GIN & GENEVER
M I X X I T W I T HM I X X I T W I T H
2N MIXXIT WITH GIN & GENEVER
“The air! Isn’t it wonderful?”
“Yeah, it’s like a shot of gin.
It makes your blood race, your
face numb and your spirits soar.”
Katherine Hepburn and Humphrey Bogart
The African Queen, 1951
…with Gin & Genever
Gin and genever perhaps have a more chequered history
than any other spirit: from the earliest medicinal uses
by 12th century Italian monks via ‘Dutch Courage’
and ‘Gin Lane’ to golf club respectability and finally
rebirth as a cool cocktail spirit in the 1990s.
Gin’s history links juniper spirits with every aspect of the
human experience: tragedy, squalor, snobbery and valour.
From its early manifestation in medieval juniper-based plague
cures, it arrived on our shores during the thirty years war,
when British soldiers would drink ‘Dutch Courage’ before going
Decades later, it faced the moral outrage of Hogarth’s
‘Gin Lane’ and went on to build a reputation as ‘Mother’s Ruin’,
then became set in its ways as the tipple of choice in the golf
clubs of Middle England before cutting through again in
popularity as the burgeoning bar scene looked for the perfect
Gin’s legacy now seems to be somewhat timeless but this
truly European spirit has an intriguing rags to riches story.
After the experiments of the early Benedictine monks, in the
early 16th century brandy based juniper spirit called
‘schinkenhágen’ was produced in what is now Germany.
It wasn’t until the mid 17th century that a Dutch Professor
of medicine, Franciscus Sylvius de la Boe of Lieden University
pioneered the art of distilling grain spirit with juniper to
create ‘eau-de-vie-de-genievre’, a tonic then believed to cure
The spirit we know today as gin derived from the juniper
flavoured malt wine spirit born in Holland and was introduced
to us by William of Orange when he took to the throne of
England in 1688. He began to ban imported brandies and
wines from France and, as whiskies were relatively unknown
outside Scotland and Ireland, he began to encourage the
production of genever in its local form made from grain
alcohol that was soon to be corrupted to ‘gin’. Distilling of
English gin then began around various docks throughout the
country such as London, Plymouth, Bristol and Liverpool.
Hogarth’s ‘Gin Lane’
In England in the early part of the
18th century, low taxes led to widespread
distilling of cheap grain alcohol, resulting
in many back street distilleries operating
in London slums. Street vendors began
peddling in cheap gin flavoured with
lethal ingredients, with many of London’s
houses becoming ‘gin shops’. This caused
widespread drunkenness and resulted in
a major alcohol problem amongst the
poor where babies were often born with
deformities earning gin the nickname
of ‘Mother’s Ruin’.
From the 1740s a series of gin acts
were passed by Parliament to control
the level of drunkenness by restricting
the production and vending of gin.
(This is one of the reasons why gin
distilleries today cannot produce their
own grain spirit.) These acts gave rise
to a return to beer consumption, and
the rise of the classic British pub.
By the 1830s and the introduction of continuous
distillation, the government once again permitted the
free trading of gin by allowing gin distillers to control the
production of grain spirit accompanied by a healthy tax.
This led to the distillers competing with pubs and saw
the birth of opulent establishments known as ‘Gin Palaces’.
Charles Dickens described these palaces as “perfectly dazzling
when contrasted with the darkness and dirt we have just left…”.
Gin quickly became both acceptable and fashionable again
and became known by Cockney Londoners as ‘Mother’s Milk’
or ‘Parliamentary Brandy’.
As gin rose from the gutter to become the sophisticated
tipple of British aristocracy it also became associated, alongside
rum, as a drink of the Royal Navy. Naval Officers often mixed
it with bitters to make ‘Pink Gin’ which was taken to settle
‘Dutch Courage’, ‘Mother’s Ruin’, ‘Mother’s Milk’…
the history of gin and genever is a colourful, thought-
provoking account of social change and advancing
technology through the years.
Gin & Genever timeline
Boek’ by Philippus
“genever aqua vitae”
First major mention
health related tonics
and medicines in a
‘Der Naturen Bloeme’
by Jacob van Maerlant
Juniper King Haakon of Norway Vlad the Impaler Lucas Bols
The Battle of Largs
- King Alexander
III of Scotland
defeats the Viking
armada of King
Haakon IV of
Edward III of
claim to the
Vlad III, Prince of
known as Vlad the
Impaler, he was the
sign is invented
Queen of Scots
conquest of the
Aztecs in South
* * * * * ***
The Dutch East India Company founded.
Lucas Bols becomes a preferred supplier to
its inner circle, ‘The Seventeen Gentlemen’,
and also gets first crack at all the new
herbs and spices flooding back to Europe.
The sailors and officers of the company
spread genever all around the globe,
receiving daily half-pint rations of genever
in a specially measured pewter cup.
gets a licence
to distil spirits
in the city of
Genever Dutch East India Company Charles I Bols Lootsje
The first permanent
settlement in what is now the United States is
formed in Jamestown by English colonists.
Dutch East India
Company ship ‘The
Eendracht’, is wrecked
off the western coast
of Ambon Island,
Dutch East Indies.
‘The Eendracht’ was the
second ship to have
made landfall on
King Charles I
The Battle of
Stirling between the
Marquis of Argyll’s
the Earl of Lanark’s
** * * ** *
Charles II Rob Roy MacGregor Dodo Peter the Great
1658 - 1672
Franciscus Sylvius de la Boe becomes professor
of medicine at Leiden University, Holland.
Nowadays he is widely, and incorrectly,
credited as having invented genever, which
was already common when he was born in
1614. De la Boe’s position in Leiden would
have meant he used juniper for its health-
giving properties, building on the success of
the health tonics distilled in Italy in the 1500s.
A municipal government is
established in the former
Dutch settlement of New
Amsterdam - New York.
Scottish folk hero Rob Roy
MacGregor is born at Glengyle.
Charles II is crowned King of England
after a decade of rule by Oliver
Cromwell and the Puritans. Often
known as ‘The Merrie Monarch’,
Charles’ crowning signified the
beginning of The Restoration.
The Van Dale
notes the first
of the word
spelled with a “j”.
The reign of
Peter the Great
into the Russian
creating a major
The last Dodo dies
on the island of
marking it as an
* * * **
William III James II Berry Bros. & Rudd Hogarth’s ‘Gin Lane’
William III ascends to the
English throne, and gin
distilling increases. Initially
gin is very similar to genever,
but over time it develops a
distinctive style, eliminating
malt wine. The ban of wines
and spirits from France
encourages the distilling
industry creating a ‘Gin Craze’.
No.3 St James’s
of No.3 Gin.
Prince Charles Edward
Stuart (Bonnie Prince
Charlie) flees to the
Isle of Skye after the
rising and escapes the
country after being
disguised as an Irish
maid by Flora
The infamous Salem
witch trials begin in
Colony. The trial
in modern culture
as The Crucible, by
King William III of England
defeats the deposed James II
at the Battle of the Boyne,
north of Dublin.
* * * * *
of ‘Beer Street’
and ‘Gin Lane’
of cheap gin.
The Palace of Whitehall in
London is destroyed by fire.
Original King’s Cross Charles Dickens Gin Palace Queen Victoria
The Hunchback of Notre Dame,
by Victor Hugo is first published.
unit for the
Dickens is born
Queen Victoria’s coronation
takes place at Westminster
Abbey in London.
18-year-old Queen Victoria accedes
to the throne of the United Kingdom.
She reigns for more than 63 years.
The Slavery Abolition Act of 1833
abolishes slavery in the British Empire.
The first Gin Palace - Thomson and
Fearon - is built in London at Holborn
Hill. Designed by architect John
Papworth, the interior is thought to
have been created by Stephen Geary
who also designed the ornate
catacombs at Highgate Cemetery
and the original King’s Cross - one
of London’s first police stations.
** * * * **
for distilling essence
of cinnamon to
treat the common
cold, burns to the
ground during riots
Grimbles Malt Vinegar Pat Garrett The New York Times The Indian Mutiny
With the developments
and popularity of
many gin distillers begin
to use a high quality clean
grain spirit base for gin
production without having
to add sugar leading to the
style of gin we know today
as ‘London Dry’.
The New York
is founded by
Henry Wells and
* * * **
the first fire
Pat Garrett, the
lawman and sheriff
is born. Garrett is
known for his
pursuit and killing
of the renowned
outlaw Billy the Kid.
the first time
The world’s first postage stamp,
The Penny Black, comes into circulation.
Booth & Grimbles
With left over
spirit, they create
which becomes a
Gilbeys Gin Earthenware gin bottles Jack the Ripper, Punch Vincent van Gogh
As a birthday
the country is
Prostitute Martha Tabram is
found murdered in Whitechapel,
London - the first victim of
the notorious ‘Jack the Ripper’.
The Dutch artist
Vincent Van Gogh,
dies after shooting
himself in the
* * *
Gilbeys Gin founded
by Sir Walter Gilbey’s
family of wine and
spirits merchants in
Camden Town. This
is also where the first
Soda Stream was
created by Walter’s
grandson Guy Hugh
Gilbey in 1903.
Gin bottles start being made from clear
glass, after being originally sold in cask
or earthenware bottles used by genever
producers. Bols had developed the first
elongated bottle made from frosted green
glass that was then copied by many gin
distillers. As glass making technology
improved this allowed glass bottles to
become clear to show the clarity and
purity of the liquid that was held inside.
The X-ray machine
is first exhibited.
Adolf Hitler Al Capone Prohibition Omaha Beach, WWII
Prohibition in America - a nationwide ban on the sale,
production, importation, and transportation of alcohol.
As a result, clandestine drinking was rife and cocktail culture
flourished, whilst on the other side of the Atlantic many great
bartenders and wealthy Americans fled to cities like London
and Paris to work and drink in style. Some classic drinks recipes
were spawned during this turbulent period in history, many of
which are still popular today - The White Lady, The Clover Club,
The French ‘75 and The Negroni.
Adolf Hitler becomes chief of
propaganda of The German Workers’
Party. Shortly after it renames itself as
the Nazi Party.
The Chicago underworld is
controlled by Al Capone who
profits indirectly from
Prohibition with an estimated
US$100 million per year in
revenue, generated by the sale
of liquor and other illegal
enterprises, such as gambling
WWII, the most
in history with
50 to 85 million
Oil is discovered
in Saudi Arabia.
Bols advertising Fidel Castro Bols advertising The Bartender’s Guide
‘Jonge jenever’ made using less malt wine and more
neutral spirits, typically grain alcohol for the better
brands and molasses alcohol for the less expensive ones,
enjoys unbelievable popularity. To this day, a Bols-owned
brand of jonge jenever, Hartevelt, outsells the entire
vodka category in Holland, selling more than three
million standard cases per year in Holland.
Fidel Castro becomes
Premier of Cuba
dictatorship of Batista
and transforming the
country into a one-party
The lunar module Eagle
lands on the moon. Watched
by an estimated 500 million
people worldwide, Neil
Armstrong takes his historic
‘Dark Side of the
Moon’ is released
by Pink Floyd.
The Cavern Club, soon
to become associated
with The Beatles, opens
its doors in Liverpool.
* * * * *
Bols Genever is relaunched in the UK - a precious whisky-like triple
grain distillate made of corn, wheat and rye, which the Dutch
call maltwine. The attention to detail in the distillation process
is comparable to a fine single malt Scotch. Research by Dave
Wondrich is revealed which shows that the majority of ‘gin’ based
drinks in Jerry Thomas’ era were made with ‘Hollands’, as genever
was once known. The relaunch of Bols Genever gives today’s
bartender the opportunity to create cocktails from 1862 and
resurrect flavours that have not been experienced for generations.
Fidel Castro steps down
as President of Cuba.
Barack Obama is
inaugurated as the
44th, and first
President of the
Beijing, China hosts the
Bols Genever Bols Genever Bols Genever
* * *
departs his post
the Kepler space
planets in the
A series of 3 portraits
of Lucian Freud by
the British painter
Francis Bacon, sells for
US$142.4 million in
New York, setting a
new world record.
15,840 people are killed and
3,926 are reported missing
after a 9.0-magnitude
earthquake and subsequent
tsunami hit the east coast
A number of volcanic
in Iceland cause
widespread air traffic
chaos across northern
and western Europe.
WikiLeaks leaks a
collection of more
than 100,000 American
sparking a worldwide
No.3 Gin No.3 Gin Gin cocktails Juniper
Berry Bros. & Rudd
release No.3 Gin,
a premium London
Dry Gin created
with the help of
Dr David Clutton, one
of the world’s foremost
authorities on gin.
Today we are in a midst of a second
but more refined ‘Gin Craze’. Gin is
becoming popular throughout the
world with a multitude of different
styles hitting the market and even
more exciting and diverse drinks
being created as a result.
* ** **
Gin and genever is
heavily featured in
the first ever printed
‘How to Mix Drinks
or The Bon-Vivants
written by Jerry
When the Golden Age of Cocktails kicked off in the latter
part of the 19th century, gin and in particular genever
quickly became classic ‘Cocktail’ ingredients. Indeed, gin and
genever is heavily featured in the first ever printed bartenders
guide ‘How to Mix Drinks or The Bon-Vivants Companion, 1862’
written by Jerry ‘Professor’ Thomas. Many gin cocktails listed
within his guides are still prevalent today The Martinez,
The Fancy Gin Cocktail, The Holland House, The Gin Daisy,
The Gin Fix, The Gin Fizz, The Gin Crusta, The Gin Sling,
and The Collins.
Gin as the chosen cocktail ingredient again made its
mark during Prohibition America (1920-1933) when cocktail
culture and gin drinks flourished on both sides of the Atlantic,
spawning many classic recipes still popular today such as
The White Lady, The Clover Club, The French ‘75, and
Gin and genever have a huge array of complexities in
their style and flavour, making them key ingredients
in creating great drinks.
Gin & Genever and cocktails
Bols Genever is a superior and premium ‘old school’
genever, based on the original 1820 Bols Genever recipe
which conquered the world and helped define cocktails
during their first Golden Age in the 19th century.
There can be no better spirit to use to recreate the classic
cocktails of the 19th century: Dutch genever was a mainstay
of cocktail-making in America in the 1860s. In the first book
of bartending, ‘The Bartender’s Guide’, Jerry Thomas specifies
‘Hollands Gin’ for many of his recipes, often offering Old Tom
as an alternative to make a different drink.
It is wise to follow this advice when using Bols Genever
- not a mere gin replacement, but a category in itself which
is a subtle and intriguing cocktail base.
The smooth, subtle, malty flavour of this white spirit comes
from using over 50% malt wine, which is made from long-
fermented, rye, corn and wheat, triple-distilled in copper
pot stills. The use of pot stills provides a surprisingly full
mouth-feel and rich flavour for a white spirit. This malt wine,
the heart of good genever, is then infused with a carefully
selected distillate of juniper and other botanicals.
Inspired by the past, recreated for today. Like its
packaging - a stylish iconic smoke glass bottle based on the
shape of the original Bols clay jugs and featuring authentic
Amsterdam-style handwritten typography.
Bols Genever production secrets
Fresh herbs and spices,
Herbal, spicy and grassy
notes, with hints of
fresh-baked bread and
1. Take a clean highball glass
2. Fill with fresh, solid ice cubes
3. Squeeze in a wedge of lime and drop
it into the glass
4. Measure in 25ml Bols Genever
5. Top up with fresh ginger beer, stir and serve
Each Amsterdammer contains 1 unit of alcohol.
1. Add 25ml Bols Genever, 25ml dry vermouth,
12.5ml fresh lemon juice and 5ml Maraschino
liqueur to a clean Boston glass
2. Fill the Boston with fresh, solid ice cubes
3. Shake vigorously for 10-12 seconds
4. Carefully open shaker and place Hawthorne
strainer over the top
5. Double strain into a chilled cocktail glass or
coupé, garnish with an orange zest and serve
Each Holland House contains approximately 1.5 units
Bols Genever essential serves
1. Take a clean highball glass and fill it
with fresh, solid ice cubes
2. Squeeze in a wedge of lemon and drop
it into the glass
3. Measure in 25ml Bols Genever
4. Top up with pressed apple juice
5. Garnish with seasonal berries, drizzle in
12.5ml Bols Crème de Cassis, and serve
Each Dutch Courage contains approximately 1.5 units
1. Fill a clean mixing glass with fresh,
solid ice cubes
2. Add 2 dashes orange bitters, 50ml Bols
Genever, 2 dashes Bols Dry Orange Curaçao
and 10ml sugar syrup
3. Place a barspoon down the inside of the glass
and stir briskly for around 25 seconds
4. Place a Julep strainer over the top
5. Rim a cocktail glass with lemon, strain in
the cocktail, garnish with a twist of lemon
zest, and serve
Each Improved Holland Gin Cocktail contains
approximately 2.5 units of alcohol.
No.3 London Dry Gin is distilled to a proprietary recipe
of Berry Bros & Rudd, London’s oldest wine and spirit
merchant. The name No.3 refers to the address in
St James’s Street, London: the home of Berry Bros since
1698. Berry Bros. & Rudd currently holds Royal
Warrants for H.M. The Queen and H.R.H The Prince
“No.3 is unmistakably traditional London Dry Gin. By traditional
we mean gin that tastes as gin should: with juniper at its heart.
We are determined that No.3 will be the last word in gin for a Dry
To achieve this we asked one of the world’s authorities in the art
and science of gin distillation, Dr David Clutton, as well as a panel
of gin specialists, writers and mixologists to help us.”
Chairman, Berry Bros. & Rudd
The resulting liquid, with juniper as its bedrock, is the absolute
embodiment of what a London Dry Gin should be. Put simply,
it is a taste of tradition. Juniper, from Italy, not only gives gin
its name, but also the unmistakable gin taste of pine and
lavender. Sweet Spanish orange peel provides freshness in the
form of clean, crisp citrus. Grapefruit peel gives an extra zingy
lift. Angelica root delivers an earthy quality and helps to make
the gin dry. Moroccan coriander seed releases a lemon flavour
and a spicy, slightly peppery finish. And finally, cardamom
pods add a spicy, aromatic warm bite.
No.3 London Dry Gin is distilled at one of Holland’s
oldest distilleries owned by a family firm which like Berry
Bros. & Rudd, has over 300 years of experience and know-how.
No.3 Gin is the only London Dry Gin that they distil.
The production is overseen by gin expert - Dr David Clutton
who brings unparalleled experience in gin production in
order to guarantee the perfect result.
A taste of tradition
Bright, crisp and fresh with an
uplifting welcome of juniper.
Juniper to the fore, supported
by floral notes and spicy, warm
cardamom. Plenty of citrus
‘zing’ complemented by the
gingery spiciness of coriander.
The earthy dryness of angelica
NO.3 & T
1. Take a clean highball glass
2. Fill with fresh, solid ice cubes
3. Squeeze in a wedge of lemon
and drop it into the glass
4. Measure in 50ml No.3 Gin
5. Top up with fresh tonic, stir and serve
Each No.3 & T contains approximately 2 units
1. Mix together 35ml No.3 Gin, 35ml red
vermouth and 35ml Campari bitters in
the bottom of an old-fashioned glass
2. Add 5 or 6 fresh, solid ice cubes and
stir briskly and stylishly for 20 seconds
with a barspoon
3. Leaving the barspoon in the glass,
add more ice cubes
4. Stir again, for another 30 seconds
5. Top with more ice, garnish with orange
and lemon zest, and serve
Each No.3 Negroni contains approximately 3 units
No.3 Gin essential serves
1. Add 25ml No.3 Gin, 25ml freshly
squeezed lemon juice and 10ml
gomme syrup to an empty Boston
2. Fill shaker glass with cubed ice,
place shaker tin overtop and
3. Shake vigorously for 10 seconds
4. Carefully open Boston shaker
and place Hawthorne strainer
over the top
5. Fine strain into a pre-chilled
champagne glass, top up with
champagne, garnish with a grignotine
cherry or lemon peel and serve
Each French 75 contains approximately
1 unit of alcohol.
The key on the bottle was inspired by
the key to the lock in the door of
The Parlour at the heart of the shop
at No.3 St James’s Street.
The Parlour, in many ways, is the
inner sanctum of No.3 St James’s Street.
It is one of the oldest chambers in the
shop; a room that is steeped in history
The No.3 key therefore unlocks the
secrets and traditions of an extraordinary
institution and symbolises our values of
quality, authority and integrity.