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R103 Ito, T. (2008). Masato Tanaka: A developmental psychologist for social justice. The Journal of Engaged Pedagogy, 7(1), 65-72.

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R103 Ito, T. (2008). Masato Tanaka: A developmental psychologist for social justice. The Journal of Engaged Pedagogy, 7(1), 65-72.

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R103 Ito, T. (2008). Masato Tanaka: A developmental psychologist for social justice. The Journal of Engaged Pedagogy, 7(1), 65-72.

  1. 1. MasatoTanaka - Adevelopmentalpsychologistforsocialjustice- TakehikoIto 8elowSummary:MasatoTanakawasapsychologistfordevelopmentfulfill- ment,empowerm巴nt,peaceandsocialjustice.Hecombinedscience,educational practice,andsociopoliticalmovements.HewasachildduringWWII.Hede- cidedtoachievesocialjusticeanddemocracythroughhisres巴archandsocial movement.Hecreateddevelopmentfulfillmenttheoryinthesyst巴msofindi vidual,group/organizational,andsocio-politicallevels.Hetriedtoimprovehis theorytoapplytoglobalpeaceissues,suchasenvironmentaldestructionand poverty. TanakaMasato 1932BorninTokyo 1954BAinEducationaJPsychologyatKyotoUniversity 1956-70ResearcheratOhmiGakuen 1970-95ProfessorofKyotoUniversity 1996-2∞3ProfessorofRyukokuUniversity 2005Passedaway 1MasatoTanaka'sformationofa“developmentfulfillmenttheory" 1-1Childhoodof民1asatoTanaka MasatowasborntotheTanalくasfamilyinTokyoin1932.Duringfirstseven yearsofhislife,hespenthistimeinMatsumoto,Nagano.Hewasa“physically weak,behaviorallyslow,emotionallyweeper,andsociallylonely."Hewasoften absentfromschool.Inschool,whenhisteacheraskedhimaquestion,hecould notsayaword;hewouldjustweep目 Sotheteachergaveupandskippedhim whenaskingpupilstoreadatextbook.Histhirdgradeteacherrecommendedto 65
  2. 2. hisfamilythathebeassignedtoaspecialeducationc1ass. Justafterthisincident,hisfamilymovedtoTokushimain1941,andhepro- ceededtofourthgradeinanelementaryschoolthere.Hegain巴dhishealthina warmerenvironmentthere.Hegotfriendstoplaywith.Hewentswimmingwith hisfriends.“Attheageelevenasoneofthedevelopmentalturningpointsoflife, everydayaccumulationofsmalladv巴nturesliberatedmyheart,mindandbody." I・2MasatoTanaka'schildhoodandFifteen-Year-War(1931-1945) HischildhoodoverlappedthetimeofwaragainstChina,USandotherallied countri巴s.Atthefinalstageofthewar,hewasmovedtoOkayamaforsecurity purposes(GakudoSokai).Aftertheendofth巴 war,hestudiedthroughworking suchasmakingsalt,cultivatingvegetables,helpingfishermen,anddelivering newspaperseverymorl1lng. In1950,h巴巴nteredKyotoUniversityandmajoredineducationalpsychol- ogy.Heexperiencedadrastictransitionfromwartimemilitarismtopost-war democracy,includingacademicfreedom. I・3MasatoTanakametKazuoItogaatOhmiGakuen1952 KazuoltogawastheestablisherandDirectorofOhmiGakuen,whichwasa residentialwelfareschoolformentallyretardedchildren.Itogawasoneofthe pion邸 内 ofspecialeducationinJapan.Hestressedthathandicappedchildrenare basicallynottheo~リect ofsocialwelfarebutarethesubjectofappropriateeduca- tion.“Theyarenotsocialdisturbance.Theyteachteachersandadultswhatthe realeducationis.Thesloganisnot‘Giveourlightsforthesechildren'but‘Tak巴b~... .... ..",... _............""'." 0 th巴seshiningchildrenasourlights.'" Tanal王aalsocommutedtoam巴dica¥児 formschoolandmetchildrenwithdiseaseordisabilities,failingadjustmentto sociallifeandcommittingcrimes.Inhisnotebook,hewrote“...thesechildren arenothumandeficits,"“everyhumanbeingmustbetreatedashuman,"“巴valu- ationoflabelingsuccessorfailuretoapersoniswrongtodo."Helaterediteda bookwithhisc1assmatesofKyotoUniv.“Universitystudentsatthattime:lives ofpostwartransformationperiod"(2005)andwroteth巴seexperi巴ncesathis collegetime.Althoughinpoverty,theyenjoyedacademicfreedomandstudied fordemocraticreconstructionofJapanthrougheducation. 66
  3. 3. 1-4MasatoTanaka'sresearchfortheBachelor'sdegree(1953・54) Hisgraduationthesisonmother-childhealthwasplannedtoincludetwostud- ies:(1)apsychological,empiricalresearchontherelationshipbetweenthe children'sprenatalconditions(Schwangerschafts-toxikose:mother'sdiseas巴 at pregnancyperiod)andlatermentald巴velopm巴nt,and(2)astudybasedonhis- toricalr巴vi巴wofJapan巴setraditionof“educationfortheunbornbaby(Taikyo)." ThisplanfirstmadehismentorProf.Masakiannoyed.Howeverafterthethesis presentationandexaminationmeetinghadfinished,hewalkedtoTanakaand said:“1doubtedthatyouweretacklingeducationalpsychologyseriouslyornot. 1sinc巴relyapologizemymisunderstanding....Th巴r巴 arealmostnoeducational psychologistswhodosocio-historicalresearch.Studyofhumangrowthneeds bothnaturalsciencestudiesandsocio-historicalstudies.1hop巴 youwillmaster thebothmethodologiesandcompileeducationalfindings."SodidTanaka.This encouragementbecametruelater Hismother-childhealthsurveyresearchwassoonpresentedatacademiccon f巴rences目 Hishistoryresearchwaspublishedin1957.Hewasemployedbythe FacultyofEducationofKyotoUniversityasafull-ResearchandTeachingAssis- tantimmediatelyaftergraduationin1954.However,HemovedtoOhmiGakuen inJ956forpraclicalresearch,employedbyKazuoItoga. 1-5StudyforhandicappedchildrenandstruggleagainstCulturalViolence inthedomainofpsychoIogicalresearch Tanaka'sresearchwasbasedonobservationofbothnormalchiIdrenandhandi- capp巴dchildren.HisdutyinOhmiGakuinwastobuildaneducationalcurricu- lum.Helaterconstructedhisowndevelopm巴ntaltheory.Tanakaseverelymeth- odologicallycriticizedthetraditionalapproachofpsychologicalstudiesfocus- ingoninferiorityofhandicappedchildren.Theresultsofthesestudiescompiled evidenceoftheirmentalinferiorityandsuggesteddifficulty/impossibilityof education.“Thes巴 typologicalresearchesmighthavecontributedtodeprivation ofrighttoeducationaccordingtodegreeofdisability"(Tanaka,1966). Tanaka'sgroupstressed"educationability"ofhandicappedchildrenbasedon developmentalcommona1itytheorybetweennormalandhandicappedchildren. 'Tanakatr~ed tochangetheparadigmoftheresearcher'sviewofthehandicapped 67
  4. 4. peopleasfrombeinginferiorburd巴nsofsocietytocommonhumanbeingswho havetherighttoeducation.Thiswasthefirstphaseinwhichhefacilitatedcul- tureofpeaceandsocialjustice 1-6StruggleagainstStructuralViolenceinthedomainofpeoplewithmen- taldisabilities. Tanakaandhisgrouporganizedanationalres巴archmovementorganization (Zen-sho-ken),ofwhichhewasthefirstrepresentative,forthepurposeofthe improvementofhumanrights,especiallythatof巴ducation.lthasconsistedof researchers,educators,par巴nts,andsoon.Thecentralth巴oryofZ巴n-sho-kenhas been“Developm巴ntFulfillmentTh巴ory"mostlydevelopedbyTanaka. Tanakawrotethreebooksin1973andproposedwhatshouldbeachi巴vedfor promotionoftherightsofhandicappedpeople:thatistotackleandintegrat巴 threesystemsofdevelopment:(1)thesyst巴mofindividual(2)thesystemof group/organization,and(3)thesystemofsociety.Eachsystemhasinnerprin- ciples. 11Tanaka'stencorethoughtsondevelopmentandempowerment In1996,herevealedanotewhichsummarizedhistheoryinto“Tenpoints r巴quiredforthedevelopm巴nt." Nodiscriminationpermitted (1)Tanakacriticizedthosestudieswhichfocus巴donthedifferencebetwe巴nnor- malandhandicappedchildreninafixeddesignas“typologicalresearchfail- ure."Instead,heproposedandpracticeddevelopmentalstudiesofhandicapped childrenbasedondevelopmentalcommonalitiesforfindingtheireducational/ developmentaltask.Tanakastressed“commonalityofdevelopmentalpro- cessofallthechildren." (2)“Handinhand"cooperativeproceedingsagainstforcedindividualisticcom- petltlon Tanaka(1966)pointedoutthecont巴mporaryJapanesesoci巴typrev巴ntsth巴 developmentofinterchangeabilityoftheirabilitythroughcommunication fromthedemandsystemforhumandevelopmentofthementallyretarded HefoughtagainsttheJapaneseeducationalmainstr巴amvaluesystemwhich 68
  5. 5. resultedinpeerhostil巴competitionandpoor"interchangeability"orinterac- tionbetweenstudents.Self-actualizationineachstag巴 ofdevelopmentmust beconsideredmoreimportantthansocial-efficacyandmeritocracy (3)Lessonsfromprogress,retreat,andzigzags Tanakatriedωfindvaluesandmeaningsineveryprocess.Formativeevalu- ationshouldbedonenotonlyfromoutcomes/impactsbutalsoprocesses.He alsoregardedthe“troubled"behaviorasasignofchanceforthefurther dev巴lopment.“Itisimportanttofindthechild'sdevelopmentaldemand throughobservinghisdisturbingbehaviors."H巴 r巴commendedthatthechild's disturbingbehaviorsshouldb巴 takenintoeducationalprocessasthesignto organize“zoneofproximaldev巴lopment"(Vygotsky,1934).Fromthevi巴w- pointofevaluationoftheempoweringproc巴ssofbothindividualandgroup, hisproposaliswhatisnowcalledas"empowermentevaluation"(Fetterman &Wandersman,2005). (4)Buildingcommontreasurebyaccumulationofth巴 scientificandpractical accomplishments Scientificandpracticalfruitmustnotbeprivatizedbyasmallamountof people.Tanakaandhiscolleagllesd巴velopedadevelopmentalhealthdiagno- sissystemtofindandinterv巴neforbabieswithdisabilitybasedonalocal pllblichealthcenter(Otsll-System).Thesyst巴mhasbeenrecommendedto otherlocalgovernments.Inordertodisseminatescientificknowledgeofhll- mandevelopmentandhistheory,Tanakahadpublishedbookswithchildren's photos,slides,moviesandvideotapesforprofessionalsandcommonpeople. (5)Spontaneousquestioninganddeepthinkingbasedoncooperation Tanakawasagoodteachertohisstlldents.Afterhediedin2005(hisdeath newswasreleasedtopubliconemonthlateraccordingtohiswill),hisfonner stlldentsandresearchcolleaguesheldacommemorativ巴 meeting.Theypub- lishedabookin2007andforty-oneofTanaka'sformerstudentsandcol- leagueswrotetheirmemoryofTanaka.ManyofthemrememberTanakaasa passionateresearcherandprofessor,whoenlightenedtheirresearchandof- tenwaysoflife.Theydiscussedandsharedacod巴 ofethicsinhislaboratory (Hattori,2007). (6)Systematic,mllltifacet巴d,andintegratedgenerationofcompetencies 69
  6. 6. Tanaka'sdevelopmentfulfillmenttheoryissystematicinindividual,group/ organizationalandsociallevels.Tanaka'stheoryofindividualdevelopment includesandunifiesphysical,cognitive,emotional,andinterpersonaldomains. Histheoryiscomprehensive.AsPiagettriedtoexplainallareasofthecogni- tivedevelopmentbyhisstructuraltheory,Tanakatriedtoexplainallareasof earlyhumandevelopmentbyhisstructuraltheorybyasetofsimplerules. (7)Seekforstagesinwhichthepowertoliveandworkarecombined Humanpersonalitydevelopmentmustbecombin巴dwiththepowertowork Avoideducationforhightestscoreswithlowtrueachievement.Humancom- petenciesmustbedevelopedinassociationwithd巴巴pandwidepersonal;ly developm巴nt (8)Scientificrecognitionofdevelopmentmustbethebasisofth巴practice Fightagainstsup巴rficialormechanicalviewsofdevelopment.Fightagainst agnosticismandneglectofth巴 lawofdevelopment.Fightagainstthetheory whichregardsfacilitatingdev巴lopmentaccordingtothestageasdiscrimina- tlon. (9)Unifi巴dgraspofth巴threesyst巴ms Thesystemofindividualgrowth,thesystemofgroup/organizationaldev巴1- opment,andsocio-politicalprogressofthesocietymustbecombined.Tanaka said,“…humandevelopmentisnottheprocessofindividual'ssocialization. …Thedemandsystemofindividualsreliesontheirsocialgroupsphenom- enologically…Inthatsense,humandevelopmentmustberecognizedfrom collectivisticpointofview"(Tanaka,1966).Hisviewineducationcorre- spondedtobiopsychosocialcontextapproach(Engel,1977)inmentalhealth “Strugglestocreateanewhumanrightarenecessarytostopther巴actionary tendencybasedonacceptanceofnaturalinequality.Thereexiststherightto development.Onlyinthemovementtofulfilltheirhumanrights,studiesof thementallyretardedasthesubjectofhumanrightscanexist." (10)Therightofdevelopmentfulfillmentasahumanright Therightofdevelopmentfulfillmentcanbeachi巴vedinprocessofconstruct- ingpeacefulanddemocraticsociety.Thefirst,thesecond,andthethirdgen- erationmustbeconsider巴d. 70
  7. 7. 111Conclusion:MasatoTanakaasapsychologistfordevelopmentfulfill- ment,empowerment,peaceandsocialjustice. Tanakacr巴atedaunifiedth巴ory:developmentfulfillmenttheory,whichhas twocomponents.Oneisthestagetheoryofindividualdevelopm巴nt(Araki,2(04). Theothercomponentishistheoryofpsychologyforsocialjusticebasedonthree systems,whichthispaperisconcentratedon.Theideaoffulfillmentofhuman dev巴lopmentcorrespondstothetheoryofviolenceinGaltung'spaperonstruc- turalviol巴nc巴(Galtung,1964).Galtungdefinedviolenceastheartificialproduひ tionofthegapbetweenhumanpotentialdevelopmentandactualdevelopment. In2001,Tanakawroteapaper“Aimingatanappliedpsychologyonwhichto buildpeace,securityoflifeandhumandevelopment,"whichhecomprehen- sivelytackledglobalissuesfromhistheoreticalframework.Thispaperpointed outglobalissuessuchasoverpopulation,lackofresourc巴, environmentalde- struction,andpoverty.Heproposed“..bygraspinghumanhistorywhichhas conquer巴dhumanlackandpovertybycr巴atinghumanvaluethroughproductive labor,appliedpsychologyhasresponsibilitytoexplainandsolvetheproblems byresearch."Thebasicprinciplesar巴(1)nottodisturbtheco-evolutionmecha- nism,(2)toconstructthecircularsyst巴mfocusingontheuseofresourcebas巴d ongenerativepower,and(3)toactualizefulfillmentofpeac巴, security,andhu- mandevelopmentthroughdemocraticautonomy,solidarityandcooperation.He stressedimportanceofUNroleandpeople'ssolidarity Thispapershouldhavebeenapartofhisplannedbook“Premisesofdeveト opmentfulfillmentandchallengesofthestudyofdev巴lopmentin21stCentury," whichwasnotcomplet巴d.Inthemiddleofextensionofhistheorytoglobal lSSU巴s,hediedin2005attheageof73.Hehaspublishedmorethan15books andhundr巴dsofpapersandarticles.Hehassupervisedfourmovies,日vesenes ofslidematerials,andsevent巴envideosonchilddevelopment. References (AvailableinEnglishonly:Asfaras1knowTanakawroteonlyinJapaneseandtherehas notyetbeenanytranslationofTanaka'swork.) Eng巴1,G.L.Th巴needforanewmedicalmodel,Science196,129-136,1977 Fetterman,D.M.&Wandersman,A.(Eds.)(2005).Empowermentevaluation: 71
  8. 8. Principlesinpractice.N巴wYork:TheGuilfordPress Zimmerman,M.A.(2000).Empowermenttheory:Psychological,organizational, andcommunitylevelsofanalysis.InJ.Rappaport&E.Seidman(Eds.),Hand- bookofcommunitypsychology(pp.43-63).NewYork:Plenum. ホ ThispaperwaspresentedatthetenthIntemationalSymposillmontheContriblltions ofPsychologytoPeace:JlIne,20,2007LorInHotel,SoloorganizedbyMlIhammadiya University,SlIrakarta,andGadjarMadaUniversity,Yogyakarta **1amthankfllltoAnnAndersonforh巴rlIseflllcomments0口 Englishexpression. 72

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