Chapter 1: Special Education in an Era of Inclusion and Standards<br />By: Emily Takle<br />
Critical Legislature:<br />Public Law 94 – 142 <br />IDEA<br />Section 504<br />ADA<br />NCLB<br />
Public Law 94 - 142<br />“Initially authorized funding to the states to assist in the development, expansion, and improvem...
IDEA<br />Individuals with Disabilities Education Act<br />This law has been reauthorized four times:<br />1983<br />1990<...
Section 504<br />Any student who has a physical or mental impairment that significantly limits one or more major life acti...
Americans with Disabilities Act<br />This law gives civil rights coverage for individuals who are disabled.  <br />Establi...
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)<br />Increases accountability among schools.<br />Standards  testing<br />High-stakes test...
In order to work with students whom have exceptionalities, you need to find what works best for each student and piece it ...
Key Elements in Schools Today:<br />Standard-Based Education<br />Student Accountability<br />Inclusion<br />Response To I...
Standard-Based Education<br />What is taught must be tied to the state-derived content and performance standards.<br />Pur...
Student Accountability<br />NCLB Act and standard-based education emphasize the need for accountability through student ev...
Inclusion<br />Most constant theme in special education.<br />Provides people who have disabilities the opportunity to hav...
Response To Intervention<br />Provides early and effective assistance to children who are having difficulty learning.<br /...
Universal Design for Learning (UDL)<br />It attends to individual needs in a general fashion that does not draw attention ...
Differentiated Instruction<br />Closely related to UDL.<br />“Individualizing instruction” rather than “one-size-fits-all”...
Evidence-Based Practice<br />Teachers are required to use interventions that have evidence that they work with the populat...
Diversity Consideration<br />Diversity is much more than just disability<br />A multitiered system of interventions should...
Works Cited:<br />Polloway, Edward Al, Patton, James R., & Serna, Loretta. (2008). Strategies for teaching learners with s...
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Chapter 1 slideshow

  1. 1. Chapter 1: Special Education in an Era of Inclusion and Standards<br />By: Emily Takle<br />
  2. 2. Critical Legislature:<br />Public Law 94 – 142 <br />IDEA<br />Section 504<br />ADA<br />NCLB<br />
  3. 3. Public Law 94 - 142<br />“Initially authorized funding to the states to assist in the development, expansion, and improvement of special education programs” (Polloway, Patton, & Serna, 2008).<br />Provides an appropriate education to all students who, in many instances, did not receive it in the past.<br />This law also ensures that the rights of all children with disabilities.<br />Now referred to as Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).<br />
  4. 4. IDEA<br />Individuals with Disabilities Education Act<br />This law has been reauthorized four times:<br />1983<br />1990<br />1997<br />2004<br />IDEA 2004 put a major emphasis on access to the general education curriculum for all students identified under the law.<br />
  5. 5. Section 504<br />Any student who has a physical or mental impairment that significantly limits one or more major life activities, can qualify for special services under Section 504.<br />Provides services to students who may not be categorized under IDEA, but need certain accommodations and are entitles to protection under this law.<br />
  6. 6. Americans with Disabilities Act<br />This law gives civil rights coverage for individuals who are disabled. <br />Establishes guidelines for employment, public accommodations, transportation, state and local governmental operations, and telecommunications systems.<br />Protects individuals with disabilities from discrimination.<br />
  7. 7. No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)<br />Increases accountability among schools.<br />Standards testing<br />High-stakes testing<br />Ensures that every child can read by the end of third grade.<br />Highly qualified teachers are a must!<br />Provides great promise for students with special needs.<br />
  8. 8. In order to work with students whom have exceptionalities, you need to find what works best for each student and piece it together, much like a puzzle.<br />
  9. 9. Key Elements in Schools Today:<br />Standard-Based Education<br />Student Accountability<br />Inclusion<br />Response To Intervention<br />Universal Design for Learning<br />Differentiated Instruction<br />Evidence-Based Practices<br />Diversity Consideration<br />
  10. 10. Standard-Based Education<br />What is taught must be tied to the state-derived content and performance standards.<br />Purpose of Standards:<br />“Ensures that all students can demonstrate the knowledge and skills necessary to read, write, compute, problem solve, think critically, apply technology, and communicate across subject areas” (Polloway, Patton, & Serna, 2008).<br />
  11. 11. Student Accountability<br />NCLB Act and standard-based education emphasize the need for accountability through student evaluation by using high-stakes standard-based testing.<br />Most students with disabilities also take the tests.<br />Some types of accommodations can be made.<br />Students with more significant needs will be exempt from taking the regular standard-based tests and are given an alternative assessment.<br />
  12. 12. Inclusion<br />Most constant theme in special education.<br />Provides people who have disabilities the opportunity to have a place in society.<br />Implies a sense of belonging and acceptance.<br />Has to do with how teachers respond to individual differences rather than the specific instructional arrangements.<br />
  13. 13. Response To Intervention<br />Provides early and effective assistance to children who are having difficulty learning.<br />Multi-tiered program<br />Interventions are designed based on the student’s individual needs.<br />
  14. 14. Universal Design for Learning (UDL)<br />It attends to individual needs in a general fashion that does not draw attention to any one individual<br />Uses curriculum and materials that concentrate on the needs of students with special needs and increases usability for everyone.<br />Uses new technologies and electronic resources.<br />Provides a new way of looking at students with disabilities, as well as the students with learning-related differences.<br />
  15. 15. Differentiated Instruction<br />Closely related to UDL.<br />“Individualizing instruction” rather than “one-size-fits-all”<br />Provides students with different “avenues” to acquire knowledge.<br />
  16. 16. Evidence-Based Practice<br />Teachers are required to use interventions that have evidence that they work with the populations with whom they are being used.<br />
  17. 17. Diversity Consideration<br />Diversity is much more than just disability<br />A multitiered system of interventions should be designed to address the needs of a range of learners with diverse needs.<br />Behavioral<br />Cultural<br />Racial-Ethnic<br />Setting (urban, migrant)<br />English Language Learners<br />Economic<br />Sexual Orientation<br />Intellectual/Cognitive<br />Physical/Sensory<br />Teachers must develop a sensitivity to the needs of a diverse group of students.<br />
  18. 18. Works Cited:<br />Polloway, Edward Al, Patton, James R., & Serna, Loretta. (2008). Strategies for teaching learners with special needs. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.<br />

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