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Tamam Guseinova, HEC Paris MSc in Strategic Management
11th of June, 2015
Ambidextrous organizations:
from theory to pract...
Agenda
•  IDENTIFYING LITERATURE GAP
–  AMBIDEXTERITY
•  SIX FIELDS OF RESEARCH WITHIN THE THEORY
•  INSIGHT INTO AMBIDEXT...
3
Defining ambidexterity, its scope and boundaries Ambidextrous organization and its environment
Relating ambidexterity th...
4
Insight Into Ambidexterity: Definition, Forms, Scope and Boundaries
①  Ambidextrous organizations –
•  organizations “al...
5
Innovation And Industry Life Cycle. New Framework Relating Two Theories
Innovation – “the commercial or industrial appli...
6
Organization As Transformation Process
Contextual
dimensions
•  Culture;
•  Environment;
•  Goals and strategy;
•  Size;...
7
Interplay Between Types Of Organization Structures And Types Of Activities
Mechanistic structures
Organic structures
•  ...
8
New Innovation Process: Simultaneous Development And Commercialization
①  Technology Push*
②  Market pull*
③  The “Coupl...
9
Organizational Models For Fostering Innovation
•  There are five types of actors in innovation process (Schilling, 2013)...
10
An Integral View On Ambidexterity from Organization Design Standpoint
Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management
Stru...
11
Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management
Sealing gap between innovation theory at industry and organization levels
...
12
Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management
Research Method: Development Of The Theory Through Case Studies Analysis
R...
13
Case Studies Analysis Confirmed Three Out Four Hypotheses
Company Industry Type of industry change Ambidexterity type
C...
14
Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management
Hypotheses Confirmed For Radical, Creative & Intermediating Industry Chang...
15
Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management
Explanation of Controversial Results For Industries Under Progressive Chan...
16
Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management
Research Findings In The Light Of Limitations And Potential Future Researc...
17	
  
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Ambidextrous organizations: from theory to practice

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The study is aimed at testing the hypotheses relating certain industry changes to certain ambidexterity types. For testing the hypotheses I chose case studies on ambidexterity or on general balancing of exploitation and exploration. I have studied 14 case studies out of which 12 case studies are in line with my hypotheses. My main conclusions are as follows:
• In industries going through radical change successful companies opt for partitional ambidexterity;
• In industries going through creative industries successful companies adopt reciprocal ambidexterity;
• In industries going through intermediating change successful companies effectuate harmonic ambidexterity;
• In industries undergoing progressive change successful companies also pursue harmonic ambidexterity to enable sufficient level of adaptability so that the company will be able to successfully go though organization transformation switching to another type of ambidexterity when the industry go to another type of change.
Answering the research question, I believe to have proved the existence of interrelation between the type of industry change and the type of ambidexterity companies in this industry should opt for. I do believe that my findings can be a basis for a prescriptive tool in innovation management. However, I fully acknowledge the limitations of my research and understand that quite vast further research is needed before the framework developed by me becomes an effective prescriptive tool.

Published in: Leadership & Management
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Ambidextrous organizations: from theory to practice

  1. 1. Tamam Guseinova, HEC Paris MSc in Strategic Management 11th of June, 2015 Ambidextrous organizations: from theory to practice Under the supervision of: Pr. Frédéric LEROY Professional Dissertation
  2. 2. Agenda •  IDENTIFYING LITERATURE GAP –  AMBIDEXTERITY •  SIX FIELDS OF RESEARCH WITHIN THE THEORY •  INSIGHT INTO AMBIDEXTERITY –  INNOVATION AND ORGANIZATION DESIGN •  INNOVATION & INDUSTRY LIFE CYCLE •  ORGANIZATION AS TRANSFORMATION PROCESS •  INTERPLAY BETWEEN TYPES OF ORGANIZATION STRUCTURES AND TYPES OF ACTIVITIES •  NEW INNOVATION PROCESS •  ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS FOR FOSTERING INNOVATION –  NEW TAXONOMY OF AMBIDEXTERITY •  HYPOTHESES AND METHODOLOGY –  HYPOTHESES –  RESEARCH METHOD •  RESEARCH RESULTS –  GENERAL FINDINGS –  ANALYSIS OF CASES CONFIRMING HYPOTHESES •  CIBA VISION: PARTITIONAL AMBIDEXTERITY TO OVERCOME A RADICAL CHANGE •  BIOTECH AND LARGE PHARMA INDUSTRY: RECIPROCAL AMBIDEXTERITY TO BENEFIT FROM A CREATIVE CHANGE •  MERRILL LYNCH: HARMONIC AMBIDEXTERITY IN REALMS OF INTERMEDIATING CHANGE –  AMBIDEXTERITY IN INDUSTRIES UNDER PROGRESSIVE CHANGE •  CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH 2 Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management
  3. 3. 3 Defining ambidexterity, its scope and boundaries Ambidextrous organization and its environment Relating ambidexterity theory to other theories Defining value of ambidexterity to a firm Levels of ambidexterity Mechanics of ambidextrous organizations Six Fields Of Research Within Ambidexterity Theory We focus our research on theory development, particularly on the interplay between ambidextrous organizations and their environment while leveraging on other aspects of ambidexterity theory •  Different views on ambidexterity from the perspectives of organizational design •  Firm’s size •  Structural/ contextual dimensions •  Intra- & inter-firm organization of activities •  Ambidextrous Organization •  Ambidexterity of Functions •  Ambidexterity at Project level •  Ambidextrous Individuals & Teams •  Ambidextrous Leadership •  What are the key managerial and organizational characteristics that underpin their ability to both exploit and explore? •  Different mechanics for different forms of ambidexterity •  Analysis of ambidextrous firm’s larger ecosystem •  What are the characteristics of environment in which ambidextrous organization turn out to be effective? •  Research studying ambidexterity as a dynamic capability (Jansen and al., 2009; O'Reilly & Tushman, 2008) •  Integral view on ambidexterity, absorptive capacities and external networks (Datta, 2011). •  Relation between ambidexterity and firm’s performance (Derbyshire, 2014; Uotila and al., 2009; He & Wong, 2004) Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management!  IDENTIFYING LITERATURE GAP: Ambidexterity Theory development Measuring the results of theory application
  4. 4. 4 Insight Into Ambidexterity: Definition, Forms, Scope and Boundaries ①  Ambidextrous organizations – •  organizations “aligned and efficient in their management of today’s business demands, while also adaptive enough to changes in the environment that they will still be around tomorrow” (Gibson & Birkinshaw, 2004); •  Organizations that excel at exploiting current activities and assets as well as exploring for future ②  Ambidexterity pursued through different dimensions of organization design ③  Ambidexterity and the company size ④  Ambidexterity within one company and across organizations Structural Require physical separation of a new business from the old one, integration through corporate vision Contextual Individual employees divide their time between alignment-focused and adaptability-focused activities Sequential Switching from exploitation to exploration mode in the course of company’s life and vice versa •  Primarily large companies, incumbents in their domain (O’Reilly & Tushman, 2008); •  Also fit for small and medium companies (Voss & Voss, 2013) •  Complex intra-firm structure (Lakhani, Lifshitz-Assaf & Tushman, 2012); •  Ability to reconcile the internal exploitation with external exploration or vice versa through strategic alliances, market for ‘ideas’ and open innovation Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management!  IDENTIFYING LITERATURE GAP: Ambidexterity •  All companies c a n b e a m b i d e x t r o u s through intra-firm organization or by also leveraging o n e x t e r n a l network •  A m b i d e x t e r i t y forms strongly interrelate with r e l e v a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n dimensions •  T h e p r o v i d e d typology is neither integral, nor plain
  5. 5. 5 Innovation And Industry Life Cycle. New Framework Relating Two Theories Innovation – “the commercial or industrial application of something new—a new product, process or method of production; a new market or source of supply; a new form of commercial, business or financial organization” (Schumpeter, 2011) ①  Level of organization affected by innovation ②  What is the nature of innovation? ③  What is affected by innovation? ④  What is the magnitude of innovation? ⑥  Influence on competencies ⑤  Innovation within product system •  Individual level; •  Group/ team level •  Organizational Level •  Level of industries •  Level of geographic regions •  Technology innovation •  Social innovation •  Business innovation •  Business Model •  Operational •  Products, services, markets •  Incremental •  Radical •  Modular •  Architectural •  Competence-enhancing •  Competence-destroying Innovation taxonomy New industry-based framework Five-forces framework Static view on industry S-curve; Abernathy/ Utterback model Dubious tool for corporate planning McGahan: 4 trajectories of industry evolution depending on type of innovation needed Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management Core activities Threatened Not threatened Coreassets Threatened Radical Change Everything is up in the air E.g.: makers of landline telephone handsets, overnight letter delivery carriers, travel agencies Creative Change The industry is constantly redeveloping assets and resources E.g.: motion picture industry; sports team ownership; investment bankingNotthreatened Intermediating Change Relationships are fragile E.g.: automobile dealerships; investment brokerages; auction houses Progressive Change Companies implement incremental testing and adapt to feedback E.g: online auctions; commercial airlines; long-haul trucking !  IDENTIFYING LITERATURE GAP: Innovation and organization design
  6. 6. 6 Organization As Transformation Process Contextual dimensions •  Culture; •  Environment; •  Goals and strategy; •  Size; •  Technology; Structural dimensions •  Formalization; •  Specialization; •  Hierarchy of authority; •  Centralization; •  Professionalism; •  Personnel ratios. Elements of organization design Organizations – (1) social entities that (2) are goal-directed, (3) are designed as deliberately structured and coordinated activity systems, and (4) are linked to the external environment (Daft, 2012) •  A system of interrelated contextual and structural dimensions •  A set of key components that ensure a process of transformation of inputs into outputs Organization as a transformation process Mechanistic structures Organic structuresOR Organization can be presented as a transformation process of inputs into outputs within structural and contextual dimensions that results in either mechanistic or organic organizational structures Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management!  IDENTIFYING LITERATURE GAP: Innovation and organization design
  7. 7. 7 Interplay Between Types Of Organization Structures And Types Of Activities Mechanistic structures Organic structures •  Highly correlated to strong formalization and standardization •  Great emphasis on formal organization arrangements Firm’s size !  Ensure high operational efficiency but stifle innovation •  Low degree of formalization and standardization •  Employees may not have well-defined job responsibilities •  Operations may be characterized by a high degree of variation !  Create conditions for experimentation a n d i m p r o v i s a t i o n à F o s t e r innovativeness in organization Exploitative activities Explorative activities •  Is not accompanied by acquiring new knowledge (Gupta, Smith & Shalley, 2006) •  Refinement and extension of existing competencies, technologies, and paradigms (March, 1991) •  Learning gained through processes of c o n c e r t e d v a r i a t i o n , p l a n n e d experimentation, and play” (Baum, Li & Usher, 2000) •  Experimentation with new alternatives (March, 1991) There is a trade-off between exploration and exploitation, but to ensure simultaneously current high performance and future sustainability firms should accommodate both exploitation and exploration Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management!  IDENTIFYING LITERATURE GAP: Innovation and organization design
  8. 8. 8 New Innovation Process: Simultaneous Development And Commercialization ①  Technology Push* ②  Market pull* ③  The “Coupling” Model of Innovation* ④  Integrated Innovation Process Basic science Design and engineering Manufacturing Marketing Sales Market need Development Manufacturing Sales The need to reconcile the trade-off between exploration and exploitation is accentuated by evolution of innovation process towards simultaneous idea development and its commercialization *Rothwell, 1994 A standard innovation process is divided in four steps (Rohrbeck & Gemünden, 2011): •  Idea generation; •  Selection; •  Development (product and process development); •  Commercialization Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management!  IDENTIFYING LITERATURE GAP: Innovation and organization design
  9. 9. 9 Organizational Models For Fostering Innovation •  There are five types of actors in innovation process (Schilling, 2013): Individuals as individual inventors or employees; Whole innovation process Firms; Whole innovation process Universities; Apart from commercialization Government-funded research centers and Apart from commercialization Private nonprofits. Apart from commercialization ①  Ambidextrous organizations ②  Venture boards ③  Innovation councils ④  Cross group solutions teams ⑦  Thought leader resource networks ⑥  Shared services organizations ⑤  Innovation communities of practice ⑧  Open innovation networks •  Organization design fosters both exploitation and exploration through specific organizational features •  S p e c i a l s t r u c t u r e s c o n s i s t i n g o f C E O , executives of business units & external experts •  Small, cross-functional governance body of senior managers There are quite a lot ways to foster innovation in a company, but ambidexterity is the most integral one and can incorporate the rest of the means while also ensuring success in exploitative activities •  Team of individuals from a range of business units builds cooperation to cover blank space at intersection of business units’ activities •  External network of expert practitioners & thinkers that can be tapped at any time •  Use of purposive inflows & outflows of knowledge to a c c e l e r a t e i n t e r n a l innovation, and expand the markets for external use of innovation, respectively •  Group of people who share a concern about a topic & deepen their knowledge & expertise by interacting on an ongoing basis •  Corporate-level functional group providing specialized services to counterpart function in business units Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management!  IDENTIFYING LITERATURE GAP: Innovation and organization design
  10. 10. 10 An Integral View On Ambidexterity from Organization Design Standpoint Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management Structural Dimension Where is ambidexterity pursued? Independent Within the same unit Interdependent Across units TemporalDimension Howisambidexteritypursued? Simultaneous Harmonic (Contextual) Based on “a set of processes or systems that enable and encourage individuals to make their own judgments about how to divide their time between conflicting demands for [exploitation and exploration]” Partitional (Structural) Exploitation and exploration is pursued simultaneously but in separated structural units or divisions within an organization; Is not restricted to a single organization but can involve units and divisions from several firms Sequential Cyclical (Sequential) Long period of exploitation is alternated by sporadic episodes of exploration. And this cycle repeats itself in response to external changes. Reciprocal Sequential pursuit of exploitation and exploration across units: the outputs of exploitation from unit A become the inputs for exploration by unit B and the outputs of unit B cycle back to become the inputs of unit A More integral and structured view on ambidexterity We opted for this taxonomy since it takes into account all the organizational dimensions and ways to organize innovation within a company and across a network of companies Relating ambidexterity types to organization design Harmonic Partitional Reciprocal Cyclical •  Supportive context, organizational practices & meta-routines, job enrichment, task partitioning, team- based structures, HR practices •  Cross group solutions and innovation communities of practice •  Different BUs, but common vision •  Corporate venture unit coupled with venture boards or innovation councils in intra-firm dimension •  Joint ventures or strategic alliances in inter-firm dimension •  Open innovation networks; •  Strategic alliances; •  Mergers and acquisitions (in some cases) •  Mechanisms and human resources practices facilitating changes from exploitation to exploration mode and vice versa !  IDENTIFYING LITERATURE GAP: New Taxonomy Of Ambidexterity
  11. 11. 11 Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management Sealing gap between innovation theory at industry and organization levels General hypothesis •  Each stage of industry life cycle requires firms to adopt a different type of ambidexterity Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 4 A firm in an industry undergoing radical change should adopt partitional ambidexterity A firm in an industry undergoing creative change should adopt reciprocal ambidexterity A firm in an industry undergoing intermediating change should adopt harmonic ambidexterity A firm in an industry going through progressive change should adopt cyclical ambidexterity Hypotheses •  Development of disruptive innovations within organization structure of current core business meets resistance or has to deal with negligence •  Exploration " new core asset " its exploitation" generated cash" exploration •  Specific requirements of talent management for exploration phase in creative industries •  Employees have to simultaneously exploit the old activity and to work in new activity •  Exploitation & exploration must be in the same unit as they exploit the same core assets that are relevant for both activities •  Even under progressive change companies should be ready for disruption in their industry •  There can be a link between progressive change and cyclical ambidexterity Underlying ideas !  HYPOTHESES AND METHODOLOGY: Hypotheses Interplay between theories Literature gap •  R e l a t i o n b e t w e e n characteristics of an industry and its features concerning innovation and ambidexterity features Innovation Organization Design Industry ? AmbidexterityIndustry Change
  12. 12. 12 Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management Research Method: Development Of The Theory Through Case Studies Analysis Research question Is there relation between types of industry change and ambidexterity types? Development of the theory itself rather than measurement of its application Case studies analysis Case studies from previous researches on ambidexterity or on balancing exploration and exploitation Analysis process for case studies •  F o r l i s t e d c o m p a n i e s : d a t a b a s e o f Bloomberg.com •  For non-listed companies: their l i s t e d competitors as a proxy •  F o r m o r e precision we use case information •  Core assets are under threat if the core technologies or core products are under threat •  Core activities are threatened if relationship with the customer is being disrupted b y e m e r g e n c e o f n e w industry or if engagement in the emerging business requires new manufacturing, marketing and sales process •  Ambidexterity type is defined in the paper •  Ambidexterity type can be inferred from the paper based in the Simsek and al.’ s criteria Industry definition Industry change definition •  Analysis of core assets and core activities Ambidexterity type definition •  Analysis of ambidexterity from temporal standpoint and in terms of organizational design Case studies selection process •  Case studies on ambidexterity/ balancing exploitation and exploration; •  Enough information to define industry and the type of industry change; •  Type of ambidexterity defined in the paper/ enough information to infer the type of ambidexterity for the case; •  Positive effect of ambidexterity on the company and its performance in relevant industry We processed 423 articles from which we derived 43 company or industry cases. Only 14 cases met all our criteria and were relevant according to our analysis process !  HYPOTHESES AND METHODOLOGY: Research method
  13. 13. 13 Case Studies Analysis Confirmed Three Out Four Hypotheses Company Industry Type of industry change Ambidexterity type Cisco Systems Communications Equipment (Sector: Technology; Industry: Hardware industry) Creative ReciprocalProcter & Gamble Household Products (Sector: Consumer staples; Industry: consumer products) Biotech & Large Pharma Biotech & Large Pharma, Drugs Seiko Watch manufacturing Radical Partitional Banking industry Traditional banking IBM IT Services (Sector: Technology; Industry: Technology services) USA Today Newspaper industry CIBA Vision Large Pharma, Eye Care Medical Devices (Sector: Healthcare; Industry: Biotech & Pharma) Tesco Plc. Food & Drug stores (Sector: Consumer Staples; Industry: Retail-consumer staples) Intermediating HarmonicMerrill Lynch Financial services (investment brokerage) Walgreens Food & Drug stores (Sector: Consumer Staples; Industry: Retail-consumer staples) Oracle Corp. Enterprise software company, IT Services (Sector: Technology; Industry: Technology services) Progressive Harmonic Toyota Production System Automobiles (Sector: Consumer Discretionary; Industry: Automotive) Harmonic Intel Corp. Semiconductor Devices (Sector: Technology; Industry: Semiconductors) Cyclical We will examine in detail one case per proved hypothesis; In case of the 4th hypothesis related to progressive industry change we will study two cases to explain the controversial results Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management!  RESEARCH FINDINGS: General findings
  14. 14. 14 Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management Hypotheses Confirmed For Radical, Creative & Intermediating Industry Change The cases prove the existence of interrelation between industry change and ambidexterity types as well as give insights into possible intra- and inter-firm mechanics to pursue ambidexterity Company Industry Type of industry change Ambidexterity Type Mechanics CIBA Vision Large Pharma (Sector: Healthcare; Industry: Biotech & Pharma) Radical change •  Core assets: conventional hard lenses were under threat of obsolescence because of emergence of soft lenses and relevant new production technology; •  Core activities: “soft lenses transformed the practitioner from lens mechanic to true eye care professional” Partitional •  Six formal development projects, each focused on a revolutionary change; •  New units created very different structures, processes, and cultures; •  Overarching aspiration of “Healthy Eyes for Life” •  Active senior team attention to integrative decision making Biotech & Large Pharma Biotech & Large Pharma Creative change •  Core assets: constant threat of obsolescence to drugs since all the firms compete in creating a more effective drug to surpass others’ IP; •  Core activities: value chain is largely left intact with large pharmaceutical firms holding their position due to expertise in FDA approval process with complementary assets and substantial financial resources Reciprocal •  Exploitation and exploration are structurally divided and pursued inside a network of organizations through the means of open innovation system •  Exploration and exploitation usually take place in different alliances: explorative alliance " Large Pharma/ an alliance for exploitation" explorative alliances, etc. Merrill Lynch Financial services (investment brokerage) Intermediating •  Core assets: the expertise of financial advisors is not under the threat of obsolescence; •  Core activities: providing financial services is under the threat as Internet gives the opportunity to bypass such entities Harmonic •  Integrated approach: launched an online channel within its existing business; •  New online products and online channel were offered simultaneously with traditional services; •  Employees distribute their time between exploitation and exploration !  RESEARCH FINDINGS Analysis of cases confirming hypotheses
  15. 15. 15 Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management Explanation of Controversial Results For Industries Under Progressive Change Discrepancy between cases is explained by different temporal perspectives. While discrediting the notion of cyclical ambidexterity, cases imply the necessity of switching between ambidexterity modes Company Industry Type of industry change Ambidexterity   Type Mechanics Oracle Corp. Enterprise software company, IT Services (Sector: Technology) Progressive change •  Core assets: there was no threat in 2004; •  Core activities: there was no threat in 2004, although they had been threatened before by the emergence of e-business in 1999 Harmonic •  Alignment around adaptability; •  A lot people are making unilateral decisions; •  Hiring very smart people, getting aggressive but not unrealistic targets and avoiding too much formalization; •  Objectives, goal setting programs and incentive systems are carefully aligned Intel Corp. Semiconductor Devices (Sector: Technology; Industry: Semiconductors) Progressive change •  Core assets: subject to Moore’s Law" need for continuous incremental innovations " not threatened ; •  Core activities: stable value chain with high interdependence of actors within the chain Cyclical •  Sequential model in the context of organic growth •  Strategic exploitation (strong induced- strategy process & stifled autonomous strategy process) during Grove’s tenure, •  Barrett led the company into a new period of exploration Reason for discrepancy •  Short-term case vs. longitudinal case •  Intel Corp. had some failures during exploitation period IC Progressive Intermediating (Customization) A Exploitation/ Undermined Harmonic 1997 Harmonic IC Intermediating (E-business) Progressive Radical (Cloud, IoT) A Harmonic Partitional (Oracle, IBM)Harmonic 1999 2008 Intel Corp. Oracle Corp. !  RESEARCH FINDINGS Ambidexterity In Industries Under Progressive Change IC – industry change A – ambidexterity type
  16. 16. 16 Tamam Guseinova, MSc in Strategic Management Research Findings In The Light Of Limitations And Potential Future Research Research question Is there relation between types of industry change and ambidexterity types? Conclusions Further researchLimitations Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 2 A firm in an industry undergoing radical change should adopt partitional ambidexterity A firm in an industry undergoing creative change should adopt reciprocal ambidexterity A firm in an industry undergoing intermediating change should adopt harmonic ambidexterity A firm in an industry going through progressive change should adopt cyclical ambidexterity Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Rejected Methodology •  This study necessitates very clear and accurate industry definition •  Only cases of successful attempt at ambidexterity can be used Research results •  There is an interrelation between the type of industry change and the type of ambidexterity companies in this industry should opt for •  In industries under progressive change harmonic ambidexterity can facilitate moving to another mode •  Sample of case studies is not large enough; •  Potential survival bias; •  Potential difference between intra- & inter-firm ambidexterity; •  Neglect of other factors •  More cases in a larger number of industries should be studied; •  Cases of failures at ambidexterity should be also studied; •  Different types of case studies – longitudinal and short-term cases – should be taken into account; •  Relevance of research results for both intra- & inter-firm ambidexterity; •  Control the influence of other factors on firm’s success !  CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS & FURTHER RESEARCH Further research including a bigger range of multifaceted cases and analysis of influence of other factors inherent in organization management is needed to verify our research results
  17. 17. 17   Thank you for attention!

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