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R031 Fujita, Hideo and Ito, Takehiko, (1992). Peace education in Japanese universities.  Peace Education Miniprints No. 36,1-18

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R031 Fujita, Hideo and Ito, Takehiko, (1992). Peace education in Japanese universities.  Peace Education Miniprints No. 36,1-18

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R031 Fujita, Hideo and Ito, Takehiko, (1992). Peace education in Japanese universities.  Peace Education Miniprints No. 36,1-18

  1. 1. PEACEEDUCATIONINJAPANESEUNIVERSITIES HideoFujita TakehikoIto P伺 回 educationisnecessaryforal1universitysωdents,s泊 白 血eyaregoing ωtakeleadingrolesinsociety,也eworldischangingrapidly,組duniveぉity teachershaveasocialresponsibilitynottorepeat血efaultsofJapanese teachersinWorldWar11. Jap組 .esepea田 educationhasbeenprovidedbymanyelemen飽ry釦 d highschoolteachersfromjustafi飽rtheWar.Peaceeducation泊 universities expandedrapidly白.rough血e加 pactoftheSpecialSessionofDisarmament oftheUnitedNationsin1978. 百lispaperisbasedonthreenationalsurveysofpeaceeducation泊 Japaneseuniversities.Thesesurveysshowthatmultidisciplinarylectures釘 B providedinmanyuniversities,血atthecontentsareexp組 dedtoinclude structuralviolence,andthatteachersusediverseteachingmethods.
  2. 2. 3 PEACEEDUCATIONINJAPANESEUNIVERSITIES HideoFujiω(Risshoul凶.versity:PeaceEducation) TakehikoIto(WakoUniversity:Psychology) 百leresearchwぉ conductedbyfourmembe路 oftheResearchCommittee forPeaceEducationoftheJap阻 .eseScientistsAssociation,includingTaka- hikoHori(NagoyaGakuin:Ethics)andMichioSakakibaraσokaiUniver司 sity:Physics). TheNecessityofPeaceEducationinUniversities 百lIsreportisbasedon血eresultoftheResearchCommitteeforPeaceEdu- cationoftheJapaneseScientistsAssociation(JSA).百 eJapaneseScientists Association,foundedin1965,isamultidisciplin創 yorgan包ation.百lisRe- se釘 chCommi伽 ehasconducted由民enationalsurveysonpeaceeducation也 Japaneseuniversitiesandpublishedtwobooks.Thefirsttwosurveyswere repo此巴dbyJSAin1989. AsofMay1,1990,therewere507universitiesinJapan,excludingtwo- yearjuniorcolleges,attendedby2,223,516u国versitystudents(including grad国 .te蜘 dents), 組demploying180~似4 universityteachers.After9years ofcompulsoryeducation,91.1%ofyou血sproceededtoseniorhighschool. 百leratiooftheJapanesestudentswhowentontoauniversitywas24.6%(ω highereducation血cludingjuniorcolleges,36.3%). Weclaim白 紙 peaceedu伺 .tionisn田 essaryforallJapanese∞Uegelevel sωdents,because:(1)血eyarego泊.gtotakeleadingroles泊 society,inclu- dingthefieldsofmanagement,science,andtechnology.Theywillberes幽 ponsibleforcreatingapeacefl叫 world;(2)血.eworldischangingrapidly. Newwaysofthinking釘 erequiredinresponsetonewproblems.Apeace educationshouldbealife-longeducation,includingthehighereducation level;(3)universityteacher百 泊 WorldWarnhadcooperated加 Japan'sag- gressionabroad,eitheractivelyorpassively,佃dsenttheirstudentsto血e battlefields.1tisanimport姐 tsocialresponsibilityforalluniversityteach- erstodaytoconductp回 目 education.
  3. 3. 4 A BriefHistoryofPeaceEducationinJapan Beforeintroducingthesurveysconductedbyourcommittee,letusgivea briefoverviewofJapanesepeaceeducation.BeforeJapan'sdefeatinWorld War11in1945,therewerepea田 educationactivitiesagainstJap祖 国emili- tarism.MostofthemwerecarriedoutbyasmallnumberofChristiansand socialists,whowereseverelyoppressedby血.eImperialgovemment. AfterWorldWar11,peaceeducationwasinitiatedbyelementaryand secondaryschoolteacherswhoreflectedontheirresponsibilityforsupport- ing theJapanesemilitarism.Theirdeterminationnevertocooperateinany h同.rew釘 wasenco町 agedby血eJapaneseTeachersUnion,underthepost- warConstitution(1946),theso-called"PeaceConstitution,"andtheFunda- menta1LawofEducation(1947). TheConstitutionabandonsnotonlytherightofbelligerencybutalso prohibitsmaintainingmilitaryforces.Itdec1ares: "We,血eJap組 問 people,desire戸 aceflぽ all曲neandareゐeply∞nsciousof白ehigh i必alsαmtrollinghumanrelationships,andwehaved蜘 rminedωpre臨 veoursecur抑 制d 凶 S剛 院 国s出 .gin恥 justiceandt1討thofthepeace-lo巾 19peoplesoftheworld.We desireωαx:upy組 honoredplace加 anintenl姐onalsocietys凶吋ngforthepre鑓 :rvationof the戸ace,創tdthebanishmentoftyrannyandslavery,oppression創td泊ωleranceforalltirne fromthee紅白.Werecognize伽 tall戸oplesof恥 worldhave也erighttoliveinpeace,企ee fromfearandwant." Asforwarfare,theConstitutionreno山 田swarinArticle9: "Aspiringsmωrelyto組 intemationalpeacebasedonjusti句 組dOIder,血.eJapanesepeople foreverrenouncewarasasovereignrightof也.enationandthe由民atoruseofforceas m伺 ssofse凶ingu陶 rnationaIdisputes.In0Iderωaω田 lplish血eaIInof白書戸政訓泊gpa・ ragraph,land, sea, andairforces,aswellas0出 町 warpo包n由 l,w温lnev町 bemain姐ined. 百 erightofbelligerencyofthes飽tewillnotbere∞伊国d." TheFundamentalLawofEducationmoreconcre凶 ydeclarestheroleof educationfortheconstructionofapeacefulsociety.Article1defmes血.eaim ofeducationasfollows: "国ucationshall必mat曲efulldevelopmentofpersonaIity,strivingforthere紅 ingofa 戸句,le,soundinmindandbody,whoshalllove凶 thandjustiω,es臨 mindividualvalue,
  4. 4. 5 res戸出ctlaborandhavea白書P鎚 nseofresponsib出世y.飢 dbeimbuedw抽 出e泊dependent sp泌L総 b凶lder富ofape鉛 efl叫 S飽teandsociety." UnderthenewConsti伽 tion組 dtheFundamentalLawofEducation,Ja- panese schoolteachersadopted血.eslogan"NeverLetUsSendPupi1sand Studentsto血.eBa住leFieldsAgain"(amottooftheJapaneseTeachersUnion since1950).However,after1949,pea田 educationwas8uppressedby白e govemment,whichchanged也.epolicyunderpressure食om血.eUnitedState8 Govemment,whichwan凶 Japantobecomeabre政 wateragainstCommun- 18m. In1954,aJapanesefishermanwaskilledbyexposuretoradiationfrom 佃AmericanH-Bombtestin血.eBik恒iIslands.Becauseof曲isaccident, otherfishennen阻 dalotoffishwerecon旬m泊ated.τbeJapanesefeared radioactiverain.Sincethen,血e姐 6・nuclearmovementshavegrownrapid1y, encourag泊gteacherstoteachaboutnuclearissues.Thisaccidentbrought abouttheseconddevelopmentofpeaceeducationafterthew低 TheSpecia1SessionofDisannamentoftheUnitedNationsGeneral Assembly泊 1978(SSDI)hadagreatimpactonthedevelopmentofpeace education泊 Japan.Variousorganizationscollectedtwentymillionsignatures callingfortheeliminationsofnuc1earweaponsandforpeace.Manyloca1 governmentshavedeclaredthemselvesnon-nuc1earcommunities.('官lenum- berofthelocalgovemmentshasrapid1yincreasedye釘 byye釘, anditis nowmore也叩 four蹴 nhun,批d.)百 .eseactivitieshavec∞stitutedthe也ird developmentofJapanese pea田 education.Thispea田 educationexp姐 ded rapidlyininstitutionsofhighereducationandadu1teducation.At血.esame time,血ea加 ofpeaceeducationwasa1s0exp四 dedωcreatepeoplewhonot on1yworktoestablishawor1dwithoutwar,buta1s0awor1dwithouts釘uc- turalviolence. The CharactersofPeaceEducationandUniversity Studentsin Japan Japanesepea田 educationischaracterizedby血eteachingof血estoriesof Japanesewarvictims(inHiroshima,Nagasaki,andbombings泊 m組 ycities, etc.)andassau1texperiencestowardAsianpeoplebytheJapanesemi1itar- ismbetw悶 11931佃 d1945.Ithascontributedtocreateanti-nuclearand 姐 .tiw,釘 sentiments創 nongapartoftheJapanesepeople.Butthemethodhas 以出enon1ytocommunicate, 組dnottomobi1izetheaudience.
  5. 5. 6 PeaceeducationintheJapanese山首versi恥 shasdevelopedrapidlysin田 1979阻 ditcametoincludethecontentsofstructuralviolence.Todaythe peaceeducationprovidesthechanceforteachersandstudentsofallfieldsto freelystudyandbeinterestedinit,butfewofthemhavetaken姐 actionfor 血epeacemovements.Oneof也ereasonsseemstobe泊 白.esystemofJa- paneseschooleducation,especiallyupωhighschool,白紙 istosay,theex・ cessivecompetition佃 dsuppressivestrucωrehavemadeyoungpeoplepas- sive姐 degoistic. FirstSurveyin1986 百lepurposeof白efirstsurveywastogauge由estateofthefieldofpeace educationinJapaneseuniversitiesbymembersandnon-membersoftheJSA. Method τ'hefirstquestionnaireonpeaceeducationduringthe1985academicye釘 wasmai1edtoninety-fouru凶versity飽acherspurpor飽:dlyinvolvedinteach- 泊gpeaceeducationcourses,andtoallof白.eprefecωra1branchesof血e JapanScientistsAssociationσSA).百leacademicye釘 包 Japanbeginsin Apri1and endsinMarchofthenextyear."Universities"in出isstudy加・ c1udesfour-yearcollegesanduniversities,graduateschools,andjuniorcol- leges.Extensionprogramsforthegenera1publicbysuchinstitutions釘 ea1s0 inc1uded.官leword"pea白 "didnotnecessari1yhavetobeincludedinthe titlesofthecourses.Peaceeducationasonecomponentofawholecourse wasa1soincluded."Peace"hereincludednotonlyissuesofwaranddis- armamentbutalsoissuesofhumanrights,poverty,starvation,etc.Please note白紙 thesecぉesa隠 notcomple低lylis飽dbecauseofcertainliJ凶tations IJlthemethodofours町 vey. ResultsandDisc,凶 'swn TypesofPeaceEducation 百lefirstsurveyfound67coursesonpeaceeducationofferedat43univer- sities泊 曲.eanswersof57teachers.官le旬pesofpeaceeducationwereana・ lyzedinthecategoriesshowninTable1.
  6. 6. 7 Fiel也 ofP伺 印 E ducation AsshowninTable1,ofthe67coursesmentionedabove,46fall凶 o血e ca飽goriesofsingle-teacher1田 turesandsem泊ars(categoryA&B).官lese 46coursesfur血.erbreakdown泊tothefieldsofpeacestudies(4),law(3), po刷 cs(10),sociology(3),economics(4),philosophy/e位rics(4),psychology (1), education(7),physics(3),medicalscience(3),組dothernatural sciences(4). InJapan,thereareonlytwouniversities,HiroshimaUniversityand ShikokuGakuinUniversity,wherecoursestitled"peacestudy"areoffered. ShikokuGakuinUniversityintroducedacoursecurriculumtitledInter- nationalPeaceStudiesCoursein1988.官lisis出.efirstcourseofferedin Japanforabachelor'sdegreemajoringinpeacestudies.Thelargenumber ofclassesinpoliticalsciencemightbeareflectionofthefact白紙 thelargest s泊gleportion(40%)of白emembershipof血ePeaceStudiesAssociationof Japaniscomposedofpoliti,伺1scientists. The血 1ofrnostoftheactivitieswasdisannamenteducation,especially nucleardisarrnament.Educationforhurnanrightsisconductedinlaw coursesandinca総 goryC.Therewerefewcasesofenvironrnenta1education fromthepo泊tofviewofpeaceeducation.Of血e17interdisciplinarylec- ωres(categoryC), mostwereprovidedasgeneraleducationwi白 白.eex- 回 :ptionofKobeUniversity,where血e∞ursewasgivenasacourseofstudy forteacheredu伺 tion.官le"PeaceEducation"co町 seatKobeUniversityis 組 exceptioninadifferentsense,sincetheteachersbelong.to出.es創ne discip泊施(i.e.education,educationalscience).百lefirstinterdisciplinary coursewasopenedinHiroshimaUniversityin1977,andanothertwelve universitiesalsobegan血.eircoursesd町泊.g1982・1984.Somelecturerscome fromdifferentdepartmentsanduniversities,andsorneareHib紘 ushas(A- bombsurvivors)orhighschoolteachers.百leseinterdisciplinaryco町 seson pea回 educationopenedupanewpossibilityforthedevelopmentofUI吋ver- sityeducationinJapan. ItishistoricallY加 .po此 佃I白紙 coursesonpeaceanddisarmamentedu- cation(泊曲.ebroaderse臨時 wereestablishednationwideωregul釘 co町 ses: notbypressurefromthegovernment,butbyvoluntary,cooperativeefforts. Fu泊施rrealizationofcollectivecooperationamong血eentirefa四 ltywith different血oughts佃 dbeliefscancreateanewwaveofuniversitydevelop- ment泊 termsof血eautonomousorgm:語zationofeducation.In白isreg:訂 d,it is佃 ticipated白紙 morecourseswillbeintroducedanddeveloped, notonly
  7. 7. 8 quantitatively,buta1s0 withvariousqua1i飽livedevelopmentsin血.efonnof interdisciplinarycooperationforthepromotionofpeaceeducation.官lede- velopmeotofoewwaysofintegratiogresearch佃 deducatioo00peal田 issues isaproblemsti1lωbesolvedbyJapaneseuniversity飽ache路 . Exteosioolectures(CategoryE)wereprovidedinsixuniversitiesfor 血egeoeralpublicdu出191983・85.Its関 msiroDictous,asu凶versity飽ach- ers,也atcitizensenrolledinthesecoursesexhibitedmo陀 enthusiasmand motivatiootoward血.esubj即 t白血 theregu1arundergraduates卸 dents. 百leoumberofpeaceeducatioocoursesseemstohaveincreasedevery year.In1978佃 d1983m阻 ycou凶 eswereoewlyprovided,followingthe SSDIandSSDIIm白血19SoftheUni飽dNa姐oos. SecondSurveyin1988 Thereweretwoaimsinthesecoodsurvey.官lefrrstwastoconfinnthe stabilityandoogoingdevelopmeotofpeaceedu伺.tiooinJap紐 eseuniversities bylookingatquaoti凶 ivechangesintheoumberofcoursesprovided00 pea田 educatioo泊 出etwoye釘 s.百lesecoodpwposewasaqua1itative佃 a- lysisofcooteot,teachingme出ods佃 dcourseeval回 .tioo. Method Thesecoodquestionnaire00p回 目 educatiooduringthe1987academicyear wascooductedusingthesameprocedureas血atofthefirstsurvey.τ'be questionnairewasmailedto167universityteachers,includ泊g57teachers whohadrespoodedto也efirstooe,andtotheprefecωra1branchesof血E JSA.官ledefmitiooofpeaceeducatioohere,asin也eprevioussurvey,in- cludedootonlyeducatioo00theissuesofw釘 釦dpea田 butalsoeducatioo coocen血 gthesuppressiooofhumanrights,poverty姐 dstarvatioo.Italso inc1udedlecturesandseminarswhosetit1esdidootcootaintheword"peace". Peaceeduc副 00asooecompooeotofawholeco町 田 Wぉ alsoincluded. τ'bequestionnairefocused00thecooteotandmethodsofpeaceedu- catioo.
  8. 8. 9 ResultsandDiscussion Qu佃titativeIncreaseinPea田 EducationCourses Thetotalnumberof戸a田 education∞ursesofferedreached133-twi,偲 as manyasinthefirsts町 vey.Table2shows104∞ 町 民sin血eonsety'伺 r.In 1986,出.eIntemationalYearofPeace,14newcourseswereopened.There alsowasabigincreasein血enumberofnewclasses(11)泊 thefollowing year,1987.Table2reveals血atonethirdofthe1987coursesbeganbefore 1979,ano血.erone出 rdduring1980・84,andtheremainingclassesbegan after1984.Thenumberofpeaceeducationcoursesoffered泊 四iversities todayis伽'cetimesasmanyasin血elate1970s, 卸dseventimesasm組,yas 泊 1974. ltisworthpo泊ting0脱 出attheinterdisciplinarylecturestylecourses haveconstantlygrowninrecentyears.官 legrow白 of白iskindofcourse, suppor飽dby白e加 tonomyofu凶versityfac叫.ty,isabarometerof血ein- creaseofteachers'cooperationandconceminuniversityeducation也 general,aswellas飽achers'COD田 m withissuesofsocialresponsibility,edu- ca白19youngpeopletobeawareofpea田 is皿 esinpartic叫 低 Inadditiontoatota1quantitativeincrease,therehasalsobeen阻 in- crease泊 variety泊 termsoffiel也 anddisciplinesof血ecourses.Courses泊 history,geography,literature,foreign1anguages,andpsych010gywere foundforthefirstt泊 施 泊 thesecondsurvey. ContentofP, 伺 印 刷ucation Ofthe出irty-twotopicsmenti佃 .edin血equestionna泊,血emostpopular oneswere"nucle釘 weapons/nuclearstrategy","Hiroshima&Nagasaki"卸 d "釘msrace/militaryexpenses."百leleastpopularoneswere"population," "literature/arts,"and"Ap紅白eid."百usrankingreflects血.epresenttrendof peaceeducationinJap姐 .Ithasbeenpoin飽dout白atJapane鈎 pea田 edu- cationisheavilyorientedtofactsconcemingJapanesepeople'scasualties duringWorldWarII,suchas白esufferingofA-bombvictimsinHiroshima 組 dNagasaki,andneedstopayproperattentionto也esufferingsofother AsianpeopleduringtheJapaneseinv制 onandoccupation.on也ispoint, m祖 yof血euniversityteachersseemtoshowagoodsenseofbalan回 by emphasizingJapaneseassaultsonAsiancitizens(34%).
  9. 9. 10 Ano由erweak.pointinJapanesep闘 関 education,accordingtoY細 ada (1988),istherelativelackofteachingaboutstructura1violencebyde- velopedcountriesonAALA∞四国es(Asia,A制 ca,La血Ameri回 ) 血d unders回 dingoftheculturesandp伺 'plesofthe也irdworld.Forexample, Ito(1988)indicated白紙 Japaneseuniversitys旬dents・g回 Igraphi伺 1knowl- edgeoftheworldwassobiasedandinfluencedbypolitica1factorsand eoucationa1policy白 紙 血eycouldnotdrawpropermapsofA剖 叫 Latin Americaorneighbo巾 .gcoun凶.es泊 EastAsia,but血eycoulddrawde簡 単d mapsofWestemEuropeandtheU副総:dS飽,tes.Theresultsofthepre鴎 :nt S旬 dysuggestuniversityteachers'∞n田 m with血.eproblemsof白 幽d world,despite血.estill-prevailingstudentignoranceof血isproblem.Peace educationisnotidentica1todisannamenteducation.τberesultsalsosuggest 也en関 dtopaymoreat低ntionto低achingissuesrelevantto"structura1viol- ence"and"positivepeace,'・ suchasAp紅白.eidandtheproblemsof白ede- velopingcoun釘ies. MethodsofPea田 Education τbepracti回 ofpea回 education泊 elemen凶 y姐 d関 側1也ryschools姐 din adulteducationhasrep伺 旬dly∞nfrrmed血atnotonlyleaming企'om血e 旬acherbuta1sos伽dents・activeparticipation,suchas11伺 m泊Igcollectively, 泊V儲 tiga血Igbythemselves, 阻dexpressing也emselves泊 educationa1acti- vities,arecruciallyimpo司 姐t.In血.epresentstudy,fourt関 :nitemson methodsofpea田 educationwereselec飴dωeva1uate血eextentofstudents' activeparticipationandstudent-te卸 :herinteraction泊 theclasses.Audio- visua1mediaarewidelyused;VTRtapes,slides,andmoviesareutilizedin more白 血 halfoftheclasses.Japanisoneofthecoun'住ieswhichhas produceda1argeamountofaudio-visua1educationa1materialsuseful姐 d availableforpea田 education.官leaudio-visua1me血odisimport佃 tω ∞In- vey血ewarexperien田 toyoungpeople.Writingandreadingarea1so ∞mmonactivitiesinuniversityeduω.tion. More血 組 halfofthe飽acherssolicitstudents'opinions佃 dtest由 自 knowledge.Semin釘 stylecourseshavehigherra陶 ofutilizing組 active approachinteaching白 血 single-t伺 cherlectureco町 sesandinterdisci- plinarylec旬 recourses.τbeseres'叫tssu鰐 :est血.eimportan田 oflimiting白e enro11mentofstudentsinasingleclassonpeaωeducation, 邸 wellasfor o血ereducationa1purposes.τberewere11lec伽reswhichappliednoneof 血e14items,demonstrating白 紙 血.etraditiona1one-waylecturestyles副1
  10. 10. 11 existsinJapanesepea回 edu伺 tion. Eva1uationofPeaceEducation 官leteacherswereaskedtoratetheir泊lp民 ssio田 ofhowtheotherseva1uate theirco町 ses.官lequestionsarethesameasthoseusedinOkamoto's(1987) survey.官lepeac怠 educationteachersgenera11yhavepositiveimpressionsof how血.eirco町 ses釘 eperl田 ivedbytheirstudentsandcolleagues. ThirdSurveyin1991・92 Method 百lefirstsurveywasconductedforpeacestudiescoursestaught泊 1985-86, 佃 dthesecondsurveyforp伺 cestudiescoursesin1987・88.Asshown泊 Table1,therewasaremarkableincreaseinthenumberofcourses.The purposeofthethirdsurveywastofollowthedevelopmentofpeacestudies, focusingon~回m・飽ught COUI百es.Mostofthemareinterdisciplinaryco町 ses. 官lequestionnairewassentto36UIliversities泊 November1991.InJUIle, 1991血e M包1s釘yofEducationrevised血eUniversityEstablishmentStan- 白rds,outliningtheofficialrequirementsfortheinal!gurationofacollege, 叩 dderegulatedthoserules由atcontrolled白euniversitycurriculum.Asa res叫t,血.edistinctionbetweengenera1educationandspecializedcourseswas abolished.Wethoughtthat血ederegulationmightfacilitatethedeconstruc- tionofgenera1education.Asmostofthete創 n-taughtpeacestudiescourses inthesecondsurveybelongedtotheareaofgenera1education,wefeared 白 紙 出eMinistryOrdinanceforderegulationmightmakeitdifficultto continuethepeacestudiescourses. 百lequestionnair壱 itemssoughttogauge血.econ出 uityanddevelopment ofthecoursessince1987-88;血e初回同tiona1struc組問 ofgenera1education ineachuniversity;decisions,plans,predictions,orfearsconcemingthe structuralchangeofgeneraleducationcausedbythederegulation;the change,predictionorappreciationofthepeacestudiesco町 se(s)categorized asagenera1educationsubject;andpredictions,misgivmgs,orviewson pea偲 studiesingenera1.
  11. 11. 12 Results 31'Out'Of36universitiesrepliedt'O'Ourquesti'Oona国 .Of31universities,26 (83.9%)c'Ontinuedpeacestudiesc'Ourses,f'O町(12.9%)hadst'Oppedpr'O- vidingc'Ourses,and'Oneuniversity(3.2%)wasg'Oingt'Oc'Ontinueaftera re田 ss.Many'Ofthecon由 u'Ous∞lurseSwerema函館ined血r'Ough血eeff'Orts 'Ofasing1ec'O'Ordinat'Or'Oragr'Oup'Of飽achers.Table3is血es阻 四 町 ' Ofthe titles佃 duniversitieswhichpr'Ovideteam-taughtpeacestudiesc'Ourse(s). Asf'Orthec'Ontent'Ofthec'Ourses,therewereseveralresp'Onseswhich stressed白紙 envir'Onmentalissuesweret'Obeincluded泊 thepeacestudies c'Ourses.Theinitialeffects'Ofg'Overnmentalderegulati'Onwe民 m祖 国al.官le resp'Onsessuggestn'Ot'Only血edifficulty'Ofc'Ontinuing出epeacestudies c'Ourses泊 thed'Omain'Ofgeneraleducati'On,butals'Othed正日culty'Ofsus- taining佃 dfurtherdevel'Opingpeacestudiesc'Oursesinb'Othgeneraledu- cati'Onandspecializededucati'On. S'OphiaUniversityst'Oppeditsgeneraleducati'Onc'Ourse'Onpeace姐 d 'Openedan泊位oduct'Oryc'Ourse'Onpeal回 studiesinthespecializedcurriculum area.RitsumeikanU凶versityestablishedapea田 museum,whichfuncti'Onsas anew田 nter'Ofpeaceeducati'On. GeneralDiscussion DevelopmentofPeaceEducationinJapaneseUniversities Acc'Ordingt'O'Ourdata,therehasbeenaqualiぬtivegr'Ow也'Ofpeaceedu- cati'On泊 Japaneseuniversities.While'Oursurveyshadcertainlimitati'Onsin theirmeth'Od'Ofsampling,Okam'Ot'O(1987)didageneralsurvey'Ofallthe universitiesandc'OllegesinJapanatalm'Ostthesametimeas'Ourfirstsurvey. Okam'Ot'Of'Ound113classes泊 86instituti'Onswhereissues'Ofpea白 血dwar weretaughtins'Omef'Orm.Thedifferenceinthenumber'Ofc'Oursesisdue partlyt'O differentsampl泊gmeth'Odsandpartlyt'O differentdefmiti'Ons. Okam'Ot'O'sdefmiti'On'Ofpeaceeducati'Onwaswiderth組'Ours,includingn'Ot 'Onlyw紅 andmilitaryissuesandissues'Ofs官 邸 側ralvi'Olence,butals'Oissues 'Ofaltemativelifestyles,phil'Os'Ophical-religi'Oustrea回 .ent'Ofpeace,andpeace educati'Onasalearningpr'Ocess.Furtherm'Ore,sincehisdatawerebased'On resp'Onsesres住ictedt'O'Only25%'Of血et'O凶 number'Ofuniversities,wecan assumetheI'earem'Oreundisc'Overedc'Ourseswhichteachpeace-related
  12. 12. 13 issues.伽 .eof血.edifficultiesofthesurveymethodis也.eteacher'shesitation forvariousreasonsinlabelinghisorhercourse(s)as"peaceeducation." Moreteachershavebecomeawareoftheskewingofthestructureof students'knowledge白紙 wasformedduringtheirprimaryandsecondary educationunderthegovemmen飽1censorshipoftextbooks組 dcontrolof teachersbythelocaleducationalcommittees.官lecompetitivera回 forthe en釘 加.ceexaminationsalsoinf1uencesnotonlystudents's甘uc知 reofknowl- edgebutalsotheirpersonalitydevelopment.TheadoptionbytheLiberal DemocraticPartygovemmentandthebusinessestablishmentofeducational policiesorientedtotheprioritiesofe∞nomicdevelopmenthasdistorted youngpeoples'consciousnessofsocialjusti白 血d出 血 senseofbelongingto awiderworldcommm姐ty, 叩dimpai陀 d血eirabilityto由討kcritically.As fortheissuesofWorldW釘 II,Japanesepeaceeducationsometimesfocused onlyonthemiserysufferedbytheJapanese,andhastendedtofailto鈎keup factsoftheresistancewi血inJapantomili飽rismbefore佃 ddm台湾出ew飢 andthefactsofAsiancasualtiescausedby白.eJapanesehnperialArmy血 d Navy.官leissueofthew釘 responsib出tyofShowaEmperorHirohitoalso needstobediscussedmoreopenlyandwidely. τbes町 veysrevealed血atu凶versityteachershaddevelopededucational methodsforenhancingstudeots'motivatiooaswellasforimproving血.eir knowledgerela出 gtopea田 .Forexample,aseminaronsociologyatHitotsu- bashiUoiversityhadstudentsinvestigateHibakushasthroughinterviews.S旬- dentsinasemioaronadulteducationatRisshoUniversitycontinuously soughtexamplesoflocalpracticesofadulteducationandwro飴 reports00 anddiscussedthema加 ials血eydiscovered. Thereareseveraluniversities白紙 offersystematicpeaceeducatioo. HiroshimaUniversity,locatedatthesiteoftheA-bombdisasterin1945,has aloogtraditionofpeaceeducation,provid泊.gseveralcoursesonpeacestu- dies.Theuniversityhaspublisheditsowntextbookforuseinits祖住0・ ductory/interdisciplinarycourse.RyukyuU凶versity,located00血eOk泊a- W姐 islandwheremanyJap;祖 国ecivilianswerekilledorcommi陶 dsuicide toavoidcap旬 redmingtheAmericaninvasioo,publishedareport00their pea叩 education.ManyJapanesecivilianswerealsokilleddmingthe加vasion ofOkinawa.SomewerekillednotbytheinvadingAmericanforcesbutby 也.e"defeoding"Japaneseforces.官lishistory,coupledwiththemeaningless suicidesofmanyotherciviliansandthelongpostwarOCcup柑 ooofOk泊a- wa,hasleftdeepsc釘 sonOkinawans,leodingaspecialurgeocytopeace issuesthere.
  13. 13. 14 Theteachers'cooperationisnotonlydirectedtoeducationon血ecampus but山 otosoli也ritywi血 血ep岡 田 movementbeyondthec佃 lpUS.Shikoku G誌 uinUniversityopeneda山首quecoursecurricu1umnamed也.eIntema- tionalPeaceStudiesCourseintheDepartmentofSociologyin1988.An extensioncourseofferedbyHoseiUniversityforthegeneralpublic,called 血.eHoseiPeaceUnive路 ity(Oga旬, 1987)is組 0也.eruniquepea田 education course.Itisnotanofficialcourseoftheu凶.versitybutisrunbyvolunt民 間 . Itsmethodofteachingeachclass,usuallyconsistingofacombinationof lectureandaudio-visualma飽rial,suchasmovies,isalsouniqueinJap却 . ProblemsofTeachers PeaceeducationisstilllargelyanewfieldformostJapaneseuniversity teachers,because血巴陀 areveryfewhighereducationinstitutions出atpro- videdegreesorgraduateleveleducationaltraininginthefield.Peace educationusuallyrequiresknowledgebeyondthe飽achers'partic叫釘 aca- demicdiscipline.Notafewteachersstillhesitatetoprovideap岡 田 edu- cationcourseforthisぉason.AlthoughJapanhasoneof也.el:釘gestorg祖国・ tionsforpeacestudies,manyteacherstakepeaceissuesasanon-academic topicunrelatedtotheirprofessionasateacherandresearcher. Oneof血econsequencesof出isstateofaffairsis血.erelativelysmall numberofpeaceeducationco町 sesoffered泊 ateacher'sowndiscipline,泊 con釘asttotheflourishingofinterdisciplinarycourses.Ourresponsibility泊 peaceeducationmustbebothsocialandprofessionalintermsofour speciality. Wewouldliketopointoutamoregeneralproblem:someuniversity teachershavelowmotivationinteachingstudents.官uscanbeexplained partlybythe加 ageofstudentshavinglowmotivationinle創世ngandstu- dying.Ano血erfactoristhedrasticchangeinhighereducationinthelast fewdecades,fromprovidingacademic/professionaleducationalinstitutions for血eelite,toprovidingpop叫areducationalinstitutionsintowhichne紅 ly 40%ofallhighschoolgraduatesnowenter.However,someuniversity teachershavenotbeensuccessful泊 adap血g由emselvestothischange泊 血e socialfunctionoftheuniversityand泊sistonmaintainingtheirtraditional educationalmethodsandstan白.rds.
  14. 14. 15 Problems01Students Collegestudents'peaceactivitiesarenotveryconspicuousinJapanatpre- sent,a1thoughtherewereflourishingstudentmovementsin血e1960sand 1970s.Peaceeducationme組 snoton1ygivinginformation,buta1somobi- lizingpublicopiniononpea回 issuesσ'ina1DocumentofSSD1andFina1 ReportofWorldConferenceonDisarmamentEducationofUnitedNation sponsoredbyUNESCO,1980).Accordingtothesereports,universityteach- ers,aswellaselementaryandsecondaryteachers,areencouragedtopro- videeducationforpeaceinadditiontoeduc副 onaboutpeal田 . τ'herearetwowaysωsolve血isproblem.Oneisthroughimprovement ofeducationa1methods;forexample,byorganizingdiscussionsintheclass onhowtorealizeworldpeaceandbyhavingstudentsparticipateinvarious kindsofpeaceactivities.百lismethodrequiressma11groupstudysessions after1argergroupgatherings. Theotherisreformofthestruc加reofJapaneseschooleducation,espec- ially出.een位 四ceexaminationsys飽m foruniversities.Heavycompetition dominatesJapaneseschoolsfromprimarytohighschool.Manystudentsdo notreco伊 izetheproblemsofminoritiesinJapanandthroughouttheworld. 百le鈎 studentshavelittlesenseofsolidaritywi血 也elessprivileged,andlack 血ecourageandinsighttoactforjusti田 andpeace.百leheavilycompetitive structurecomesfromtheeducationa1policyoftheconservativeJapanese government.However,we血ink白紙 thisstructurecanbeimprovedby changingthemethodoftheUI山 ersityentranceexaminations.Thereforeitis 血e飽skofallunive路 ityteachersdesiringworldpea印 tomakeeffortsto reform血eschools住 邸 側reandimprove血emethodoftheen釘anceexa- mination. Amoredetailedreportisavailablefrom:JapaneseScientistsAssociation, 1-9・16Yushinla,Bunkyo・ku,Tokyo,113,Japan.
  15. 15. 16 References Fujita,H.&Hori,T.Areportofthesurveyofpea∞education泊 Japanese universities.PeaceStudies,1987,12,106・113.(InJapanesewithEnglish summary.) Hori,T.&Ito,T.Aninterirnreportof血.esecondsurveyofpeaceeducation 泊 Japaneseuniversities.Journal01JapaneseScientists,1988,18(8), 11-17. Ito,T.Mentalmapof血eworldinJapaneseuniversitystudents.Proceedings ofthe29thAnnualConference01JapaneseAssociationofSocial PのIchology,1988,48-49.(InJapanese.) JSA(百leResearchCommitteeforPeaceandDisarmamentEducation.) Peaceeducationinuniversities:・Thepresentstateandorientationinthe survey.Tokyo:JSA,1986.72pages.(InJap佃 ese.) Ogata,K.百lefruitsofHoseiPeaceUniversity.PeaceStudies,1987,12, 131・141.(InJapanesewi血 Englishsununary.) Okamoto,M.Peacestudiesincollegesanduniversities泊 Japan:Ageneral survey.PeaceStudies,1987,12,113・130.(InJapanesewithEnglish S凹 unary.) Taga,H.Methodsofteachingpeacestudiesinauniversity:Simulation, questionnairesurvey,andeducationaltour.PeaceStudies,1987,12.(In Japanesewi血 Englishsunun釘 y.) Y位 nada,H.Pea,田 education血 universi“esinJapan.PeaceStudies,1987,12, 90・99.(InJapanesewithEnglishsununary.)
  16. 16. 17 Table1Numberofcoursesbyfivecategories 2ndSurvey A:民溺onalLectures B:PersonalSem泊 踊 C:JnteIdisciplin町Lec細胞S D:AidsωS伽dents'Volun飽erStudy E:ExtensionLectures 73 20 35 2 3(4) 1stSurvey 4 2 7 0 4 司‘ d ' E 且 --A Styleof包aching 13367Total Table2Numberofcou路 esaccordingto血.eonsetyear befOI軍&7475 7677787980818283848586 87 To凶 A:PersonalLectures B:PersonalSem泊 間 C:Jn臨disciplinaryLectures n u z J nツ k u ' A弓, a ζ u n u , 3 凸 ツ 唱 且 aaT au今, a'且 q d n U 4 0 内, a'且 勾 3 今 & n v a - 司 3 ・i '且 au--‘ n u 今 & 勾3 咽 且 今 & n u n u - 且 内 ,e ・ 且 。3 ・i '且 今 'a 弓, a '且 唱・・・ α鴎 tye紅 6 11 9 14 11 1046576324515To凶 Table3SummaryofSurvey3 Tideoftheclass ' i弓 & a a﹃ JnteIdisciplinacystudyofpeace Loo拍Igatthe21stcentury 防 出.csandeconomyin恥 2仙 ωntmy τbe由旬dworldandJap飢 Peaceand也echange of泊鎗mationalenv註onment h官叫uctiontop儲 cestudies Though包 on戸 ace 百le伊esenthisω'ryoftheworld Uni叩 sity HokkaidoUniv. 回rosakiG依 凶nCollege IbaragiU凶.v. Re餅 ChuoUniv. SenshuUniv. SophiaUniv. JnternationalChristianU凶v. KeisenWomen'sCollege 6b s n u ' A 4 3 ' E A - - a ., E A
  17. 17. Peace Tasksforthe21stcenωry:Human Ienvironment 'Onment,舵ienc gy,andb凹 lans∞iety Warandp!担問凶ay Fωω peace 恥 ace Dis紅mamentandpeace Lifeanden吋ronment:Scien∞sof EぉtandWest Hum創出ndandnuclearissues Peaceeducation interch釦 ge組 d戸ace ivestudyofwar釦 dpeace Nuclearissues Peacestudies ofNagasak:i sclences α1 18 KantoGakuinUniv. Y釘 nan鎚 hiUniv. 14 15 1) 2) NagoyaUniv. ChukyoUniv. AichiKyoikuU凶v. ShigaUniv. RitsumeiUniv. OsakaUniv. au マ , 。 。 , A 今 ゐ qJ ' A咽 A 咽 A 勾, a q,a 内,e Z E KonanUniv. KobeUniv. OkayamaUniv. HiroshimaU凶v. KyushuUniv. Nagasak:iUniv. Nagasak:iSoukaUniv. RyukyuUniv. OkinawaUniv. SagaUniv. 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 6 7 勾 & 内L 内, a 勾 A 今 3 内 3 勾 3 勾 3 内 3 今 3

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