Speaking in front of an audience.


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How to speak in front of an audience.

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Speaking in front of an audience.

  1. 1. Speaking in front of an audience The rules of public speaking and the art of convincing – Adopted from Yaniv Zaid -http://www.yanivzaid.com/main.asp?sel_nav1=67&cat=site
  2. 2. Speech and convincing as everyday tools <ul><li>We all need to do in on an everyday basis </li></ul><ul><li>It is an integral part from most subjects at school, work, and life </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency in performing a task – People will perform better if they understand the importance and need of the task </li></ul><ul><li>Increase motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Using simple explanation and allocating a small amount of time you may resolve many issues that might come up. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Convincing in the 21 st century <ul><li>Rules have changed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People are exposed to vast volumes of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You need to maximize your message in a minimized amount of time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example – On a televised interview, the interviewee has an uninterrupted amount of time of between 2 -3 minutes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can you get your point across in such a short amount of time? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember, the audience has a choice, they don’t have to sit and listen to you ! </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Preparing the speech <ul><li>Preparation is the key. </li></ul><ul><li>Before making the speech, find out: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is your audience? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information about the audience and its needs is power, use it ! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Find out whom are the people that you are going to be speaking to. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your audience might change even if your lecture stays the same </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Match your speech to the level of the audience. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People from all levels would like the speaker to talk to them in their level. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Preparing the speech <ul><li>What will your audience like? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get the same point across but in different formats matching the audience’s needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The younger the audience, the more activities you will need to keep them interested. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is your point? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every speech must have a point that will make the audience understand what is the point of your speech. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Preparing the speech <ul><li>Find out how many people you are going to be talking to. </li></ul><ul><li>Find out the time allocated for your speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Study the subject matter in details. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Building the definition <ul><li>Define the topic and key terminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In every discussion define the content of the discussion from the get go. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A speaker that defines the terminology has a big advantage over other speakers and is convincing powers have grown. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to convince you need to be understood. Definitions improve understanding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definitions are essential. Without them the discussion is going to be superficial and ineffective. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The definition must be simple and understandable. It will not reduce the point of your argument by using simple definitions. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Defining the proposition <ul><li>A good proposition will be made out of 3 parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the proposition? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do I suggest this proposition? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define the problem you are trying to solve in current situation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Without presenting the problem we cant discuss the solution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When you have a small proposition to define a huge problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to implement the proposition </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The point of the speech is first to get the audience to listen, then to convince them ! </li></ul><ul><li>The more you know about your audience, its opinions, the issues on their minds, the better you will be able to chose the point of contradiction that will convince more of the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Every discussion is an straggle between many points of contradiction where each side is pulling towards the point that is more comfortable to him. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Selecting your arguments <ul><li>For every argument presented there is an equal counter argument. </li></ul><ul><li>While choosing your arguments, think about the counterarguments that might be brought up by your opponent. </li></ul><ul><li>Before you dismiss an argument, find three good things to say about it </li></ul><ul><li>3 Is the magic number of arguments. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More then 3 will loose its effectivness. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. How to choose your argument points? <ul><li>The points should support you conflict point! </li></ul><ul><li>The points should cover many subjects and not just one specific topic </li></ul>
  12. 12. How to develop your points – Analysis in a short time frame <ul><li>Do not display an argument if you can not explain it. </li></ul><ul><li>An analysis is being made using facts and examples </li></ul><ul><li>FACTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not make up statistics under any circumstances! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you don’t have facts that support your point, do not present any facts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples – The ideal situation for maximum effectiveness of your point is to bring one or two examples for each argument. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Time Management <ul><li>There are two facts about time management: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You cant control the time you are born or your time of death. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every thing between these points is negotiable. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Time Management <ul><li>Time is a valuable resource and should be handled properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Time limit exists even if it is not defined. Limit the time of your speech even if you are note required to. </li></ul><ul><li>Control your time, otherwise someone else is going to control YOUR time. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Tools to assist you with time management <ul><li>While preparing for your speech, time yourself and break the speech into parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the important points and concentrate on them. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Match your speech to your audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every speaker is measured by its added value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addressing previous speakers should not be more then a 3 rd of your speech. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Time Management <ul><li>Organized speech. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you talk for less amount of time but your speech is more organized, the audience will understand you better. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fast talking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you are a fast talker, you must be organized. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize the important points by speaking slowly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast talking is possible when your audience is familiar with the subject matter. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. How to be an organized speaker <ul><li>Organization will assist the audience understand our speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Organized speech will assist the speaker with the presentation by dividing the speech, manage time and avoiding confusion if the speech was stopped for answering questions. </li></ul>
  18. 18. How to be an organized speaker <ul><li>There are two principles for organized speech: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear paper </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. How to be an organized speaker <ul><li>Clear Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define your proposal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Present the purpose of your proposal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define the conflict point and an overview of your arguments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body – Presenting your arguments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion – A brief summery of the main points of your speech </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. How to be an organized speaker <ul><li>Clear paper – Use a sheet of paper to assist you with your speech </li></ul><ul><li>Under no circumstances read from the paper. It should be used as an aid only. </li></ul><ul><li>Use one sheet of paper and organize it in the same manner that the speech is organized </li></ul>
  21. 21. Using Humor during your speech <ul><li>Start the speech strong and end it strong </li></ul><ul><li>How to use humor at the beginning of the speech: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make fun of the situation your are at </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If there is a common motif in your audience make fun of it but be careful not to offend. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start your speech by presenting the previous speaker in a humorous light but to make the discussion to a personal match. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Using Humor during your speech <ul><li>If you are a “funny” person with a good sense of humor, use it. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not make the humor the main point of the discussion </li></ul><ul><li>It is recommended to use several jokes at the right time and place. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are not a “Funny” speaker, don’t try to force it. </li></ul>
  23. 23. How to keep the audience interested <ul><li>Keep it on the same level as your audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify – Help the audience identify with your side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interact – A good speaker create interaction with the audience and build trust </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In order to keep the audience interested, make sure they understand ! </li></ul>
  24. 24. How to keep the audience interested <ul><li>Use everyday, real life examples </li></ul><ul><li>Using visual aids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handouts, computer presentation, slides, video clips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual aids are interesting and can transfer your point across. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. How to answer questions <ul><li>Allow the audience to ask questions at a point that is convenient for you. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the number of questions during the presentation low. (appr. 1 q/4 minutes of speech) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not show that you don’t know the answer </li></ul><ul><li>Do not read out of a paper </li></ul><ul><li>Explain better – be aware of the audiences response. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not ignore any question. </li></ul>
  26. 26. How to ask questions <ul><li>Get to the point </li></ul><ul><li>Write down the question prior to asking (especially if it is in a foreign language) </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the question in between topics. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not divulge ideas by asking questions </li></ul><ul><li>Do not ask rhetorical questions </li></ul><ul><li>If the person in front of you seem secure but does not say much , tire him with questions </li></ul>
  27. 27. How to deal with disturbances <ul><li>Mutual respect with the audience is key </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk to them on their level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid offending the audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep calm ! In an emotional discussion the one who keeps calm and stays logical wins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stick to the time allocated. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. How to deal with disturbances <ul><li>Concentrate on the ones who are not convinced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrating on the ones that are convinced and ignoring the ones who are not , will not convince them more, but will make them start doubting. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 ways to deal with “chronic” disturbance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignore them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask them to stop , show the audience you are in control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confront them </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Presentation and stance <ul><li>When speaking to an audience, it is better to stand then to sit </li></ul><ul><li>Stand tall not bent </li></ul><ul><li>Move around and/or in between the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Better not to hold anything in your hands while talking </li></ul><ul><li>You your hands, but don’t over do it. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep calm – assume you own the stage </li></ul>
  30. 30. Presentation and stance <ul><li>Look Fresh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Transmit” energy and excitement during your speech, any day , any time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The audience is your “customer” it wants to see you at your best. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dress – Match the dress to the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Tone & Speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume – Speak laud enough to be heard but not to laud to intimidate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial expressions should match your point as much as possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stay involved as much as possible </li></ul>
  31. 31. What not to do during a speech <ul><li>Do not speak from your gut , get over excited or shout. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The best way to fight emotions is to present facts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In emotional discussion the calm presenter will always appear better. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not show lack of confidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always present self confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you are not portraying confidence in your point, the audience will surly not going to. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appear fully confident in your point </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. What not to do during a speech <ul><li>Never present anything that is damaging about yourself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not present weaknesses as a person or a speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believe in yourself </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If you are presenting with a partner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not barge into each other's speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not contradict each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not whisper to one another while other people are talking. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Concluding your speech <ul><li>The conclusion’s purpose is to remind the audience your speech in the best possible way. </li></ul><ul><li>Time limitation – Allow time for the conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat the main points in an organized manner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat the conflict point, your suggestions and your main points. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not repeat the whole speech just the main points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The conclusion should point out the bottom line of each point and how they supported your claim. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even if you talked fast throughout the speech, the conclusion should be slow. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Review either chronologically or by subject. </li></ul>