Integrated oceanic observation
in the western equatorial Pacific
related to SPICE project
JAMSTEC/RIGC Takuya HASEGAWA
OUTLINE
(1) About Me
(2) My study history (briefly shown)
(3) SPICE-related observation during MR12-03
About me
Takuya Hasegawa (JAMSTEC/IORGC)
April 2007-present: JAMSTEC
April 2003-March 2007: JMA/MRI (JSPS Researcher)
April 1994-Ma...
My Study
Mainly, tropical Pacific
(El Nino, etc.)
(2) My Study
Past and on-going my main study topics:
(a) El Nino cycle mechanism
(b) 10 yr (QD- scale) variability in the ...
Background: 平年時とエルニーニョ時の海面水温パターン
Sea surface temperature patterns in normal and El Nino condition
B
エルニーニョ時
(1997/11)
A
平年...
(2) My Study
Past and on-going studies:
(a) El Nino cycle mechanism
(b) 10 yr (QD- scale) variability in the Pacific Ocean...
海洋表層貯熱量 (OHC: upper ocean heat content)
太平洋パターン (wavelet power):
 PDO (20yr)
 QD (10yr) 
 ENSO (4yr)
 QB (2yr)
(Hasegawa a...
complex EOF 第1モード(寄与率60%)
周期はおよそ3.5年(℃)
86/87
 91/92
94
 97/98
82/83
反時計回りの伝播
Anti-clockwise
propagation
A
B
C
D
0 年
0.5年
...
負相関:大
Negative 
Correlation
相関:小
(OHC偏差:強化)
西部熱帯太平洋(WTP)
OHCの時間変化率と風応力カール(WSC)の相関係数
Correlation coef. bet. OHC and wind st...
(2) My Study
Past and on-going studies:
(a) El Nino cycle mechanism
(b) 10 yr (QD- scale) variability in the Pacific Ocean...
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
El Nino 10 yr scale
(QD-scale)
(yr)
 (yr)
東部赤道域で信号大
 東部赤道域で信号弱
recharge-discharge oscillator model的振る舞いと
伝...
(2) My Study
Past and on-going studies:
(a) El Nino cycle mechanism
(b) 10 yr (QD- scale) variability in the Pacific Ocean...
北太平洋中緯度における数十年スケール変動
Multi-decadal variability in the mid-North Pacific
Mid-latitude of North Pacific:
OHC: clockwise prop...
(2) My Study
Past and on-going studies:
(a) El Nino cycle mechanism
(b) 10 yr (QD- scale) variability in the Pacific Ocean...
パプアニューギニア沖の沿岸湧昇と低海面水温
Coastal upwelling and realated cold temperature off PNG
岸 赤道
CTD観測点
28˚C
Before onset of 2002/03 El ...
OFES SST/海面流速パターン (2002/03エルニーニョ直前)
OFES-SST/surface current pattern bofore onset of 2002/93 El Nino
OFESのSST(カラー)と海面流速の
時...
(2) My Study
Past and on-going studies:
(a) El Nino cycle mechanism
(b) 10 yr (QD- scale) variability in the Pacific Ocean...
太平洋表層の塩分変動
Upper-ocean salinity variability in the tropical Pacific
Upper ocean salinityHasegawa et al. 2012 revised Upper...
(2) My Study
Past and on-going studies:
(a) El Nino cycle mechanism
(b) 10 yr (QD- scale) variability in the Pacific Ocean...
大気海洋領域モデル:
ニューギニア島の高山を除去して実験
(Model simulation: Removing high mountains in New Guinea)
4000-5000 m
Mountains
Remove the
Mo...
(2) My Study
Past and on-going studies:
(a) El Nino cycle mechanism
(b) 10 yr (QD- scale variability in the Pacific Ocean
...
エルニーニョ後のインド洋広域昇温・ 
フィリピン海昇温・日本冷夏(北半球夏季) 
Indian Ocean warming, Philippine Sea warming and anomalous 
cold summer in Japan ...
Others 
(as a co‐author)
# Annual Rossby wave in EQ‐Pacific 
 (Ando and Hasegawa 2010) 
# Indian Ocean upper ocean heat var...
海洋・大気の格子化データ 
全てに 
TRITON/TAO ブイデータや船舶観測データ 
が使われています! 
(世界各国の天気予報にも使用) 
TRITON/TAO buoy array data and ship‐observa;onal ...
(2) My Study
Past and on-going studies:
(a) El Nino cycle mechanism
(b) 10 yr (QD- scale) variability in the Pacific Ocean...
第III期におけるスクール概要
(第10回NYS 2012年1月大阪大学)
1:通常レクチャー
  各分野(固体地球マクロ・ミクロ、宇宙惑星、 
  生命圏、環境、大気海洋etc)の最新の動向に関する招待講演(各1時間)
2:Exレクチャー
 ...
OUTLINE
(1) About Me
(2) My Study (briefly shown):
(3) SPICE-related observation during MR12-03
Warm pool 
Eastward shia
El Nino 
Weakened 
Easterly wind
ただし、エルニーニョ・ラニーニャ経年振動に関しては1980年代以降に研究が進んだWarm pool variability af...
Numerical model simulated volume transport (0-300m),
showing large values of coastal currents (NICU, etc.)
near PNG
ADCP m...
# Numerical model simula;on  
    current velocity (161‐241m average) 
JAMSTEC’s  
moorings
cm/sec
cm/sec
NICU
SICU
NGCU
N...
PNG沖中層ADCP係留系(2.6S & 2.8S)デザイン概要 
Design for subsurface ADCP moorings off PNG (2.6S & 2.8S) 
Sea surface
CTD sensor (605-68...
アルゴフロート投入
Argo float launching
# PNG-Argo-float observes temperature, salinity from roughly 650m to surface.
# One Argo fl...
XCTD/SADCP/MBES/LADCP/CTD 観測 
XCTD/SADCP/MBES/LADCP/CTD observa;on along track 
Two subsurface ADCP moorings off New Ireland Island, observing current velocity
from 50m to 650m, temperature and salinity...
END
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研究テーマ紹介:エルニーニョ・準10年スケール変動・沿岸湧昇など:「みらい」船内セミナー2012年7月21日

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観測船「みらい」航海MR12-03航海における船内セミナー発表スライド・学生時代から現在に至る研究テーマ紹介

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研究テーマ紹介:エルニーニョ・準10年スケール変動・沿岸湧昇など:「みらい」船内セミナー2012年7月21日

  1. 1. Integrated oceanic observation in the western equatorial Pacific related to SPICE project JAMSTEC/RIGC Takuya HASEGAWA
  2. 2. OUTLINE (1) About Me (2) My study history (briefly shown) (3) SPICE-related observation during MR12-03
  3. 3. About me
  4. 4. Takuya Hasegawa (JAMSTEC/IORGC) April 2007-present: JAMSTEC April 2003-March 2007: JMA/MRI (JSPS Researcher) April 1994-March 2003:Tohoku University (B.S., M.S., Ph.D.) Tohoku University JMA/MRI JAMSTEC Niigata-city Pacific Ocean Japan Sea
  5. 5. My Study Mainly, tropical Pacific (El Nino, etc.)
  6. 6. (2) My Study Past and on-going my main study topics: (a) El Nino cycle mechanism (b) 10 yr (QD- scale) variability in the Pacific Ocean (c) Multi-decadal air-sea interaction in mid-North Pacific (d) Upwelling in Bismarck Sea and El Nino (e) Upper ocean salinity variability in 2000s (f) Small scale interaction bet. Ocean, atmos. and land in WP (g) Linkage among Tropical Pacific, Indian Ocean, Philippine Sea, and Japan (h) Outreach activities (“New Year School”)
  7. 7. Background: 平年時とエルニーニョ時の海面水温パターン Sea surface temperature patterns in normal and El Nino condition B エルニーニョ時 (1997/11) A 平年値 (11月) B-A 平年偏差 海面水温 (sea surface temperature) warm water pool (暖水プール) Nino3-index>0 東へ:Eastward shift of warm water pool 気象庁データ同化システム(ODAS) Normal years average (Nov.) El Nino year (Nov.1997) Difference (Anomaly) (top minus middle)
  8. 8. (2) My Study Past and on-going studies: (a) El Nino cycle mechanism (b) 10 yr (QD- scale) variability in the Pacific Ocean (c) Multi-decadal air-sea interaction in mid-North Pacific (d) Upwelling in Bismarck Sea and El Nino (e) Upper ocean salinity variability in 2000s (f) Small scale interaction bet. Ocean, atmos. and land in WP (g) Linkage among Tropical Pacific, Indian Ocean, Philippine Sea, and Japan (h) Outreach activities (“New Year School”)
  9. 9. 海洋表層貯熱量 (OHC: upper ocean heat content) 太平洋パターン (wavelet power):  PDO (20yr)  QD (10yr)   ENSO (4yr)  QB (2yr) (Hasegawa and Hanawa 2003より) ENSO: 4yr QD: 12yr PDO: 20yr 中部赤道域 やや南側で 信号(大) 中緯度・黒潮・親潮 サブダクション経路 信号(大) フィリピン海 西部赤道域 中部赤道域 東部赤道域で 信号(大) 各タイムスケールで 海域における振幅の強さが異なる Different spatial pattern of wavelet power at each time-scale 海面水温では分からない、 海洋内部の信号をOHCで把握できる Large OHC signal of warm water pool
  10. 10. complex EOF 第1モード(寄与率60%) 周期はおよそ3.5年(℃) 86/87 91/92 94 97/98 82/83 反時計回りの伝播 Anti-clockwise propagation A B C D 0 年 0.5年 1.0年 1.5年 東進 east ward 西進 west ward (年) 反時計回りの伝播:ENSOに関係 西部熱帯太平洋における OHC 偏差の強化 西部熱帯太平洋(WTP) 東部赤道太平洋 エルニーニョ発生期間と一致 El Ninoに関係したOHC伝播特性 (OHC propagation related to El Nino) ENSOメカニズム理解・モデル評価に貢献 (Hasegawa and Hanawa 2003) 南北太平洋での伝播や輸送量の違い (Haegawa et al. 2006; 2008)
  11. 11. 負相関:大 Negative Correlation 相関:小 (OHC偏差:強化) 西部熱帯太平洋(WTP) OHCの時間変化率と風応力カール(WSC)の相関係数 Correlation coef. bet. OHC and wind stress curl 負のWSC(高気圧性循環) ↓ Ekman downwelling ↓ 水温躍層深度(深) ↓ OHC偏差:増加 西部赤道外熱帯太平洋の大気海洋変動特性 Oceanic and atmospheric variability in the western off-equatorial Pacific Possible air-sea interaction in (east of) Philippine Sea (Hasegawa and Hanawa 2007)
  12. 12. (2) My Study Past and on-going studies: (a) El Nino cycle mechanism (b) 10 yr (QD- scale) variability in the Pacific Ocean (c) Multi-decadal air-sea interaction in mid-North Pacific (d) Upwelling in Bismarck Sea and El Nino (e) Upper ocean salinity variability in 2000s (f) Small scale interaction bet. Ocean, atmos. and land in WP (g) Linkage among Tropical Pacific, Indian Ocean, Philippine Sea, and Japan (h) Outreach activities (“New Year School”)
  13. 13. A B C D A B C D El Nino 10 yr scale (QD-scale) (yr) (yr) 東部赤道域で信号大 東部赤道域で信号弱 recharge-discharge oscillator model的振る舞いと 伝播特性が合致して変動(Hasegawa et al. 2007) Hasegawa and Hanawa (2003)PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation)とは異なる現象 北太平洋熱帯域で、反時計回りの伝播 Anti-cyclonic propagations are found at  - ENSO : 4 year time-scale  - 10年スケール(QD)変動:~10 year time-scale - 10年スケールは南太平洋でも伝播信号を示す       (ENSOは南米沖でしか示さない) 10年スケールとエルニーニョ変調の関係 Relationship bet. QD-scale and modulation of El Nino (Hasegawa and Hanawa 2006)
  14. 14. (2) My Study Past and on-going studies: (a) El Nino cycle mechanism (b) 10 yr (QD- scale) variability in the Pacific Ocean (c) Multi-decadal air-sea interaction in mid-North Pacific (d) Upwelling in Bismarck Sea and El Nino (e) Upper ocean salinity variability in 2000s (f) Small scale interaction bet. Ocean, atmos. and land in WP (g) Linkage among Tropical Pacific, Indian Ocean, Philippine Sea, and Japan (h) Outreach activities (“New Year School”)
  15. 15. 北太平洋中緯度における数十年スケール変動 Multi-decadal variability in the mid-North Pacific Mid-latitude of North Pacific: OHC: clockwise propagation (about 30-year time-scale) East of Japan/Mid-Pacific: OHC・SST・SLP: in phase (大気海洋相互作用の可能性) OHC propagation: アリューシャン低気圧(NPI指数) 北太平洋亜熱帯モード水コア水温・ 黒潮流量(気象庁G線)・ 水平熱輸送(モデル結果)と関連 相関係数(大) 亜熱帯モード水 黒潮 Hasegawa et al. 2007
  16. 16. (2) My Study Past and on-going studies: (a) El Nino cycle mechanism (b) 10 yr (QD- scale) variability in the Pacific Ocean (c) Multi-decadal air-sea interaction in mid-North Pacific (d) Upwelling in Bismarck Sea and El Nino (e) Upper ocean salinity variability in 2000s (f) Small scale interaction bet. Ocean, atmos. and land in WP (g) Linkage among Tropical Pacific, Indian Ocean, Philippine Sea, and Japan (h) Outreach activities (“New Year School”)
  17. 17. パプアニューギニア沖の沿岸湧昇と低海面水温 Coastal upwelling and realated cold temperature off PNG 岸 赤道 CTD観測点 28˚C Before onset of 2002/03 El Nino: PNG沖沿岸湧昇・低海面水温が沿岸域に存在 岸に向かって浅くなる Shallower near the coast 「かいよう」CTD観測表層水温断面図 CTD-observed upper-ocean temperature 80m 20m R/V「かいよう」による海洋観測ライン 2001年12月21日-23日 (KY0111航海) 同時期の衛星観測海面水温 沿岸湧昇海域の水温:  周辺海域より低温 Cold sea surface temperature in upwelling region 沿岸湧昇の特徴を示す構造 Consistent to upwelling nature 緯度 深度(m) PNG PNG Hasegawa et al. 2008
  18. 18. OFES SST/海面流速パターン (2002/03エルニーニョ直前) OFES-SST/surface current pattern bofore onset of 2002/93 El Nino OFESのSST(カラー)と海面流速の 時間平均マップ Hasegawa et al. 2011 ビスマルク海 Bismarck Sea 1999-2004年の 1月・12月の5年間平均 (Long-term average) 沿岸湧昇期間 (PNG coastal upwelling period) (2001年12月20日 2002年1月20日)の平均 南東向き流速 & 北西向き流速 北東向き流速 冷たい湧昇水を 赤道向きに輸送する可能性 Alongshore 沖 ニューギニア島 New Guinea 冷水域 周辺 湧昇期間の海洋表層熱収支解析: ビスマルク海北部(西部南太平洋赤道域)の 海洋表層貯熱量の冷却の163%を南からの移流で 説明可能 モデル25年間データ解析でも同様の結果 Hasegawa et al. 2010 Upwelled cold water can be transported to south part of the equator by the northeastward current
  19. 19. (2) My Study Past and on-going studies: (a) El Nino cycle mechanism (b) 10 yr (QD- scale) variability in the Pacific Ocean (c) Multi-decadal air-sea interaction in mid-North Pacific (d) Upwelling in Bismarck Sea and El Nino (e) Upper ocean salinity variability in 2000s (f) Small scale interaction bet. Ocean, atmos. and land in WP (g) Linkage among Tropical Pacific, Indian Ocean, Philippine Sea, and Japan (h) Outreach activities (“New Year School”)
  20. 20. 太平洋表層の塩分変動 Upper-ocean salinity variability in the tropical Pacific Upper ocean salinityHasegawa et al. 2012 revised Upper ocean temp. 塩分パターンと 水温パターンが異なる Different spatial pattern bet. sal. and temp.
  21. 21. (2) My Study Past and on-going studies: (a) El Nino cycle mechanism (b) 10 yr (QD- scale) variability in the Pacific Ocean (c) Multi-decadal air-sea interaction in mid-North Pacific (d) Upwelling in Bismarck Sea and El Nino (e) Upper ocean salinity variability in 2000s (f) Small scale interaction bet. Ocean, atmos. and land in WP (g) Linkage among Tropical Pacific, Indian Ocean, Philippine Sea, and Japan (h) Outreach activities (“New Year School”)
  22. 22. 大気海洋領域モデル: ニューギニア島の高山を除去して実験 (Model simulation: Removing high mountains in New Guinea) 4000-5000 m Mountains Remove the Mountain (flatting topo) Linkage bet. Upwelling, Wind, & Land
  23. 23. (2) My Study Past and on-going studies: (a) El Nino cycle mechanism (b) 10 yr (QD- scale variability in the Pacific Ocean (c) Multi-decadal air-sea interaction in mid-North Pacific (d) Upwelling in Bismarck Sea and El Nino (e) Upper ocean salinity variability in 2000s (f) Small scale interaction bet. Ocean, atmos. and land in WP (g) Linkage among Tropical Pacific, Indian Ocean, Philippine Sea, and Japan (h) Outreach activities (“New Year School”)
  24. 24. エルニーニョ後のインド洋広域昇温・  フィリピン海昇温・日本冷夏(北半球夏季)  Indian Ocean warming, Philippine Sea warming and anomalous  cold summer in Japan in the El Nino termina;on years Strong El Nino: Clear rela;onship   過去の研究で指摘されたエルニーニョと  北インド洋・フィリピン海昇温のパターンと類似  (昇温:+0.6以上)  [El, IO warming, Gill, PS high&warming]  Weak El Nino: Weak and different behaivors   北インド洋・フィリピン海で昇温はしているが、値は     strong El Ninoと比較して小さい(+0.3℃以下) Strong El Nino – weak El Nino   北インド洋・フィリピン海昇温のパターンが強調   (差:0.3℃以上) Sea surface temperature composite maps
  25. 25. Others  (as a co‐author) # Annual Rossby wave in EQ‐Pacific   (Ando and Hasegawa 2010)  # Indian Ocean upper ocean heat variability   (Konda et al. 2010)  # Intraseasonal Inidian Ocean mixed layer temperature   (Horii et al.: on‐going)  # MJO and mixed layer change in the Indian Ocean   (Seiki et al. : on‐going)  # El Nino events reproduced in various global warming   (Yasuda et al.: on‐going)   # Heat flux variability in the mid‐la;tudes   (Nagano et al.: on‐going)
  26. 26. 海洋・大気の格子化データ  全てに  TRITON/TAO ブイデータや船舶観測データ  が使われています!  (世界各国の天気予報にも使用)  TRITON/TAO buoy array data and ship‐observa;onal  data are used in the all of oceanic and atmospheric   gridded data,  as well as weather forecast   opra;ons in the world 
  27. 27. (2) My Study Past and on-going studies: (a) El Nino cycle mechanism (b) 10 yr (QD- scale) variability in the Pacific Ocean (c) Multi-decadal air-sea interaction in mid-North Pacific (d) Upwelling in Bismarck Sea and El Nino (e) Small scale interaction bet. Ocean, atmos. and land in WP (f) Linkage among Tropical Pacific, Indian Ocean, Philippine Sea, and Japan (g) Outreach activities (“New Year School”)
  28. 28. 第III期におけるスクール概要 (第10回NYS 2012年1月大阪大学) 1:通常レクチャー   各分野(固体地球マクロ・ミクロ、宇宙惑星、    生命圏、環境、大気海洋etc)の最新の動向に関する招待講演(各1時間) 2:Exレクチャー   科学と社会の接点、アウトリーチ、教育、科学メディアなどに関する招待講演(各30分) 3:グループワーク   参加者(+講師)が10名程度のグループに分かれて、テーマ別に議論(約2時間)  4:懇親会   交流、ナイトセッション、ポスター発表
  29. 29. OUTLINE (1) About Me (2) My Study (briefly shown): (3) SPICE-related observation during MR12-03
  30. 30. Warm pool  Eastward shia El Nino  Weakened  Easterly wind ただし、エルニーニョ・ラニーニャ経年振動に関しては1980年代以降に研究が進んだWarm pool variability affects/contribute: *El Nino onset  * Typhoon/Tropical C.  * Anomalous weather/climate in Asia and global  * “Warming of Ocean”  * Interaction between Indian Ocean and Pacific ETC. 熱帯研究の目標:   エルニーニョなどの気候変動機構の理解や変動予測精度の向上を通じて、   持続発展可能な社会の構築に寄与する One of Main Targets: Warm pool variability Air-sea interaction evolution
  31. 31. Numerical model simulated volume transport (0-300m), showing large values of coastal currents (NICU, etc.) near PNG ADCP moorings by France, USA (2012-2014) ADCP moorings by JAMSTEC TRITON buoys maintained in R/V MIRAI MR12-03 cruise _ Papua New Guinea Sea surface temperature long-term average for January, showing “warm water pool” Whole purpose of the CLIVER-SPICE international project: To understand oceanic circulation and coastal currents variability in the tropical and subtropical region of the western South Pacific_ [10^6m^3/s] # The two JAMSTEC-ADCP moorings are included in the CLIVER-SPICE moorings near PNG with cooperation of France and USA SPICE-moorings:  SPICE国際プロジェクトの一環(係留系チーム:日・米・仏) # JAMSTEC-ADCP moorings will observe current velocity, temperature and salinity of New Ireland Coastal Undercurrent (NICU). 「2つの南半球西岸境界流の」の東側であるNICUを観測 Oceanic Observations off PNG in MR12-03 Coastal currents near PNG affect volume and thermal variation of “warm water pool”, which also affects rainfall change in PNG and many countries in the western Pacific region, and also affects onset of El Nino event that induces weather and climate changes in the world. To observe coastal currents near PNG is very important for deeper understanding of oceanic and atmospheric changes near PNG and also at global scale. _ High temperature  strong rainfall Eastward shit of warm water pool  onset of El Nino equatorial and global weather/climate change
  32. 32. # Numerical model simula;on       current velocity (161‐241m average)  JAMSTEC’s   moorings cm/sec cm/sec NICU SICU NGCU NBCU NGCU EUC NICU: New Ireland Coastal Undercurrent SICU: Solomon Islands Coastal Undercurrent NBCU: New Britain Coastal Undercurrent NGCU: New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent EUC: Equatorial Undercurrent PNG沖中層ADCP設置ポイント  Deployment points of the subsurface ADCP moorings of PNG  NICU There are various coastal currents near PNG. They are important for warm water transport to warm pool. # NICU: 暖水プール変動に寄与 NICU is one of the currents that have not been well observed. NICU variability is not well Understood at present. # NICUをターゲット(世界初の本格観測) Mooring period: From August 2012, for roughly 1.5 years
  33. 33. PNG沖中層ADCP係留系(2.6S & 2.8S)デザイン概要  Design for subsurface ADCP moorings off PNG (2.6S & 2.8S)  Sea surface CTD sensor (605-685m depth) Anchor Releaser (double) ~3500 m depth Upward ADCP sensor (600-680m depth) Top float (260-400m depth) with upward ADCP (current velocity) & CTD (temperature and salinity) sensors ~ ~ Current velocity observed by ADCP (50m~650m) NICU Two moorings  for NICU Sea bottom NICU 200m Counter current newly found in MR10-07
  34. 34. アルゴフロート投入 Argo float launching # PNG-Argo-float observes temperature, salinity from roughly 650m to surface. # One Argo float will be launched near ADCP-mooring point during MR12-03 cruise. # Special version for PNG-Argo-Float (hardware is same, but control software is newly made) PNG沖特別仕様(ミッションパラメータ変更・制御ソフト開発) Observation cycle: 1 day Communication via Iridium (Float mission can be changed via email after launching) Parking depth etc. can be changed after lunching Some parameters are changed automatically by the software Argo float launching area Expected area of Argo float drifting Intended cruise track
  35. 35. XCTD/SADCP/MBES/LADCP/CTD 観測  XCTD/SADCP/MBES/LADCP/CTD observa;on along track 
  36. 36. Two subsurface ADCP moorings off New Ireland Island, observing current velocity from 50m to 650m, temperature and salinity at nearly 300m and 650m. (Cooperation with CLIVAR-SPICE mooring project) In addition, Argo floats (temperature and salinity) will be launched near mooring point. Also, along cruise track, temperature and salinity will be observed by CTD and XCTD (0-1000m), and current velocity will be observed by SADCP and LADCP. Bottom topography is explored by MBES for future mooring deployment. These observations will contribute to deeper understanding of mechanism of warm water supply to warm pool through NICU, which can be related to weather and climate changes in PNG and other many countries. Summary for subsurface ADCP and related observations near PNG エルニーニョ発生や異常気象を引き起こす暖水プールの体積・水温・塩分の変動について、 南半球 (NICU)からの寄与を解明
  37. 37. END

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