the language that you are learning
    15. 15. Language & Culture Language and culture are closely associated with each other which means that as much as culture has an affect on language, language has an effect on culture.
    16. 16. Discussion (10 minutes) How has learning English helped you to learn more about Western cultures? Do you think that you would be as knowledgeable in Western culture if you had not studied English as a second language? How have you benefited from learning about Western culture?
    17. 17. Tourism and Language Fusion Subway Tour guides (great wall, forbidden city) Silk market (Fusion of Chinese culture with Western Languages) Great wall tour
    18. 18. Tourism and Language Fusion Subway System When I first got to China and knew nothing at all about the subway system, the fact that they used English helped my journey Much more relaxed knowing that they speak in Chinese first and then also in English for tourists who may be riding the subway
    19. 19. Tourism and Language Fusion Subway Signs The signs on the subway for each stop are written in Chinese Characters but also in Pin Yin for people who are not native speakers and cannot understand how to read Characters They do not make Western names for the stations when helps you learn how to say certain words properly
    20. 20. Tourism and Language Fusion Subway automated voice is also helpful if you want to know how a certain subway stop is pronounced You can listen to them say the name of the station and then repeat after them, this is the easiest way to get familiar with some Chinese words
    21. 21. Tourism Culture Fusion Beijing has a lot to offer in terms of tourism culture fusion This means that there are many traditional Chinese landmarks and attractions that represent the history and culture of China for tourists Tourists are able to experience and learn about the Chinese culture with the help of tour guides who speak and understand English
    22. 22. Tourism Culture Fusion Forbidden City: there is so much to learn and see that a tour guide is often helpful to explain the significance of the certain parts of the forbidden city This allows tourists to experience Chinese culture in their native language (there are tour guides that speak many different languages)
    23. 23. Great Wall Tour Maybe people come to Beijing to see and climb the Great Wall of China Most people are taken on a tour of many other places along with the Great Wall so that they can learn more about the Chinese culture Example: Jade factory, silk factory, pearl factory, Dr. Tea Olympic stadium
    24. 24. Great Wall Tour On this tour, tourists learn about how pearls are made, how to tell real jade from fake jade, how silk is made, drink and learn about Chinese tea, and they can even get good massages and meet traditional Chinese doctors who can help them
    25. 25. Silk Street
    26. 26. Silk Street Silk Street (Chinese: 秀水街 ; pinyin: Xiùshuǐjiē, aka Silk Market, Silk Street Market) is a shopping center in Beijing that accommodates over 1,700 retail vendors, notorious among international tourists for their wide selection of counterfeit designer brand apparels.
    27. 27. Silk Street The Silk Street attracts approximately 20,000 visitors daily (from 9am to 9pm) on weekdays and between 50,000 and 60,000 on weekends as of 2006 The original outdoor Xiushui Market (a.k.a. Silk Alley) was located in Xiushui Dongjie, south-east of Ritan near the First Embassy Area of Beijing
    28. 28. Silk Street It attracted 20,000 locals and foreigners on weekends and reaped a total annual sales volume of 100 million Yuan (US$12.5m). Perfect blend of western culture and Chinese culture The silk market offers many traditional Chinese goods as well as many Western goods
    29. 29. Silk Street In order for people to work at the Silk Market they have to know many different languages due to the amount of tourists that shop there daily Many vendors are multilingual and are able to lure you in and bargain with you for a sale This fuses the well known Chinese art of bargaining culture with the Western World
    30. 30. Silk Street Bargaining is not often seen in the Western World unless you are in a Chinese part of town so foreigners often get addicted to the thrill of bargaining You are able to enjoy Western meals and food chains at or around the Silk market as well as traditional Chinese food
    31. 31. Discussion (5 minutes) Where are some other places where you are likely to see culture fusion in China? Do you think that the Culture Fusion through tourism is helpful or hurtful to the overall image of China?
    32. 32. Cuisine Fusion In China: McDonald’s, KFC, Nike and Coke are some English words that are very popular in the Chinese language In the West: words like “kowtow and wok” and “dim sum” have become very popular in the West
    33. 33. Cuisine Fusion American Chinese cuisine refers to the style of food served by many Chinese restaurants in the United States. This type of cooking typically caters to Western tastes, and differs significantly from the traditional Chinese cuisine.
    34. 34. Cuisine Fusion There are many Chinese specialties that are not actually seen in China such as “chicken balls” and “red sauce” American Chinese food typically treats vegetables as a side dish or garnish while cuisines of China emphasize vegetables
    35. 35. Cuisine Fusion Stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying tend to be the most common Chinese cooking techniques used in this cuisine, which are all easily done using a wok . There are a lot more steamed and boiled traditional foods in China which are not in the West at all An entirely new kind of Chinese cuisine was created for the Western World
    36. 36. Examples of Western Chinese Dishes Almond chicken - chicken breaded in batter containing ground almonds, fried and served with almonds and onions General Tsos Chicken— chunks of chicken that are dipped in a batter and deep-fried and seasoned with ginger, garlic, sesame oil, scallions, and hot chili peppers.
    37. 37. Examples of Western Chinese Dishes Sesame chicken— boned, battered, and deep-fried chicken which is then dressed with a translucent red or orange, sweet and mildly spicy sauce, made from soy sauce, corn starch, vinegar, chicken broth, and sugar. Fortune cookie —fortune cookies have become sweetened and found their way to many American Chinese restaurants. Fortune cookies have become so popular that even some authentic Chinese restaurants serve them at the end of the meal as dessert and may feature Chinese translations of the English fortunes.
    38. 38. Fortune Cookie
    39. 39. Chicken Balls
    40. 40. Western Influence
    41. 41. McDonald’s first McDonalds in China in Shenzhen in 1990 During 2008: China was the No 1 growth market for McDonalds, with 960 restaurants and over 60,000 employees. 2010: 165 new restaurants in the country with a plan to add up to 200 outlets in 2011.
    42. 42. McDonald’s half of all new McDonalds restaurants to be opened in the next three years in China will feature Drive-Thru’s to appeal to Chinas increasingly mobile population McDonald’s delivery in China and not in Canada (cater to the high demand in China)
    43. 43. KFC
    44. 44. KFC KFC has more of the Culture Fusion than McDonald’s by introducing dishes that have never been seen in the Western World use of local ingredients -- both in its management team and on its menus. hired Chinese managers to build partnerships with local companies in its expansion drive and used their expertise to offer an array of regional dishes that appeal to domestic tastes
    45. 45. KFC KFC customers can purchase a bowl of congee, a rice porridge that can feature pork, pickles, mushrooms and preserved egg, as well as buy a bucket of its famous fried chicken. 3,200 KFCs and 500 Pizza Huts in 650 Chinese cities --stretching from the tropical southern island of Hainan to the North Korean border and the desert oases of the ancient Silk Road. KFC’s target: to lift that number fivefold to 20,000.
    46. 46. KFC in Tian’anmen Square China’s embrace of Yum’s brands -- and vice versa -- is most apparent in the center of Beijing, where Colonel Sanders meets Chairman Mao in Tiananmen Square. On the ground level of the three-story KFC, an elaborate mural of the Great Wall greets diners.
    47. 47. KFC On the second floor, the decor is meant to resemble a hutong -- the traditional Beijing neighborhoods that are disappearing to make way for high-rise office and apartment blocks. The third floor doubles as a gallery for local photographers and painters. A plaque at the entrance describes it as “an exchange channel between KFC fast-food culture and Chinese folk culture.”
    48. 48. KFC While other foreign companies entering China recruited American or Southeast Asian-born Chinese managers, Yum hired Chinese from Taiwan, who speak the same Mandarin Chinese as mainlanders and understand their culture better
    49. 49. Discussion (10 Minutes) Do you think that it is better if Western Food Chains come to China and try to integrate with the Chinese Cuisine like KFC? Or would you prefer if it stayed typically Westernized like McDonald’s? Do you often eat at Western chain restaurants? Why or Why not?
    50. 50. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has formed a unique system to diagnose and cure illness. understanding of the human body is based on the holistic understanding of the universe as described in Daoism, and the treatment of illness is based primarily on the diagnosis and differentiation of syndromes.
    51. 51. With Traditional Chinese Medicine… feel it through the qualities of its pulse at the wrist. We can look inside the body through the appearance of the tongue. We smell and listen to diagnostically significant changes. And finally, we interact directly with the patient to locate issues within their awareness.
    52. 52. Traditional Chinese Medicine
    53. 53. Traditional Chinese Medicine In traditional Chinese medicine the theory of five elements is used to interpret the relationship between the physiology and pathology of the human body and the natural environment. the five elements are in constant move and change, and the interdependence and mutual restraint of the five elements explain the complex connection between material objects as well as the unity between the human body and the natural world.
    54. 54. Traditional Chinese Medicine the visceral organs, as well as other organs and tissues, have similar properties to the five elements; they interact physiologically and pathologically as the five elements do.
    55. 55. Traditional Chinese Medicine The order of mutual promoting among the five elements is that wood promotes fire, fire promotes earth, earth promotes metal, metal promotes water, and promotes generates wood. In this way each of the five elements has this type of mutual promoting relationship with the other, thus promoting is circular and endless
    56. 56. Traditional Chinese Medicine Each of the five elements also shares this restraining relationship with the other. Mutual promoting and mutual restraining are two aspects that cannot be separated. If there is no promoting, then there is no birth and growth. If there is no restraining, then there is no change and development for maintaining normal harmonious relations.
    57. 57. Traditional Chinese Medicine The aspects involved in each of the five elements are follows: Fire: draught, heat, flaring, ascendance, movement, etc. Wood: germination, extension, softness, harmony, flexibility, etc. Metal: strength, firmness, killing, cutting, cleaning up, etc. Earth: growing, changing, nourishing, producing, etc. Water: moisture, cold, descending, flowing, etc.
    58. 58. Yin and Tang Theory Traditional Chinese Medicine is based on the 5 elements and the Yin and Yan theory It is believed that there is a dark side and a bright side to an object anything that is moving, ascending, bright, progressing, hyperactive, including functional disease of the body, pertains to yang
    59. 59. Yin and Yang Theory characteristics of stillness, descending, darkness, degeneration, hypo-activity, including organic disease, pertain to yin. Yin and yang are always in conflict however, they are dependent on one another (without cold there would be no hot, etc) human life is a physiological process in constant motion and change through yin and yang
    60. 60. Yin and Yang Theory If everything is normal: yin and yang are kept within certain bounds, reflecting a dynamic equilibrium of the physiological processes When the balance is broken, disease occurs. Typical cases of disease-related imbalance include excess of yin, excess of yang, deficiency of yin, and deficiency of yang.
    61. 61. Acupuncture The practice of acupuncture is based on the theory of meridians. According to this theory, qi (vital energy) and blood circulate in the body through a system of channels called meridians, connecting internal organs with external organs or tissues.
    62. 62. Acupuncture By stimulating certain points of the body surface reached by meridians through needling or moxibustion, the flow of qi and blood can be regulated and diseases are thus treated. These stimulation points are called acupuncture points, or acupoints. Moxibustion is a form of fire heat treatment that stimulates specific acupuncture points of the body.
    63. 63. Herbal Therapy Herbal therapy is very popular within the Chinese culture There are about 600 different herbs in common use today. The herbs have two different elements, temperature characteristics of the herb and taste properties of the herb
    64. 64. Herbal Therapy Temperature Characteristics: namely hot (re), warm (wen), cold (han), neutral (ping), and aromatic. Taste properties: namely sour (suan), bitter (ku), sweet (gan), spicy (xin), and salty (xian).
    65. 65. Herbal Therapy Warm herbs can be used with individuals suffering from Heat disorders warm energy must be mixed with herbs with Cool/Cold energy so that the overall balance of the mixture is on the Cool side Cool herbs can be used with people with Cold disorders as long as the overall balance of the mixture is war Neutral herbs are those that are neither hot nor cold, so they are often considered gentle herbs.
    66. 66. Western Medicine relies heavily upon industrially produced medications and a strict devotion to the formal scientific process all types of conventional medical treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and physical therapy. Treatments and medications pass a strict review before a patient can receive them
    67. 67. Western Medicine This can be anything from surgery to taking a painkiller for a headache (Tylenol or Advil) Western medicine likes to use technology to isolate the smallest possible particle that may be diseased all the way down to the electrical charge of a molecule. Chinese medicine looks at the larger perceptions unique to our human senses.
    68. 68. Western Medicine Chinese medicine makes diagnosis without lab tests. Unlike TCM practices, Western Medicine does not listen to what the body is saying Western approach tends to change the environment and the Eastern way is to prefer to adapt to the environment.
    69. 69. Fusion More recently, there has been a change in patients More westerners are willing to try out TCM because they are becoming more concerned with what chemicals they put into their bodies In the same breath, there are many Easterners who are turning to Western Medicine for instant relief
    70. 70. Fusion You can often hear people in China tell you that they will go to a Traditional Chinese doctor for some things but if they have something like a headache, they would just prefer to take the Western medication because they believe in it more
    71. 71. Fusion In the West, more people are becoming fascinated by acupuncture and herbal remedies These practices speak to people who are getting older in the west or people who are simply more comfortable with herbal and natural remedies
    72. 72. Fusion You can see in the West that people are not only interested in the TCM but they are also interested in many herbal and medicinal teas that are said to help certain parts of the body This has become fascinating to people in the West because they feel like they can have more control over their bodies
    73. 73. Fusion Teas for weight loss from China are becoming very popular and are even being featured on popular television shows Teas that are good for reducing blood pressure and stress are very popular among the older generations There are increasingly more and more tea shops that are gaining a lot of revenue because of this new market
    74. 74. Oolong Tea Oolong Tea may help reduce cholesterol build-up in the bloodstream. Oolong Tea may help burn fat and thus, may contribute to slimming. Oolong Tea can help prevent heart ailments. Oolong Tea can be used for treatment of digestive disorders.
    75. 75. Oolong Tea Oolong Tea can promote longevity by stimulating bodily functions and strengthening the immune system. Oolong Tea may promote healthier and stronger bones, protecting people from such diseases as osteoporosis. Oolong Tea can also fight against tooth decay.
    76. 76. Pu‘er Tea Pu’er tea is known to help lower blood cholesterol levels. Pu’er tea may help boost the flow of blood and help enhance circulation. Pu’er tea may help inhibit the formation and growth of cancer cells. Pu’er tea aids in the proper digestion of food.
    77. 77. Pu‘er Tea Pu’er tea may help invigorate the spleen. Pu’er tea is known to help break down and thus reduce fat in the system. Pu’er tea may help remove toxins. Pu’er tea may help heal aches and pains.
    78. 78. Chrysanthemum Tea Chrysanthemum Tea may help lower blood pressure and consequently also help in the treatment of other related ailments, i.e. angina and other heart problems. Chrysanthemum Tea may help relieve headaches. Chrysanthemum Tea may help in the treatment of colds, fever and the flu.
    79. 79. Chrysanthemum Tea Chrysanthemum Tea may help in the treatment of such skin problems as acne, boils and sores. Chrysanthemum Tea is believed to contribute to clear vision. Chrysanthemum Tea may help in the alleviation of dizziness. Chrysanthemum Tea is believed to contribute to alertness.
    80. 80. Green Tea healing and preventive processes that cater to diseases like cancer, heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, infections, impaired immune functions, and cardiovascular diseases improving the cholesterol rate in the body human body is cleansed from toxins that usually cause a lot of health problems
    81. 81. Green Tea rich in EGCG or epigallocatechil gallate. This is a powerful anti-oxidant that inhibits cancer cell growth and kills present cancer cells without harming the rest of the healthy tissues in the body. prevents the abnormal formation of blood clots in wounds effective burning of calories when mixed with caffeine and the prevention of tooth decay and food poisoning because of its ability to destroy bacteria as well.
    82. 82. Discussion Do you prefer Western Medicine or Traditional Chinese Medicine? Why Do you often drink tea? Which teas do you drink the most?
    83. 83. Homework Take pictures this weekend of places that you notice are symbols of culture fusion. Post this on your blog and write about the fusion and if you like it or dislike it and why. Worth 5%