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Increasing Female Labor Market Participation With Scholarships


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In several countries in the Arab World, women face significant obstacles to obtaining higher education and entering the workforce. We propose an e-Scholarships for Women Initiative to mitigate access, equality, and labor participation challenges through online education.

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Increasing Female Labor Market Participation With Scholarships

  1. 1. e-Scholarships for Women InitiativeAbout Us Tahseen Consulting is an advisor on strategic and organizational issues facing governments, social sector institutions, and corporations in the Arab World. You can read more about our capabilities at ▲Public Sector Our views on the important issues and what needs to be doneSocial SectorCorporate ResponsibilityCONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARYAny use of this material without specific permission of Tahseen Consulting is strictly prohibited |
  2. 2. In several countries in the Arab World, women face significant obstacles to obtaininghigher education and entering the work force Summary of the challenges Arab women face to obtaining higher educationAccess• In approximately 50% of Arab countries, more men than women benefit from increased access to higher education• No statistics for Somalia and the Comoros Islands, anecdotal evidence suggests they face significant accessibility problems• Regional open universities use English language as language of instruction, limiting access for women who are Arabic speakersEquality• Community and social pressure and familial obligations limit equal access• Social obligations hinder women from traveling and engaging in educational programs• Lack of financial support - females are passed over in favor of men for education when household resources are constrainedParticipation• Poverty stricken countries (Djibouti, Somalia, Syria) have high rates of female labor participation and low education access, countries such as Algeria, Iraq, and Morocco have low access and medium levels of female labor participation rates; these countries indicate a potential for developmental impact through higher education• Female-friendly schooling is difficult in some countries due to cultural norms and necessity of female instructors• Critical infrastructure (computers, electricity, internet access) lacking• Several potential partner organizations are delivering training to position women to work in high growth, highly skilled jobs and as a way of sustaining the education of women in the long term through role modeling | 2
  3. 3. There is wide disparity in female access to education; labor participation varies significantlyKey Low access, high partic. Low access, med to high partic. Educational Access Labor Participation % Females enrolled in HE of Indicative Benchmarks Female Labor 5 year age group following Australia 80% Country Force secondary school leaving China 20% Particpation age Japan 52%Libya 59% 28% Korea 70%Lebanon 54% 30% France 64%Bahrain 50% 29% Canada 72%Jordan 40% 26% UK 70%Palestinian Territories 39% NA US 97%UAE 39% 36%Tunisia 35% 27%Saudi Arabia 34% 17% Key TakeawaysEgypt 33% 21%Qatar 33% 36% • Strategic decision not to target GCC CountriesKuwait 25% 45%Algeria 20% 34% • Though no statistics exist, Somalia, the ComorosOman 19% 20% Islands, and Eritrea likely also face significant accessibilityIraq 11% 20%Morocco 10% 27% problemsYemen 5% 29%Djibouti 2% 53%Mauritania 2% 54%Sudan NA 23%Syria NA 37% Average Participation Rate 31%No statistics for Somailia, Comoros, EritreaSources: 2007 Education for All Global Monitoring Report for Arab States, UNESCO Global Education Digest 2007 | 3
  4. 4. Equal representation in higher education is a problem in several countries F/M Ratio HE % Females to all Country Country Enrollment (GPI) students in HE UAE 3.24 Qatar 68% Qatar 3.05 Bahrain 68% Kuwait 2.72 UAE 66% Bahrain 1.84 Kuwait 66% Saudi Arabia 1.5 Saudi Arabia 58% Oman 1.37 Tunisia 57% Tunisia 1.36 Lebanon 53% Lebanon 1.12 Oman 51% Jordan 1.1 Libya 51% Libya 1.09 Algeria 51% Algeria 1.08 Palestinian Territories 50% Palestinian Territories 1.04 Jordan 50% Morocco 0.87 Morocco 45% Djibouti 0.82 Djibouti 42% Iraq 0.59 Iraq 36% Yemen 0.38 Yemen 26% Mauritania 0.31 Mauritania 25% Syria NA Egypt NA Sudan NA Sudan NA Egypt NA Syria NA No statistics for Somailia, Comoros, Eritrea No statistics for Somailia, Comoros, Eritrea Indicative Benchmarks Indicative Benchmarks Australia 54% Australia 1.25 China 47% China 0.95 Japan 46% Japan 0.89 Korea 37% Korea 0.63 France 55% France 1.00 Canada 56% Canada 0.98 UK 57% UK 1.01 US 57% US 1.00Sources: 2007 Education for All Global Monitoring Report for Arab States, UNESCO Global Education Digest 2007 | 4
  5. 5. The majority of female students are enrolled in ISCED 5A courses leading to Bachelors degrees; However, many are also enrolled in vocational programs Female Students By ISCED Level Country 5A 5B 6 Definitions Bahrain 69% 52% 30% Qatar 68% 87% 39% 5A - Prepare for entry into advanced research programmes and professions with high skill requirements (e.g. medicine, dentistry, Kuwait 66% NA 51% architecture, etc.) Saudi Arabia 65% 21% 40% Algeria 57% 26% 43% 5B - Practically oriented/occupationally specific and designed to for Lebanon 54% 47% 35% employment in a particular occupation or trade; provides Oman 54% 41% 22% participants with a labour-market relevant qualification. Libya 52% 50% 38% Palestinian Territories 50% 49% NA 6 - Advanced study/original research require the submission of a Jordan 49% 61% 28% publishable thesis/dissertation which is the product of original research and represents a significant contribution to knowledge. Morocco 46% 45% 32% Djibouti 39% 48% NA Indicative Benchmarks Iraq 39% 22% 35% 5A 5B 6 World 50% 50% 43% Mauritania 25% 13% NA Arab States 52% 35% 40% Egypt NA NA NA Cent./East Europe 56% 52% 55% Sudan NA NA NA Central Asia 51% 52% 50% Syria NA NA NA East Asia and Pacific 47% 47% 34% Latin Amer./Carribean 54% 53% 50% Tunisia NA NA NA North Amer./West Eur. 55% 59% 48% UAE NA NA NA South and West Asia 41% 38% 36% Yemen NA NA 31% Sub Saharan Africa 34% 45% 32% No statistics for Somailia, Comoros, EritreaSources: 2007 Education for All Global Monitoring Report for Arab States, UNESCO Global Education Digest 2007 | 5
  6. 6. Computers, electricity, internet access are lacking in potential target countries; Arabic iswidely spoken in countries where female education access is lowest Internet Country Penetration (% Teaching Language Population) UAE 38.40% Arabic/English Kuwait 32.60% Arabic/English Qatar 32.00% Arabic/English Lebanon 24.20% Arabic/French/English Bahrain 22.20% Arabic/English Morocco 18.10% Arabic/French Saudi Arabia 17.00% Arabic/English Tunisia 15.70% Arabic/French Jordan 13.20% Arabic/English Palestine 10.50% Arabic/English Oman 10.00% Arabic/English Sudan 8.60% Arabic Syria 7.80% Arabic Egypt 7.50% Arabic Algeria 7.40% Arabic/French Libya 3.80% Arabic Mauritania 3.10% Arabic Comoros 3.00% Arabic/French Djibouti 2.20% Arabic/French Eritrea 2.00% Arabic/English Yemen 1.20% Arabic Somalia 0.80% Arabic/Somali Iraq 0.10% ArabicSources: Wikipedia and | 6
  7. 7. Women tend to focus studies on Education and other fields outside S&T, resulting in a low number of female graduates in higher value added economic segments Science and Technology Other Fields Total Graduates Total Science Enginering/Manu/Const Total EducationCountry MF F% MF F% MF F% MF F% MF F% MF F%Bahrain NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NAQatar 3,184 68% 20% 54% 10% 81% 10% 28% 71% 71% 8% 67%Kuwait 280 45% NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NASaudi Arabia NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NAAlgeria 87,849 33% 29% 16% 4% 51% 26% 11% 71% 40% 16% 53%Lebanon 42,294 56% 28% 35% 19% 49% 9% 3% 68% 65% 16% 100%Oman NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NALibya 25,700 54% 21% 29% 8% 45% 13% 19% 79% 60% 5% 92%Palestinian Territories NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NAJordan 2,602 25% 5% 28% 5% 28% NA NA 29% 24% NA NAMorocco 48,162 42% 15% 27% 15% 31% 6% 23% 68% 46% 12% 50%Djibouti 8,280 60% NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NAIraq 12,567 55% 21% 48% 21% 58% 9% 35% 79% 57% 28% 71%Mauritania 1,149 34% NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NAEgypt 82,659 52% 18% 40% 18% 46% 3% 4% 77% 55% NA 74%Sudan NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NASyria NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NATunisia 28,565 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NAUAE NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NAYemen NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Sources: 2007 Education for All Global Monitoring Report for Arab States, UNESCO Global Education Digest 2007 | 7
  8. 8. An e-Scholarships for Women Initiative will mitigate access, equality, and labor participationchallenges in the Arab World through online education Initiative Summary Strategic Objectives • Provide financial and infrastructural support for up to 100 Arab women for enrollment in online education programs leading to a Bachelor degree • Increase access for women to higher education to achieve gender parity and equality in 10 target countries • Influence women to study subjects which are aligned with emerging and higher valued added economic segments • Raise the status of the social roles of women in society at large – showing that women can and do achieve the same levels of status, employment, and power as men • Educating women to sustain the education of women and girls in the long term and become role modelsInitiative will achieve these objectives by catalyzing change and providing infrastructure in the following four areas Access Equality Participation Infrastructure Focus countries include Target women who are Arabic Programs Foundation provides • Bachelor in Business student/ partners with Phase 1 Phase 2 Underprivileged but Administration motivated and aspiring • Student/partner computers Algeria Comoros Isl. with financial need and • Technology Training • Student/partner int. access Morocco Djibouti familial/social obligations • Student/educator travel Sudan Mauritania that have hindered • Career guidance and training • Female friendly transport Syria Somalia attainment of higher through partners to increase Yemen education labor market participation Iraq (possibly) | 8
  9. 9. Partnerships along the distance learning value chain can create access in countries with themost pressing gender inequities Partner Roles and Responsibilities Financial Support Marketing Candidate Selection Infrastructure Course Delivery Alumni• Tuition & books • Locate/encourage • Receive • Laptops • Deliver program • Alumni network• Travel/training costs candidates to apply applications • Internet • Professors • Virtual clubs • Select recipients • Study facilities • Exams/degrees • Mentorship • Approve study track • Indicative University Partner: Syrian Virtual University Strategic Rationale: Regional scope, need for programs in Arabic to accommodate language limitations • Indicative Infrastructure Partner: British Council Strategic Rationale: On the ground presence in targeted countries, supplementary training, complementary goals • Indicative Technology Partner: Microsoft Strategic Rationale: ICT skills (Arabic), computers • Indicative Long Term Partner: Arab Open University Strategic Rationale: Accreditation, though important over the long term, is of less importance initially. Currently no Arabic, regionally accredited distance programs. Potential to develop Arabic content and gain accreditation. | 9
  10. 10. • For Further Information About This ‫للمزيد من المعلومات عن هذه المبادرة‬ • Initiative ‫للحصول على العرض التقديمي الكامل لهذه المبادرة يرجى‬ To get a copy of the full presentation or to ‫االتصال بوليد العرادي على العنوان‬ discuss the findings, please contact Walid Aradi at• For Inquiries About Our Services and ‫• لالستفسار عن خدماتنا ولعرض أفكاركم علينا‬ Requests for Proposals ‫لالستفسار عن خدماتنا أو عرض أفكاركم علينا يرجى االتصال‬ To inquire about our services or submit a ‫بنا عبر اإلنترنت باستخدام النموذج أدناه أو إرسال بريد إلكتروني‬ request for proposal, please contact us using ‫إلى‬ the online form or send an e-mail to• For Organizations Interested in Alliances ‫• بالنسبة للمنظمات التي لديها اهتمام بالدخول في اتفاقيات شراكة‬ ‫وفي تحالفات مع شركة تحسين لالستشارات‬ We are interested in opportunities where our technical skills and expertise can be used to ‫إننا مهتمون بالفرص التي يمكن من خاللها استخدام مهاراتنا‬ complement or diversify those of potential ‫وخبراتنا الفنية لتكميل أو لتنويع مهارات وخبرات شركائنا‬ partners to pursue specific government ّ ‫المحتملين بما يمكن من السعي للحصول على تمويل حكومي أو‬ funding opportunities, commercial contracts, or ‫عقود تجارية. لبدء نقاش حول الدخول في تحالف مع شركة‬ RFPs. To begin a discussion about entering into an alliance with Tahseen Consulting, ‫تحسين لالستشارات يرجى االتصال بوليد العرادي على العنوان‬ please contact Walid Aradi at ‫• بالنسبة للعاملين في الصحافة أو في وسائل اإلعالم‬• For Members of the Press or Media ّ ‫لالستفسارات المقدمة من قبل وسائل اإلعالم يرجى االتصال بـ‬ For media inquiries, please contact Wes ‫ويـزلي شـوالييه على العنوان‬ Schwalje at