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A London Tale of Gin and Sin


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A London Tale of Gin and Sin
Tales of the Cocktail, 2014

By: Wayne Collins, John Clay, Amanda Humphrey and David Miles

Published in: Education
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A London Tale of Gin and Sin

  1. 1. 1 GIN & GENEVER M I X X I T W I T HM I X X I T W I T H
  2. 2. 2N MIXXIT WITH GIN & GENEVER “The air! Isn’t it wonderful?” “Yeah, it’s like a shot of gin. It makes your blood race, your face numb and your spirits soar.” Katherine Hepburn and Humphrey Bogart The African Queen, 1951
  3. 3. 3 …with Gin & Genever 3 Gin and genever perhaps have a more chequered history than any other spirit: from the earliest medicinal uses by 12th century Italian monks via ‘Dutch Courage’ and ‘Gin Lane’ to golf club respectability and finally rebirth as a cool cocktail spirit in the 1990s. Gin’s history links juniper spirits with every aspect of the human experience: tragedy, squalor, snobbery and valour. From its early manifestation in medieval juniper-based plague cures, it arrived on our shores during the thirty years war, when British soldiers would drink ‘Dutch Courage’ before going into battle. Decades later, it faced the moral outrage of Hogarth’s ‘Gin Lane’ and went on to build a reputation as ‘Mother’s Ruin’, then became set in its ways as the tipple of choice in the golf clubs of Middle England before cutting through again in popularity as the burgeoning bar scene looked for the perfect base spirit. MIXXITWITHGIN&GENEVER
  4. 4. 4 Gin’s legacy now seems to be somewhat timeless but this truly European spirit has an intriguing rags to riches story. After the experiments of the early Benedictine monks, in the early 16th century brandy based juniper spirit called ‘schinkenhágen’ was produced in what is now Germany. It wasn’t until the mid 17th century that a Dutch Professor of medicine, Franciscus Sylvius de la Boe of Lieden University pioneered the art of distilling grain spirit with juniper to create ‘eau-de-vie-de-genievre’, a tonic then believed to cure kidney problems. The spirit we know today as gin derived from the juniper flavoured malt wine spirit born in Holland and was introduced to us by William of Orange when he took to the throne of England in 1688. He began to ban imported brandies and wines from France and, as whiskies were relatively unknown outside Scotland and Ireland, he began to encourage the production of genever in its local form made from grain alcohol that was soon to be corrupted to ‘gin’. Distilling of English gin then began around various docks throughout the country such as London, Plymouth, Bristol and Liverpool. Hogarth’s ‘Gin Lane’
  5. 5. 5 In England in the early part of the 18th century, low taxes led to widespread distilling of cheap grain alcohol, resulting in many back street distilleries operating in London slums. Street vendors began peddling in cheap gin flavoured with lethal ingredients, with many of London’s houses becoming ‘gin shops’. This caused widespread drunkenness and resulted in a major alcohol problem amongst the poor where babies were often born with deformities earning gin the nickname of ‘Mother’s Ruin’. From the 1740s a series of gin acts were passed by Parliament to control the level of drunkenness by restricting the production and vending of gin. (This is one of the reasons why gin distilleries today cannot produce their own grain spirit.) These acts gave rise to a return to beer consumption, and the rise of the classic British pub. MIXXITWITHGIN&GENEVER
  7. 7. By the 1830s and the introduction of continuous distillation, the government once again permitted the free trading of gin by allowing gin distillers to control the production of grain spirit accompanied by a healthy tax. This led to the distillers competing with pubs and saw the birth of opulent establishments known as ‘Gin Palaces’. Charles Dickens described these palaces as “perfectly dazzling when contrasted with the darkness and dirt we have just left…”. Gin quickly became both acceptable and fashionable again and became known by Cockney Londoners as ‘Mother’s Milk’ or ‘Parliamentary Brandy’. As gin rose from the gutter to become the sophisticated tipple of British aristocracy it also became associated, alongside rum, as a drink of the Royal Navy. Naval Officers often mixed it with bitters to make ‘Pink Gin’ which was taken to settle seasickness. 7
  8. 8. ‘Dutch Courage’, ‘Mother’s Ruin’, ‘Mother’s Milk’… the history of gin and genever is a colourful, thought- provoking account of social change and advancing technology through the years. Gin & Genever timeline 8 MIXXITWITHGIN&GENEVER
  9. 9. 9 1552 ‘Constelijck Distilleer Boek’ by Philippus Hermanni mentions “genever aqua vitae” referring to genever-infused brandy. 1269 First major mention of juniper-based health related tonics and medicines in a Dutch publication ‘Der Naturen Bloeme’ by Jacob van Maerlant te Damme. 1575 Bols family, then named ‘Bulsius’ arrive in Amsterdam, having learned distilling in Cologne. Juniper King Haakon of Norway Vlad the Impaler Lucas Bols 1263 The Battle of Largs - King Alexander III of Scotland defeats the Viking armada of King Haakon IV of Norway. 1337 The Hundred Years’ War begins as Edward III of England lays claim to the French throne. 1476 Vlad III, Prince of Wallachia dies. More commonly known as Vlad the Impaler, he was the inspiration for Bram Stoker’s novel ‘Dracula’. 1557 The ‘Equals’ sign is invented by Welsh mathematician Robert Recorde. 1587 At Fotheringhay Castle in England, Mary, Queen of Scots is beheaded. 1585 The Spanish conquest of the Aztecs in South America brings many interesting foodstuffs back to Europe, including chocolate. * * * * * *** 9
  10. 10. 1602 The Dutch East India Company founded. Lucas Bols becomes a preferred supplier to its inner circle, ‘The Seventeen Gentlemen’, and also gets first crack at all the new herbs and spices flooding back to Europe. The sailors and officers of the company spread genever all around the globe, receiving daily half-pint rations of genever in a specially measured pewter cup. 1646 Lucas Bols gets a licence to distil spirits in the city of Amsterdam. Genever Dutch East India Company Charles I Bols Lootsje 1599 The Globe Theatre, most famously associated with William Shakespeare opens in London. 1607 The first permanent settlement in what is now the United States is formed in Jamestown by English colonists. 1622 Dutch East India Company ship ‘The Eendracht’, is wrecked off the western coast of Ambon Island, Dutch East Indies. ‘The Eendracht’ was the second ship to have made landfall on Australian soil. 1649 King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. 1648 The Battle of Stirling between the Marquis of Argyll’s Covenanters and the Earl of Lanark’s Parliamentarians. ** * * ** * 10
  11. 11. Charles II Rob Roy MacGregor Dodo Peter the Great 1658 - 1672 Franciscus Sylvius de la Boe becomes professor of medicine at Leiden University, Holland. Nowadays he is widely, and incorrectly, credited as having invented genever, which was already common when he was born in 1614. De la Boe’s position in Leiden would have meant he used juniper for its health- giving properties, building on the success of the health tonics distilled in Italy in the 1500s. 1665 A municipal government is established in the former Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam - New York. 1671 Scottish folk hero Rob Roy MacGregor is born at Glengyle. 1660 Charles II is crowned King of England after a decade of rule by Oliver Cromwell and the Puritans. Often known as ‘The Merrie Monarch’, Charles’ crowning signified the beginning of The Restoration. 1672 The Van Dale dictionary, Holland’s OED, notes the first published use of the word “genever” then spelled with a “j”. 1682 The reign of Peter the Great officially begins expanding Tsarist Russia into the Russian Empire and creating a major European power and influence. 1681 The last Dodo dies on the island of Mauritius, thus marking it as an extinct species. * * * ** 11
  12. 12. William III James II Berry Bros. & Rudd Hogarth’s ‘Gin Lane’ 1688 William III ascends to the English throne, and gin distilling increases. Initially gin is very similar to genever, but over time it develops a distinctive style, eliminating malt wine. The ban of wines and spirits from France encourages the distilling industry creating a ‘Gin Craze’. 1698 Berry Bros. & Rudd established at No.3 St James’s Street in London. This unique address later inspires the creation of No.3 Gin. 1746 Prince Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) flees to the Isle of Skye after the unsuccessful Jacobite rising and escapes the country after being disguised as an Irish maid by Flora MacDonald. 1692 The infamous Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony. The trial was immortalised in modern culture as The Crucible, by playwright Arthur Miller. 1690 King William III of England defeats the deposed James II at the Battle of the Boyne, north of Dublin. * * * * * 1751 Hogarth’s prints of ‘Beer Street’ and ‘Gin Lane’ depict squalor and social depravation caused by the huge consumption of cheap gin. 12 1698 The Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire.
  13. 13. Original King’s Cross Charles Dickens Gin Palace Queen Victoria 1831 The Hunchback of Notre Dame, by Victor Hugo is first published. 1785 The dollar becomes the monetary unit for the United States. 1812 Novelist Charles Dickens is born in Portsmouth. 1838 Queen Victoria’s coronation takes place at Westminster Abbey in London. 1837 18-year-old Queen Victoria accedes to the throne of the United Kingdom. She reigns for more than 63 years. 1834 The Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 abolishes slavery in the British Empire. 1830 The first Gin Palace - Thomson and Fearon - is built in London at Holborn Hill. Designed by architect John Papworth, the interior is thought to have been created by Stephen Geary who also designed the ornate catacombs at Highgate Cemetery and the original King’s Cross - one of London’s first police stations. ** * * * ** 1780 Langdales Gin Distillery, famed for distilling essence of cinnamon to treat the common cold, burns to the ground during riots in London. 13
  14. 14. Grimbles Malt Vinegar Pat Garrett The New York Times The Indian Mutiny 1850s With the developments and popularity of continuous distillation many gin distillers begin to use a high quality clean grain spirit base for gin production without having to add sugar leading to the style of gin we know today as ‘London Dry’. 1851 The New York Times is founded. 1850 American Express is founded by Henry Wells and William Fargo. * * * ** 1851 Hodges Distillery establish their own private fire brigade and the creation of the first fire lookout tower in London. 14 1850 Pat Garrett, the legendary US lawman and sheriff is born. Garrett is most famously known for his pursuit and killing of the renowned outlaw Billy the Kid. 1843 The Economist newspaper is first published. * 1846 Neptune is observed for the first time by German astronomers. 1840 The world’s first postage stamp, The Penny Black, comes into circulation. 1840 Booth & Grimbles Distillery opens in London, initially producing gin. With left over spirit, they create Grimbles Vinegar which becomes a household name.
  15. 15. Gilbeys Gin Earthenware gin bottles Jack the Ripper, Punch Vincent van Gogh 1886 As a birthday gift, Burma is presented to Queen Victoria, after the country is annexed into British India. 1888 Prostitute Martha Tabram is found murdered in Whitechapel, London - the first victim of the notorious ‘Jack the Ripper’. 1890 The Dutch artist Vincent Van Gogh, dies after shooting himself in the stomach. * * * 1871 Gilbeys Gin founded by Sir Walter Gilbey’s family of wine and spirits merchants in Camden Town. This is also where the first Soda Stream was created by Walter’s grandson Guy Hugh Gilbey in 1903. 1890s Gin bottles start being made from clear glass, after being originally sold in cask or earthenware bottles used by genever producers. Bols had developed the first elongated bottle made from frosted green glass that was then copied by many gin distillers. As glass making technology improved this allowed glass bottles to become clear to show the clarity and purity of the liquid that was held inside. * 1899 FC Barcelona is founded. * 1896 The X-ray machine is first exhibited. * 15
  16. 16. 16 Adolf Hitler Al Capone Prohibition Omaha Beach, WWII 1920-1933 Prohibition in America - a nationwide ban on the sale, production, importation, and transportation of alcohol. As a result, clandestine drinking was rife and cocktail culture flourished, whilst on the other side of the Atlantic many great bartenders and wealthy Americans fled to cities like London and Paris to work and drink in style. Some classic drinks recipes were spawned during this turbulent period in history, many of which are still popular today - The White Lady, The Clover Club, The French ‘75 and The Negroni. * * 1920 Adolf Hitler becomes chief of propaganda of The German Workers’ Party. Shortly after it renames itself as the Nazi Party. * 1920-1933 The Chicago underworld is controlled by Al Capone who profits indirectly from Prohibition with an estimated US$100 million per year in revenue, generated by the sale of liquor and other illegal enterprises, such as gambling and prostitution. 1939-1945 WWII, the most widespread war in history with an estimated 50 to 85 million fatalities. * 1938 Oil is discovered in Saudi Arabia.
  17. 17. 17 Bols advertising Fidel Castro Bols advertising The Bartender’s Guide 1950 onward ‘Jonge jenever’ made using less malt wine and more neutral spirits, typically grain alcohol for the better brands and molasses alcohol for the less expensive ones, enjoys unbelievable popularity. To this day, a Bols-owned brand of jonge jenever, Hartevelt, outsells the entire vodka category in Holland, selling more than three million standard cases per year in Holland. 1959 Fidel Castro becomes Premier of Cuba overthrowing the dictatorship of Batista and transforming the country into a one-party socialist republic. 1969 The lunar module Eagle lands on the moon. Watched by an estimated 500 million people worldwide, Neil Armstrong takes his historic first steps. 1973 ‘Dark Side of the Moon’ is released by Pink Floyd. 1957 The Cavern Club, soon to become associated with The Beatles, opens its doors in Liverpool. * * * * *
  18. 18. 2008 Bols Genever is relaunched in the UK - a precious whisky-like triple grain distillate made of corn, wheat and rye, which the Dutch call maltwine. The attention to detail in the distillation process is comparable to a fine single malt Scotch. Research by Dave Wondrich is revealed which shows that the majority of ‘gin’ based drinks in Jerry Thomas’ era were made with ‘Hollands’, as genever was once known. The relaunch of Bols Genever gives today’s bartender the opportunity to create cocktails from 1862 and resurrect flavours that have not been experienced for generations. 2008 Fidel Castro steps down as President of Cuba. 2008 US swimmer Michael Phelps wins eight gold medals at the Beijing Olympics. 2009 Barack Obama is inaugurated as the 44th, and first African-American, President of the United States. 2008 Beijing, China hosts the summer olympics. Bols Genever Bols Genever Bols Genever * * * 2008 Bill Gates departs his post as chairman of Microsoft. * * 2009 NASA launches the Kepler space observatory to survey extrasolar planets in the Milky Way. * 18
  19. 19. 2013 A series of 3 portraits of Lucian Freud by the British painter Francis Bacon, sells for US$142.4 million in New York, setting a new world record. 2011 15,840 people are killed and 3,926 are reported missing after a 9.0-magnitude earthquake and subsequent tsunami hit the east coast of Japan. 2010 A number of volcanic eruptions beneath Mount Eyjafjallajökull, in Iceland cause widespread air traffic chaos across northern and western Europe. 2010 WikiLeaks leaks a collection of more than 100,000 American classified cables, sparking a worldwide security panic. No.3 Gin No.3 Gin Gin cocktails Juniper 2010 Berry Bros. & Rudd release No.3 Gin, a premium London Dry Gin created with the help of Dr David Clutton, one of the world’s foremost authorities on gin. 2010 onwards Today we are in a midst of a second but more refined ‘Gin Craze’. Gin is becoming popular throughout the world with a multitude of different styles hitting the market and even more exciting and diverse drinks being created as a result. * ** ** y 19
  20. 20. 20 Gin and genever is heavily featured in the first ever printed bartenders guide ‘How to Mix Drinks or The Bon-Vivants Companion, 1862’ written by Jerry ‘Professor’ Thomas.
  21. 21. 21 When the Golden Age of Cocktails kicked off in the latter part of the 19th century, gin and in particular genever quickly became classic ‘Cocktail’ ingredients. Indeed, gin and genever is heavily featured in the first ever printed bartenders guide ‘How to Mix Drinks or The Bon-Vivants Companion, 1862’ written by Jerry ‘Professor’ Thomas. Many gin cocktails listed within his guides are still prevalent today The Martinez, The Fancy Gin Cocktail, The Holland House, The Gin Daisy, The Gin Fix, The Gin Fizz, The Gin Crusta, The Gin Sling, and The Collins. Gin as the chosen cocktail ingredient again made its mark during Prohibition America (1920-1933) when cocktail culture and gin drinks flourished on both sides of the Atlantic, spawning many classic recipes still popular today such as The White Lady, The Clover Club, The French ‘75, and The Negroni. Gin and genever have a huge array of complexities in their style and flavour, making them key ingredients in creating great drinks. Gin & Genever and cocktails
  22. 22. 23 Bols Genever is a superior and premium ‘old school’ genever, based on the original 1820 Bols Genever recipe which conquered the world and helped define cocktails during their first Golden Age in the 19th century. There can be no better spirit to use to recreate the classic cocktails of the 19th century: Dutch genever was a mainstay of cocktail-making in America in the 1860s. In the first book of bartending, ‘The Bartender’s Guide’, Jerry Thomas specifies ‘Hollands Gin’ for many of his recipes, often offering Old Tom as an alternative to make a different drink. It is wise to follow this advice when using Bols Genever - not a mere gin replacement, but a category in itself which is a subtle and intriguing cocktail base. MIXXITWITHGIN&GENEVER
  23. 23. 24 The smooth, subtle, malty flavour of this white spirit comes from using over 50% malt wine, which is made from long- fermented, rye, corn and wheat, triple-distilled in copper pot stills. The use of pot stills provides a surprisingly full mouth-feel and rich flavour for a white spirit. This malt wine, the heart of good genever, is then infused with a carefully selected distillate of juniper and other botanicals. Inspired by the past, recreated for today. Like its packaging - a stylish iconic smoke glass bottle based on the shape of the original Bols clay jugs and featuring authentic Amsterdam-style handwritten typography. Bols Genever production secrets
  24. 24. 25 Appearance Crystal clear. Nose Fresh herbs and spices, malt characteristics. Palate Herbal, spicy and grassy notes, with hints of fresh-baked bread and juniper berries. Finish Smooth, malty. Taste profile MIXXITWITHGIN&GENEVER
  25. 25. 26 AMSTERDAMMER Essential Build 1. Take a clean highball glass 2. Fill with fresh, solid ice cubes 3. Squeeze in a wedge of lime and drop it into the glass 4. Measure in 25ml Bols Genever 5. Top up with fresh ginger beer, stir and serve Each Amsterdammer contains 1 unit of alcohol. HOLLAND HOUSE Essential Shake 1. Add 25ml Bols Genever, 25ml dry vermouth, 12.5ml fresh lemon juice and 5ml Maraschino liqueur to a clean Boston glass 2. Fill the Boston with fresh, solid ice cubes 3. Shake vigorously for 10-12 seconds 4. Carefully open shaker and place Hawthorne strainer over the top 5. Double strain into a chilled cocktail glass or coupé, garnish with an orange zest and serve Each Holland House contains approximately 1.5 units of alcohol. Bols Genever essential serves
  26. 26. 27 DUTCH COURAGE Essential Swizzle 1. Take a clean highball glass and fill it with fresh, solid ice cubes 2. Squeeze in a wedge of lemon and drop it into the glass 3. Measure in 25ml Bols Genever 4. Top up with pressed apple juice 5. Garnish with seasonal berries, drizzle in 12.5ml Bols Crème de Cassis, and serve Each Dutch Courage contains approximately 1.5 units of alcohol. IMPROVED HOLLAND GIN COCKTAIL Essential Stir 1. Fill a clean mixing glass with fresh, solid ice cubes 2. Add 2 dashes orange bitters, 50ml Bols Genever, 2 dashes Bols Dry Orange Curaçao and 10ml sugar syrup 3. Place a barspoon down the inside of the glass and stir briskly for around 25 seconds 4. Place a Julep strainer over the top 5. Rim a cocktail glass with lemon, strain in the cocktail, garnish with a twist of lemon zest, and serve Each Improved Holland Gin Cocktail contains approximately 2.5 units of alcohol. MIXXITWITHGIN&GENEVER
  27. 27. No.3 London Dry Gin is distilled to a proprietary recipe of Berry Bros & Rudd, London’s oldest wine and spirit merchant. The name No.3 refers to the address in St James’s Street, London: the home of Berry Bros since 1698. Berry Bros. & Rudd currently holds Royal Warrants for H.M. The Queen and H.R.H The Prince of Wales. “No.3 is unmistakably traditional London Dry Gin. By traditional we mean gin that tastes as gin should: with juniper at its heart. We are determined that No.3 will be the last word in gin for a Dry Martini cocktail. To achieve this we asked one of the world’s authorities in the art and science of gin distillation, Dr David Clutton, as well as a panel of gin specialists, writers and mixologists to help us.” SIMON BERRY Chairman, Berry Bros. & Rudd 29 MIXXITWITHGIN&GENEVER
  28. 28. The resulting liquid, with juniper as its bedrock, is the absolute embodiment of what a London Dry Gin should be. Put simply, it is a taste of tradition. Juniper, from Italy, not only gives gin its name, but also the unmistakable gin taste of pine and lavender. Sweet Spanish orange peel provides freshness in the form of clean, crisp citrus. Grapefruit peel gives an extra zingy lift. Angelica root delivers an earthy quality and helps to make the gin dry. Moroccan coriander seed releases a lemon flavour and a spicy, slightly peppery finish. And finally, cardamom pods add a spicy, aromatic warm bite. No.3 London Dry Gin is distilled at one of Holland’s oldest distilleries owned by a family firm which like Berry Bros. & Rudd, has over 300 years of experience and know-how. No.3 Gin is the only London Dry Gin that they distil. The production is overseen by gin expert - Dr David Clutton who brings unparalleled experience in gin production in order to guarantee the perfect result. A taste of tradition 30
  29. 29. Nose Bright, crisp and fresh with an uplifting welcome of juniper. Palate Juniper to the fore, supported by floral notes and spicy, warm cardamom. Plenty of citrus ‘zing’ complemented by the gingery spiciness of coriander. Finish The earthy dryness of angelica kicks in. Taste profile 31 MIXXITWITHGIN&GENEVER
  30. 30. 32 NO.3 & T Essential Build 1. Take a clean highball glass 2. Fill with fresh, solid ice cubes 3. Squeeze in a wedge of lemon and drop it into the glass 4. Measure in 50ml No.3 Gin 5. Top up with fresh tonic, stir and serve Each No.3 & T contains approximately 2 units of alcohol. NO.3 NEGRONI Essential Stir 1. Mix together 35ml No.3 Gin, 35ml red vermouth and 35ml Campari bitters in the bottom of an old-fashioned glass 2. Add 5 or 6 fresh, solid ice cubes and stir briskly and stylishly for 20 seconds with a barspoon 3. Leaving the barspoon in the glass, add more ice cubes 4. Stir again, for another 30 seconds 5. Top with more ice, garnish with orange and lemon zest, and serve Each No.3 Negroni contains approximately 3 units of alcohol. No.3 Gin essential serves
  31. 31. 33 FRENCH 75 Essential Shake 1. Add 25ml No.3 Gin, 25ml freshly squeezed lemon juice and 10ml gomme syrup to an empty Boston shaker glass 2. Fill shaker glass with cubed ice, place shaker tin overtop and seal tightly 3. Shake vigorously for 10 seconds 4. Carefully open Boston shaker and place Hawthorne strainer over the top 5. Fine strain into a pre-chilled champagne glass, top up with champagne, garnish with a grignotine cherry or lemon peel and serve Each French 75 contains approximately 1 unit of alcohol.
  32. 32. The Key 34 The key on the bottle was inspired by the key to the lock in the door of The Parlour at the heart of the shop at No.3 St James’s Street. The Parlour, in many ways, is the inner sanctum of No.3 St James’s Street. It is one of the oldest chambers in the shop; a room that is steeped in history and tradition. The No.3 key therefore unlocks the secrets and traditions of an extraordinary institution and symbolises our values of quality, authority and integrity.
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