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R189 Ito, T. & Goldstein, K. (2015). Tohoku stories: Identifying happy themes of disaster relief Journal of International Society of Life Information Science, 33(1), 70-75.

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R189 Ito, T. & Goldstein, K. (2015). Tohoku stories: Identifying happy themes of disaster relief Journal of International Society of Life Information Science, 33(1), 70-75.

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R189 Ito, T. & Goldstein, K. (2015). Tohoku stories: Identifying happy themes of disaster relief Journal of International Society of Life Information Science, 33(1), 70-75.

  1. 1. 70 JournaJollnlernalional90tJIely01l助 Inlormalion9tJIence(19lI9) ((で吉司 よ Intl.Soc.LifeInfo.Sci. 陥 L33,No.1,March2015 11(~ 11 The391h身僻'PosiumonlifeInlormation9c.卸 '1CD 11押 )'J11 March14-15,2015,TohoUniversi,砂 OmoriMedicalCenter, Tokyo,Japan lLr""".)J TohokuStories:IdentifyingHappyThemesofDisasterRelief TakehikoIT01andKeithGOLDSTEIN2 1mαkoUniversityσbkyo,Japan), Z官leHebrewUniversity0/Jerusalem(Jerusalem,Israel) Abstract:Howhavedifferenttypesofindividualsandorganizationsconducteddisasterreliefand supportactivitiesthatmakepeoplehappyfollowingtheMarch11,2011disasters?Thispaperutilizesa mixedmethodssurveyof1,659respondentsinvolvedincommunitysupportactivitiestouncoverthe typesofactivitiesthatmakepeoplehappy.ThemeswereextractedusingBigML企omsemi-open interviewswithlocalresidents,volunteers,andconcemedindividualsinthedisasterregions.Theresults highlightthetypesofcommunitysupportprojectsthatgeneratepositiveexperiences. Keywords:disasterrelief,information,happiness,narrative,philanthropy,textmining 1.Introduction Thisstudyidentifieshappythemesofdisaster relief following the Great East Japan Earthquake. BeginningMarch11th,2011theregionofNortheast Japan(Tohoku)sufferedachainreaction,tripledisaster: earthquake,tsunami,andradiationleak.Intheaftermath ofthedisaster,920,000volunteersassistedinthefirst yearalone(Yamomoto2013).Thenumberofnon-profit organizationshasmorethandoubledtoover40,000. NumerousCSR(corporatesocialresponsibility)projects and intemational aid organizations assist in these eommu凶tysupportandreconstructionactivities.This researchexaminedtheperceptionsofpeopleinTohoku abouttheseactivities.Weaskedanopenendedquestion: 、Whataretheactivitiesoforganizationsorindividuals thatassistthepeopleinthiscommunity?Weaimedto bothevaluateandleamaboutpeople'sexperienceswith suchactivities.Ourgoalwasnotonlyacademic.Rather, wewishedtoassistorganizationsandpeopleinthe disasterregion:topublicizethegoodthingsthatwere takingplace,toenablethemtofurthertheirwork,andto motivateotherstoengageinfutureendeavors. The Storytelling Project aimed to provide recognitiontothereconstructionsupportactivitiesof groupsandindividuals.Indoingso,wealsoleameda greatdealaboutthemesandsubthemesofdisasterrelief activities.Thethemeswerederiveddeductively,using exploratorystatisticalmethods.Thetheoreticalmodel identifiedprovidestheacademiccommunitywithgreater understanding of how disaster relief activities are s仕uctured.Moreimportantly,itprovidesadminis仕ators ofdisasterreliefwithexamplesofdisastersupport activitiesthatgeneratehappyexperiences,projectsthat canbesupportedandmimicked. TakehikoITO. shimoebi@gmail.com www.ito拙 ehiko.com WakoUniversity,Kanai2160,Machida,Tokyo195・8585,JAPAr呼. 2. Background TheStorytellingProjectwasinitiallydevelopedby GlobalGivingwiththegoalofcreatinga“reputation system for philantmopy",whereby communication between donors,organizations and clients could be facilitated by field based interviews (Maxson and Kuraishi 2012). The initial storytellingprojectwas conducted inKenya andUganda and succeeded in gatheringapproximately58,000stories.Basedonthis experience,MaxsonandKuraishisuggesttechnological innovationsforeconomicalfeedbackcollection.Owing bothtothefeedback企omtheA企icastorytellingproject andtheex回 melytech-savvynatureoftheenvironment, theJapanStorytellingProjectincorporatedanumberof technological innovations. Severaltypesofmediums were used for data collection: self-reported and interview;phonesurvey,computersurvey,andpaper form;localscribe,Japanesescribe,andforeignerscribe. Eachformofdatacollectionhasitsowndeficienciesand advantages.Respondentstendedtoprovideverybrief storiesthatoftenreflectedadesirabilitybias.onthe otherhand,interviews0食enemphasizedcurrentevents. Theuseofself-reportsversusinterview-baseddataisa hotly contested subject (polkinghome 2005). While behaviorists generally rejected introspective data, post-modemiststhrivedonit.Behavioristsclaimedthat empiricaltruthwasbasedonmeasurablephenomenon. Post-modemistscontendedthatthereisnosingulartruth, andhencewhileperspectivesmaycontradictoneanother they are justifiable data. These stories represe凶 individuals' perceptions ofthe truth. They discuss individuals'experiencesasvolunteersandrecipientsof disasterrelie王Thisresearchmoderatesbetweenthisfeud ofsubjectiveand0句ective加 ths,delineatingamixed methodssampling,underthesuppositionthatbyusinga varietyofdatacollectionmethods,wecanarriveata
  2. 2. JournaJollnlernalionaJSociety01lileInlormalionScience(ISlI~リ F三語~ J.Intl.Soc.Li冷 Iゆ• Sci. 陥 'L33,No.1,March2015 11(t:[J.J11 71 The39.助喧rmposiumonlifeInlormalionScience IIC可)'J11 March14-15,2015,TohoUniversi砂OmoriMedicalCenter, おか0,Japan l~主主)J closerapproximationofempiricaltruth. Whenconductingresearchinadisasterregion, thereisanexceptionallevelofsensitivityconcems.In Japanindividualshaveaconceptionofwhatisknownas Giri(responsibilityforreturningafavor).Hence,ifthe respondents were askedtoprovide astoryofhow someonehelpedthem,theywouldbeleftwiththe feelingthattheywereweak,desti旬te,andshouldnow dwellonthefactthattheyowea白vor.Whenconducting research,anthropologistsjustasmedicalpractitionersare boundbythelawofnon-maleficence.Hence,itwas incumbent upon the interviewers to ensure that respondentswouldfeelgoodaboutthestoriesthey shared.Thisdeficiencyintheresearchquestionwas identifiedearlyinapilotstudywithaidworkersand academIcs. It was corrected by avoiding direct questioningofhowothershelpedthemandfocusingon the activities that they are personally orpresently involvedin.Asaresult,theresultsdiscussprimarily happy stories about disaster relief The task of conductinginterviewsinadisasterregionisespecially di伍 cult,sincetheinterviewerneedstogainthe佐ustof thepeople,whooftenfeelthattheresearchisonlybeing doneforthesakeofauniversity,apublication,ora broadcast,andnotnecessarilyto help them. Often scientific studies require structured interviews with standardized questions,but researchers have often recognizedthenecessitytocreateinformalconversations forda旬 collectionσ釘 kes2011).Researchontsunami devastated areas in particular requires using a “questioningroute"bywhichsemI-s仕ucturedinterviews canleadtoathematicanalysis(Fauciet.al2012).This questioningroutefocusedfirstonthepersonalorpresent story,and白enfollowedupbyaskingthemtoidenti命an additionalstoryofcommunitysupportactivitiesthey mayhaveseenorheardabout. This research follows in the tradition ofthe Grounded Theory (Glaser and Strauss 1967). No pre-givenhypotheseswereusedintheresearch.This hypothesisdevelopmentmethoddi能 rs企om回 ditional hypothesistesting,inthatno.givenpresumptionsare made由atexistoutsideofthedata.Anexploratory questioning企ameworkenabledtherespondentstotake partinhypothesisgeneration.Thiswasaccomplishedby usingopen-endedinterviewquestions,suchas‘howare youinvolvedinsupportactivitiesinyourcommunity?" However,the scribe often provided close-ended questions,suchas“howmanypeoplecometo也eCity Hallmeetings?"Inordertofacilitatetherespondents' understandingofthepurposeofthequestioning,白e initial a叩pp戸ro伺ac品h ofte阻n focused 0∞n 姐 e町ve阻nt or org組 i包za侃甜t“io叩nt白ha幻.tthescribei包sv吋iお凶s討叫i託ti血ng忘: a油bo側u凶t t恥h恥e 旬type白s 0ぱf volunteer activities 0ぱf tl刷lIs organization? Why iおst白hi包sfes坑副t“i討val important?" Etc. Following this initial story, the respondent was encouragedtoprovideanadditionalstorythatwasnot relatedtothesameorganization. 3. Purpose Thepurposeofthepresentstudyistoreveal themesofcommunitysupportactivitiesandtouncover specific旬pesofactivitiesthatmakepeoplehappyby analyzingthewordsusedinnarrativescollected企omthe 1apanStorytellingProject. 4. Methods ThedatacollectionbeganinAugust2013.The storieswerecollectedprimarilybymeansofaform, containing12・15questions.Thisformisbasedonthe stoηtelling forms used by GlobalGiving in A企ica (M拡 son2012).Thestorieswerecollectedbyboth bilingualandJapanese-onlyscribes.Bilingualscribes simultaneously仕 組slatedinterviews,reviewingdetails ofthe仕anslationwiththerespondent.Japanese-only scribeslater位anslatedtheirstorieswiththebilingual scribes. Storieswerealsooccasionallyrecordedand relevantsections仕anscribed.Thestorytellinginterviews attemptedtofocusondisasterrelief,buttherespondent wasgivenlibertytoprovideanyinterestingstorythat mightberelevant.Ingeneral,therespondentwassimply askedtotellastoryaboutany勿peofcommunity supportactivity.Thiscanbesomethingtheyhavedone, received,orjustheardabout.Everyonehasastory,and everystoryisimportant. Fortheprese凶 S旬dy,1,659storieswereanalyzed. Themostrelevantquestionforthecurrentresearchis “howdoestllisstorymakeyoufeel?"411respondents answeredthisquestion(24.8%).90ofthemcategorized theirstoryas“happy"(21.9%).58%ofthestoriestook placeinMiyagiPrefecture,10%inFukushima,8%in Iwate,andtheremaining24%invariousprefec旬resin andaroundTohoku.Owingtothelargescaleofsupport from around the co四位y and evac瑚.tion to other prefec伽res,Tohokusupportextendsbeyondjustthe a:ffected areas.τ'he high representation ofMiyagi occurredbecauseithasthehighestpopulationoftsunami a:ffected p飽食cωres,the central role that Sendai, Ishinomaki,andKesennumaplayedascentersforthe research,andthelargenumberoforganizationsthatare doingdisasterreliefactivitiesthere.Respondentswere recruitedbysnowballsampling,aswellasnetworking withlocalnon-profitorganizationsandindividualsinthe disaster region. Emails and letters requesting participationinthestorytellingprojectweresentto29 org姐 izationsaffiliatedwithGlobalGivinginJapanand hundredsofnon-affiliatedNPOs.TheStorytellingTeam (aμ 由escribes)alsogavelec岡 田 andworkshopsat
  3. 3. 72 JournaJofInternationalSocietyoflifeInformationScienceρ'SlIS) rrでま~ 1.Intl.Soc目 L件 Iゆ• Sci 陥 1.33,No.1,Marclz2015 11(c...μ│ The39,幼 砂mposiumonlifeInformationScience 1河 吋 │ March14-15,2015,TohoUnivers砂 OmoriMedicalCenter, おか0,Japan 阻三~J schoolsanduniversities,afterwhichparticipantswere interviewed or completed forms. Most importal1tly, scribes volunteered with numerous different organizations around Tohoku,doingev巴rything企om debrisremovaltochildcare.Participatinginvolunteer activitiesenabledthescribetoearncontactsandtrust withlocal inforrnants.Notonlywasthestoηぺelling projectaboutcollectingdata企ominformants,itwasalso aboutglvmgsomethingbeyondacademicrecognition backtothoseinformantsandcommunities.1nsummary, theStorytellingTeamputalotofmuscleandsweatinto collectingtheseinterviews. ThedatawasanalyzedusingBigML(Dol1aldson andDonaldson2012).BigMLisaclassificationsystem designedforbigdatasets.Thismodelbuildsatree, sirnilar to cluster analysis,whereby the correlations b巴tweenwordsinthestoriescreatedistinctsubsetsthat willminimizethesquarede汀 or(Donaldsonet.al2013) Splitsoccurwhereonewordisconnectedtotwoormore words that provide optimal predicting value. The algorithm improves the model by adjusting the coe伍 cients using a stochastic gradient descent (Carpenter2008),wherebythepredictivevalueofthe modelisrecomputedbasedonthepartialresultsof logistic regressions,but only converges when the maximumlikelihoodofthemodelapproaches1.Further 1. ActMtj担誌 for AduH且 9,5uppロrtbγ 円lE!a門年 ofinLemet 8;SiDrles什omValu '1 te 巴r~ quantitativeanalysiswasperformedbycategorizingthe storiesaccordingtothethemesandsubthemes,then examining the odds ratio of whether words that correlatedwitheachsubthemewereincludedinstories thatmadepeoplefeelhappy. 5. Results Fig.1showsthe1巴sultsofaBigMLanalysisofthe entir巴 dataset.11themesofcommunitysupportwere identified.Eachthemewascategorizedadhocintothree types:1)Stories(for)thatdiscussanactivitythattargets aspecificpopulationor(at)thatfocusonaspecific location;2)Stories(about)thatrelatedirectlytothe disasteror(企om)thatinvolvevolunteerswhocameto help;And3)stories(bymeansof)thatdiscussthe technicalaspectsofprovidingsupport.Furtheranalysis ofacωalstoriesthatrepresenteachcategoryrevealed15 subthemes. Since the exploratory analysis was completedbasedonthewordsineachstory,thereisa certainlevelofoverlapinthemesandsubthemesbutnot intheactualwordsusedtodefineth巴m.Fig.2showsthe themesandsubthemesfortheanalysis.Thesesubthemes are important as they are later used to explore correlationswithhappiness. "Acti',rIUes草t Radl包tio-nCom:ert1li 。l忌苗与ter Fig.1 BigMLanalysisoftheentiredatasetwith11themesandsubthemesofcommunitysupport
  4. 4. JournaJofInlernalional,タ'ocietyofl飾 'nformalionScience(ISU砂 「でま罰} J.Intl.Soc.Lifelnfo.Sci 陥 1.33,No.1,March2015 11(t1..μl The391h身mposiumonlifeInformalionScience Ilr可"J11 March14-15,2015,TohoUnivers砂 OmoriMedicalCenter, あわ玖 Japan 1哩三;;;VJ 73 Mental Health Kokoro(h聞は) Therapists Healthy Drug Psychologist Depression Counselling Healing Suffering treatment suicide trauma For At About From ByMeansOf Corrト Tenト Radiation The Volun- Donat- DisasterI teers ThemesandSubthemesofStoriesaboutCommunitySupportActivities 1211ltin-i.E一戸し. lJ J J J/J;pl Fig.3 OddsRatioofStoriesThatMakePeopleFeelHappyFeaturingEachSubtheme 史 U 円 i に U i fh III-51 口二 Fig.4 OddsRatioofStoriesThatMakePeopleFeelHappyFeaturingEachWord
  5. 5. 74 JournaJ0110,脂'I'nationaJSolJIely01lileInlormationSlJIence(ISLIi.の Fヲ宮市 1.Intl.Soc.L供向(0.Sci. VoL33,No.1,March2015 11(t1.μl The39.助 砂mposiumonlifeInlormationScience II(守))J11 胸 rch14-15,2015,TohoUniversi砂OmoriMedicalCenter, おか0,Japan lle'p:: I)J Subthemesweredevelopedbasedonareadingof thecommonwordsthatwere企equentlyusedinthestory (Table1).Certainwordsthatwereespeciallycommon, suchasvolunteering,associatedwithalmostallofthe subthemesandwereexcluded.Thegoaloftheword analysiswastocreatemutuallyexclusivesubcategories, suchthattheycouldbecompared.Thewordswere chosenbyexaminingthe企equenciesofworduseand codingthemasbinominalvariablesaccordingtothe subthemes. The企'equencyofeachwordwascomputedbased onthetotalstorylistandthestoriesthatmadepeople feelhappy.Next,theoddsratiowascomputedbasedon the企equencyofawordbeingincludedinthehappy storiesdatasetdividedbyits企equencyinthetotaldata set(Fig.3).Theresultsshow血attoolsweremostoften featuredinhappystories.Toolsincludedwords,suchas intemet,radio,newspapers,computers,andmedia.Art wasalsohighlyvaluedinhappystories.Artincluded words,suchaspainting,crafts,music,concerts,and gardening. On the other hand, regulation and collaborationmakepeopletheleasthappy.Regulation includedwords,suchasgovemment,tax,andinsurance. Collaborationincludedwords,suchasinteract,meeting, and integration. Certain subthemes that were not expectedtohavehappyfeaturesdid,suchasevacuation. However,othersubthemesthatwereexpectedtobepart ofhappystorieswerenot,suchassales.Theresults highlighthowalotofhappystoriesinvolvepeoplebeing involvedincommunitysupportactivitiesthatpromote hands-onactivitiesandmedia. Anidenticalana恥iswascompletedonjustthe wordsinordertolookatspeci白cexamplesofhappiness relatedactivities.Thereverseanalysiswasimpossibleto conduct,astherewereavastamountofwordswi仕1no mentionofhappiness.TheresultsinFig.4showthat treatmenthadthehighestproportionofmakingpeople feelhappy.Despitethenegativeimageryassociatedwith mentalhealthinJapan,住ea加 lentdoesmanifestpositive recollections. 6.Discussion The Japan Storytelling Project is part ofan ongoingglobale妊urttoproviderecognition,support, andinformationaboutcommunitysupportactivities.The StorytellingProjectrevealedtheimportanceofhuman 紺 'ength to recovery and the role of volunteer interventions. Happy themes of disaster relief are associatedwithparticipants'activitiesin仕eatmentand 紅t.Continuingresearchonthisdatasetshouldcompare themesofcommunitysupportbetweenJapanandother coun仕ies,extractingexamplesofactivitiesthatcreate happyexperiences.Basedonthesepreliminaryresults, weemphasizeaidworkerstofocusonartisticactivities andempoweringpeoplewithtools,suchascomputers andlanguage. Acknowledgements ThisresearchwasfundedbyGlobalGivingand coordinatedbyIsraAidand耳SP.Wearetha出 向1toProf. KathyMatsuiatSeisenUniversityforherencouraging comments Bibliography Carpenter,B.:Lazysparsestochasticgradientdescent forregularizedmultinomiallogisticregression.Alias-i, Inc.,Tech.Rep,1・20,2008. Donaldson,J., andDonaldson,M.J.:Package'BigML'. TheComprehensiveRArchiveNetwork,2012. Donaldson,J.J.,Ashenfelter,A., Martin,F.,治問oerd,J., Ortega,J.A., Parker,c., & Ara吋0,M.:U.S.Patent Application13/667:542,2012. Fauci,A.J., Bonciani,M.,andGuerra,R.:Qualityoflife, 刊 lnerabilityandresilience:Aqualitativestudyofthe tsunamiimpactontheaffectedpopulationofSriLanka. Annalidell'IstitutoSlψerioredisanita,48(2):177・188, 2012. Glaser,B.,andS回 uss,A.:Thediscovery01grounded theoη'.London:Weiden:tield&Nicolson,1967. Jorm,A.F., Nakane,Y., Christensen,H.,Yoshioka,K., Gri伍 ths,K.M.,姐dWata,Y.:Publicbeliefsabout treatment and outcome of mental disorders: a comparisonofAus仕aliaandJapan.BMCmedicine, 3(1):12,2005. Maxson,M.,andKuraishi,M.:Makinguseofreputation systemsinphilan出ropy.M.HassanandM.Tovey (Edsふ Therepuωtionsociety:Howonlineopinions arereshapingtheofflineworld,MA:TheMITPress, Pp.97-107,2012. Maxson,M.:TheRealbooklorSt01ァevaluation.Global GivingFoundation,2012. Parkes,E.:“Wait! I'm notajoumalist":Conducting qualitative :tieldresearch in post-disastersituation. GraduateJournal01Asia-PacificStudies,7(2):30・45, 2011. Polkinghome,D. E.: Language and meaning: Data collection in qualitative research. Journal 01 CounselingPsychology,52(2):137,2005. Yamamoto,K.:Volunteeractivitiesintimeofdisasterin Japan'shighlyinformation-orientedsociety.Journal01 EarthScienceandEngineering,3:190・202,2013.
  6. 6. JournaJol伽 'lernationaJSociety01lileInlormalionSci訟wce(ISU砂 Fで三~ よ Intl.Soc.L俳 Info.Sci. 陥 L33,No.1,March2015 11(t!..μ11 75 The39.助 身 佃rposiumonlifeInlormationScience II(可3リ 11 March14-15,2015,TohoUniversityOmoriMedicalCenter, Tokyo,Japan llr-ヨJJ 東北の語り:災害救援における幸福のテーマ (TohokuStories:Iden姐fyingHappyThemesofDisasterReliet) いとうたけひこ 1、キース・ゴールドスティン 2 (TakehikoITOandKeithGOLDSTEIN) 1和光大学(日本、東京) Zへプライ大学(イスラエル、エルサレム) 要旨:地震、津波、そして原発事故と 2011年 3月 11日に東日本大震災で被災した人々への災害 支援活動のなかには様々な活動のタイプがある。そのなかでも人々に幸せをもたらす共通の物語 のテーマがあるはずである。本研究では 1659人の調査に基づいて質的・量的分析をおこない、 東北支援のタイプをカテゴリー化した。そして、その中でもコミュニティにたいしてポジティブ な経験をもたらすようなものとネガティブな経験をもたらすような場合とで何に差があるかを 分析し、「地球幸福憲章」との関連について考察する。 キーワード:災害、情報、メディア、ナラティプ、ストーリーテリング、テキストマイニング 問題と目的 2011年 3月 11日の東日本大震災においては様々 な災害支援活動があり、その中で人々に幸せをもた らす物語も多く見られた。それらの活動を紹介する メディアとして、グローパノレギピンクゃと JISPが協力 して実施した「ストーリーテリングプロジェクト」 がある。この中での幸福に関する表現の特徴を解明 することが本研究の目的である。 方法 ストーリーテリングの物語 1,659のうち、 411 人が感情について回答しており、うち 90 人が「幸 せ」と回答していた。これらの回答についてビッグ データの解析ソフト BigMLを用いて分析を行った。 結果と考察 BigMLにより『大人~ w子ども~ wコミュニティセ ンター~ w仮設住宅~ w学校~ w放射線~ w災害~ wボ ランティア~ w インターネット~ w資金集め~ w寄 付』という 11のテーマが抽出され (Fig.l)、それと 関わって[精神保健][訓練][建設][会話][芸術][協 働][外的支援][訪問][避難][国際][圏内][ツール][セー ルス][報告][規則]という 15のサブテーマが示された (Fig.2)。また、サブ、テーマの一つで、ある「精神保 健」を構成する単語の例を Table1に示した。 15のサブテーマと幸福の感覚との関連の深さを 単語の頻度とのオッズ比により比較した (Fig.3)。 伊藤武彦.195・8585 東京都町岡市金井町 2160番地 和光大学現代人間学部心理教育学科. shimoebi@gmail.com www.itotakehiko.com もっとも幸福感と関連の深いサブカテゴリーは [ツール]であり、その単語の例として「インターネ ット JrラジオJr新聞Jrコンビュータ Jrメディ ア」があった。 2番目に幸福感と関連の深いサブカ テゴリーは[芸術]であり「描画Jr工芸Jr音楽Jrコ ンサート Jrガーデニング」などの単語がその例で ある。逆にもっとも幸福感と縁遠いのは[規則]であ り「政府Jr税金Jr保険」などの単語が代表的であ る。 2番目に幸福感と縁遠いのは[協働]であり「交 際Jr会合Jr統合」などの単語が見られた。これら の結果から、メディアに触れることとコミュニティ でのアートなどによる支援活動を体験することが 幸福感と関連の深い活動であることが示唆された。 また、幸福感と関連の高い単語を見ると (Fig.4)、 高い順に「処置・治療Jr描画Jrコンビュータ Jr遊 び場Jr英 語J r話しJr芸術JrヒーリングJ r新 聞Jr仕事Jr教示Jr音楽Jr避難JrガーデンJと いう語が得られた。被災地の活動という困難な中に もかかわらず幸福感と関連の深い表現が少なから ず見られた。 結論 被災地の活動という困難な中にもかかわらず幸 福感と関連の深い表現が少なからず見られた。特に メディアへの接触と、芸術活動などの支援活動と関 わりが幸福感と関連が深いことが示唆された。 (図表、文献は英文に記載)

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