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The early California emigrants faced aThe early California emigrants faced a
dilemma at the Humboldt Sink. Whatdilemma at ...
You know you’reYou know you’re
a Tahoe Local if:a Tahoe Local if: You noYou no
longer uselonger use
the weatherthe weather...
Last Week #3 We LearnedLast Week #3 We Learned
 Settlers Arrive at LakeSettlers Arrive at Lake
Tahoe – CarsonPass,Tahoe –...
From Trails to HighwaysFrom Trails to Highways
 Moving on the primitive roads and trails were, “everyMoving on the primit...
Washoe Wagons: a 20 ton load could
be divided and loaded on three of
these wagons.Landauer pg 61
How much weight can a 18 ...
How Did the Mountain Men andHow Did the Mountain Men and
Pioneers Know They Were on thePioneers Know They Were on the
Righ...
Kit Carson BlazeKit Carson Blaze
18561856
“UNCLE SAM NEEDS CARRIER”“UNCLE SAM NEEDS CARRIER”
 In 1856, a 28 year-old John Thompson walkedIn 1856, a 28 yea...
In 1856, John A. Thompson becameIn 1856, John A. Thompson became well know forwell know for
saving a man’s life in South L...
Thomson Saves Sisson’s LifeThomson Saves Sisson’s Life
 Snowshoe Thompson rescued James Sisson,Snowshoe Thompson rescued ...
Thompson’s LifeThompson’s Life 1856 contracted to carry mail over1856 contracted to carry mail over
the Sierras in the wi...
Two to Four Times a MonthTwo to Four Times a Month
During the WinterDuring the Winter
 Regardless of weather, SnowshoeReg...
???
Other Mail Carriers That CrossedOther Mail Carriers That Crossed
the Sierra Nevadathe Sierra Nevada
 Thompson was the mos...
1855 California Wagon Road Act1855 California Wagon Road Act
 In 1857, CA State Senator, Captain W.T.In 1857, CA State Se...
1853 William Bartlett’s
Emigrant’s Guide to
California had the trail
going though the
bridge he had rights to
charge a tol...
Slippery
Ford
Lake
Valley
1857 Placerville business (Business1857 Placerville business (Business
Improvement District) rai...
Lack of Funds from El Dorado County ResultedLack of Funds from El Dorado County Resulted
In Poor County Road MaintenanceIn...
Slippery
Ford
1862 South1862 South
Fork TollFork Toll
RoadRoad
1860 Swan-1860 Swan-
Harvey fromHarvey from
Three Mile toTh...
**1862 - Seven Toll Franchises were1862 - Seven Toll Franchises were
Granted From Placerville to Lake ValleyGranted From P...
1862 J. R. Atkins –1862 J. R. Atkins –
Central Pacific RailroadCentral Pacific Railroad During the Civil WarDuring the Civ...
Stage Coach Near the SierraStage Coach Near the Sierra
NevadaNevada
 1857 Pioneer Sierra Nevada Stage line - owners1857 P...
1864 J.M. "Doc" Benton, Civil War
surgeon. He engaged in mining and
milling until 1867 when he entered
the livery and stab...
Hank MonkHank Monk
Twain, “Hank Monk cracked his whip and started off at
an awful pace. The coach bounced up and down in s...
Pony Express and Telegraph 1860Pony Express and Telegraph 1860
Pony Express RoutePony Express Route
St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, CASt. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, CA
 Used 400 horses. (2008 inflation adjusted =...
The Pony Express began in 1860.The Pony Express began in 1860.
When did the Pony Express End?When did the Pony Express End...
Ben Holiday buys Pony ExpressBen Holiday buys Pony Express
 18611861 CCentralentral OOverlandverland CCalifornia &aliforn...
**Name the Two (Three) PonyName the Two (Three) Pony
Express Stations in the South Shore.Express Stations in the South Sho...
Placerville
Which would be
the fastest route?
Friday’s StationFriday’s Station
Blacksmith’s
Shop
 This sign was here beforeThis sign was here before
Lira’s Market sign.Lira’s Market sign.
Lovers Leap
Current
bridge
Register
RockHank Monk’s
Rock
Slippery
Ford House
Swan Henry Toll
Road
Johnson’s
Cut-off
Used 1...
Swan Henry
Toll Road
Toll Road near Slippery FordToll Road near Slippery Ford
Camp
Sacramento
Horsetail Falls
Used 1853-1861
Used 1861 – 1949?
Crossing a fordCrossing a ford
 AA fordford is a place in a watercourse (mostis a place in a watercourse (most
commonly a...
Register RocksRegister Rocks
Slippery Ford HouseSlippery Ford House
Hank Monk’s RockHank Monk’s Rock
Telegraph T- mailTelegraph T- mail
 1858 Placerville to1858 Placerville to
GenoaGenoa
 1861 Salt Lake City1861 Salt Lake...
One Minute ReviewOne Minute Review
 What was the most useful orWhat was the most useful or
meaningful thing you learned d...
You know you’reYou know you’re
a Tahoe Local if:a Tahoe Local if: You installYou install
securitysecurity
lights onlights ...
Last Hour We LearnedLast Hour We Learned
 From Trail toFrom Trail to
Highways, PonyHighways, Pony
ExpressExpress
 This H...
US HistoryUS History
 1860 Presidential candidates:1860 Presidential candidates:
 LincolnLincoln (Republican) received 4...
Nevada HistoryNevada History
 March 2, 1861: Two days before Lincoln isMarch 2, 1861: Two days before Lincoln is
inaugura...
1864 Presidential Election Politics1864 Presidential Election Politics
 1864 March 21: Enabling Act1864 March 21: Enablin...
1864 Presidential Election Politics1864 Presidential Election Politics
 1864 October 311864 October 31stst
Nevada was pro...
Harvesting the Tahoe Forests –Harvesting the Tahoe Forests –
Why?Why?
 Comstock Lode in Virginia City needed wood to inst...
Tahoe Forests – where did they go?Tahoe Forests – where did they go?
What came back?What came back?
 Trees were used to b...
High WheelersHigh Wheelers
.
T o
R e n o
T o
C a r s o n
C ity
8 98 9
8 9
2 8
2 8
4 3 1
5 0
2 0 7
L a k e T a h o e
Woodburn’s Lake Valley Saw
Mill 1...
Fallen Leaf Lake SawmillFallen Leaf Lake Sawmill
 Lucky Baldwin's Sawmill at the NW end of Fallen Leaf Lake.Lucky Baldwin...
**How Did the Wood Get to theHow Did the Wood Get to the
(Pray) Glenbrook Mills?(Pray) Glenbrook Mills?
 Cut trees down, ...
Chain Loading Logs into a Solid WheeledChain Loading Logs into a Solid Wheeled
Wagon with a Six Ox TeamWagon with a Six Ox...
16 Horses Hauling Logs to the Lake or16 Horses Hauling Logs to the Lake or
Mills Before TrainsMills Before Trains
Tripod Log Loaders/UnloadersTripod Log Loaders/Unloaders
Ox Teams Hauling Logs on a SpurOx Teams Hauling Logs on a Spur
Track to the Lake or MillsTrack to the Lake or Mills
Trains dump the logs to Lake TahoeTrains dump the logs to Lake Tahoe
Log Booms in TahoeLog Booms in Tahoe
On the way to Spooner SummitOn the way to Spooner Summit
switchbacksswitchbacks
**How Do You Move the LumberHow Do You Move the Lumber
Down Hill?Down Hill?
 1867 V-flume for lumber inventor J.W.1867 V-...
The Carson and Tahoe Lumber andThe Carson and Tahoe Lumber and
Fluming Company Railroad atFluming Company Railroad at
Spoo...
SpoonerSpooner
Summit “V”Summit “V”
Flume –Flume –
FlowingFlowing
TowardsTowards
Carson CityCarson City
ThroughThrough
Cle...
““V” Flume down Clear CreekV” Flume down Clear Creek
Canyon (Current Highway 50)Canyon (Current Highway 50)
““V” flume to Carson City YardV” flume to Carson City Yard
 
Virginia and Truckee Train FlumeVirginia and Truckee Train Flume
JunctionJunction
Virginia City Burned Down in 1875.Virginia City Burned Down in 1875.
How Did Virginia City Increase theHow Did Virginia Ci...
Virginia City Inverted Siphon MapVirginia City Inverted Siphon Map
Marlette Lake 1876
Virginia
City 1859
Flume Trail (bike...
 Old-growth yellowOld-growth yellow
pine forests (Jeffreypine forests (Jeffrey
or Ponderosa pine)or Ponderosa pine)
Spooner Summit in the 1880’s
True or False. Tahoe Has AlwaysTrue or False. Tahoe Has Always
Had Acres and Acres of Trees?H...
Forest PlunderedForest Plundered
 1875 C.F. McGlashan Sacramento paper “the1875 C.F. McGlashan Sacramento paper “the
supp...
TahoeTahoe
LoggingLogging
MapMap
TRPA / Forest ServiceTRPA / Forest Service
http://www.trpa.org/documents/agendashttp://ww...
Lake Tahoe Fire LookoutsLake Tahoe Fire Lookouts
 The Angora Fire Lookout served the Tahoe Basin’sThe Angora Fire Lookout...
AngoraAngora
Comparison Lake Tahoe Basin forestsComparison Lake Tahoe Basin forests
with the Sierra San Pedro Martirwith the Sierra San...
 Sierra San PedroSierra San Pedro
Martir divides BajaMartir divides Baja
California into anCalifornia into an
eastern sec...
Forest PlunderedForest Plundered
 The 200,000 acre forest surrounding Lake TahoeThe 200,000 acre forest surrounding Lake ...
One Minute ReviewOne Minute Review
 What was the most useful orWhat was the most useful or
meaningful thing you learned d...
Chapter 8 Quiz QuestionChapter 8 Quiz Question
 Describe how theDescribe how the
lumber got from alumber got from a
stand...
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015
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Class 4 trails pony express harvesting forests2015

  1. 1. The early California emigrants faced aThe early California emigrants faced a dilemma at the Humboldt Sink. Whatdilemma at the Humboldt Sink. What was the consequence of either choice?was the consequence of either choice? Which would you have chosen? Why?Which would you have chosen? Why?
  2. 2. You know you’reYou know you’re a Tahoe Local if:a Tahoe Local if: You noYou no longer uselonger use the weatherthe weather report forreport for planningplanning outdooroutdoor activities.activities.
  3. 3. Last Week #3 We LearnedLast Week #3 We Learned  Settlers Arrive at LakeSettlers Arrive at Lake Tahoe – CarsonPass,Tahoe – CarsonPass, Johnson pass, Luther’sJohnson pass, Luther’s Pass, Daggetts Pass,Pass, Daggetts Pass, Kingsbury Grade,Kingsbury Grade, Hawley’s Grade.Hawley’s Grade.  The Lust for SilverThe Lust for Silver  The Cost of MiningThe Cost of Mining  This week 4This week 4  From Trail to HighwaysFrom Trail to Highways  Pony ExpressPony Express  Harvesting the ForestsHarvesting the Forests
  4. 4. From Trails to HighwaysFrom Trails to Highways  Moving on the primitive roads and trails were, “everyMoving on the primitive roads and trails were, “every kind of earthbound conveyance from carts, ox-drawnkind of earthbound conveyance from carts, ox-drawn wagons to railway coaches on wheels.”wagons to railway coaches on wheels.”  In 1863 it was estimated that 14,652 mules and horsesIn 1863 it was estimated that 14,652 mules and horses and 1,400 freighters and stages were working theand 1,400 freighters and stages were working the Placerville- Comstock corridor.Placerville- Comstock corridor. pg 36 Obermayrpg 36 Obermayr “Foot Path to“Foot Path to Four-Lane”Four-Lane”  Studebaker in Stockton and Placerville built the smallerStudebaker in Stockton and Placerville built the smaller though tougher “Washoe wagon.” (Actually beganthough tougher “Washoe wagon.” (Actually began making rugged, durable wheelbarrows)making rugged, durable wheelbarrows)  Unload a 20 ton wagon onto three Washoe wagons (inUnload a 20 ton wagon onto three Washoe wagons (in tow) with sixteen to eighteen mules pulling.tow) with sixteen to eighteen mules pulling. Pg 61Pg 61 LaundauerLaundauer
  5. 5. Washoe Wagons: a 20 ton load could be divided and loaded on three of these wagons.Landauer pg 61 How much weight can a 18 wheel truck carry on Interstates and truck routes currently? Vehicles not exceeding 13'6" in height, 8' in width, and 55' in length and are limited to 40 tons can currently travel on Interstates and truck routes.
  6. 6. How Did the Mountain Men andHow Did the Mountain Men and Pioneers Know They Were on thePioneers Know They Were on the Right Track?Right Track?  ‘‘To blaze a trail' was to mark it out by notchingTo blaze a trail' was to mark it out by notching trees so that others could follow. The use oftrees so that others could follow. The use of blaze to mean the chipping off of a small pieceblaze to mean the chipping off of a small piece of bark to mark a path or boundary is Americanof bark to mark a path or boundary is American in origin.in origin.  Dr. Thomas Walker's 'Journal of Exploration' [ofDr. Thomas Walker's 'Journal of Exploration' [of Kentucky], 1750:Kentucky], 1750:  "I blazed a way from our house to the river." &"I blazed a way from our house to the river." & "I blazed several trees in the fork and marked"I blazed several trees in the fork and marked T. W. on a Sycamore Tree."T. W. on a Sycamore Tree."
  7. 7. Kit Carson BlazeKit Carson Blaze
  8. 8. 18561856 “UNCLE SAM NEEDS CARRIER”“UNCLE SAM NEEDS CARRIER”  In 1856, a 28 year-old John Thompson walkedIn 1856, a 28 year-old John Thompson walked into the post master’s office explaining heinto the post master’s office explaining he wanted to try carrying the mail over thewanted to try carrying the mail over the Sierra, in winter, on his back.Sierra, in winter, on his back.  The postmaster replied. “The postmaster replied. “The contractThe contract carrier (Chorpenning) is the only onecarrier (Chorpenning) is the only one who can sign the northern Nevadawho can sign the northern Nevada contract over to you. I don’t have thecontract over to you. I don’t have the authority to hire you.”authority to hire you.”  http://www.ci.placerville.ca.us/our_city/about/history.asphttp://www.ci.placerville.ca.us/our_city/about/history.asp
  9. 9. In 1856, John A. Thompson becameIn 1856, John A. Thompson became well know forwell know for saving a man’s life in South Lake Tahoe during thesaving a man’s life in South Lake Tahoe during the winter. What was his nickname?winter. What was his nickname?  ““Snow Shoe”Snow Shoe” Thompson.Thompson.
  10. 10. Thomson Saves Sisson’s LifeThomson Saves Sisson’s Life  Snowshoe Thompson rescued James Sisson,Snowshoe Thompson rescued James Sisson, who had been sheltering with half-frozen feet inwho had been sheltering with half-frozen feet in a deserted cabin for 12 days, with no food ora deserted cabin for 12 days, with no food or fire.fire.  Once in Genoa, Dr. Daggett reported thatOnce in Genoa, Dr. Daggett reported that Sisson's feet needed to be amputated, but heSisson's feet needed to be amputated, but he had no chloroform.had no chloroform.  Thompson set out once again to Placerville, butThompson set out once again to Placerville, but there was none to be found, so he continued onthere was none to be found, so he continued on to Sacramento.to Sacramento.  In all he traveled 400 miles in 10 days, andIn all he traveled 400 miles in 10 days, and saved Sisson's life. (Not quite 2 marathons persaved Sisson's life. (Not quite 2 marathons per day for 10 days.)day for 10 days.) http://www.tahoecountry.com/oldtimetahoe/snowshoe.htmlhttp://www.tahoecountry.com/oldtimetahoe/snowshoe.html
  11. 11. Thompson’s LifeThompson’s Life 1856 contracted to carry mail over1856 contracted to carry mail over the Sierras in the winter paidthe Sierras in the winter paid $80.22.$80.22.  The only year he was paid. “NoThe only year he was paid. “No contract, no claim.” Post Civil Warcontract, no claim.” Post Civil War reconstruction.reconstruction.  Notoriety came from James SissonNotoriety came from James Sisson who was snow bound east ofwho was snow bound east of Placerville.Placerville.  Virginia City’s “TerritorialVirginia City’s “Territorial Enterprise.”Enterprise.”  1859 snow travel by sleigh Slippery1859 snow travel by sleigh Slippery Ford – Luther’s Pass - Hope Valley.Ford – Luther’s Pass - Hope Valley.  Stopped winter crossing 1869.Stopped winter crossing 1869.  1872 moved to Alpine County.1872 moved to Alpine County. Went to Washington DC. to collectWent to Washington DC. to collect for services rendered.for services rendered.  Buried in Genoa 1876.Buried in Genoa 1876.
  12. 12. Two to Four Times a MonthTwo to Four Times a Month During the WinterDuring the Winter  Regardless of weather, SnowshoeRegardless of weather, Snowshoe Thompson set out at the appointed hour.Thompson set out at the appointed hour.  His mail run took 3 days from PlacervilleHis mail run took 3 days from Placerville to Mormon Station, Utah (Nevada's firstto Mormon Station, Utah (Nevada's first town, later called Genoa when Nevadatown, later called Genoa when Nevada became a state), and two days on thebecame a state), and two days on the return trip.return trip. http://www.tahoecountry.com/oldtimetahoe/snowshoe.htmlhttp://www.tahoecountry.com/oldtimetahoe/snowshoe.html
  13. 13. ???
  14. 14. Other Mail Carriers That CrossedOther Mail Carriers That Crossed the Sierra Nevadathe Sierra Nevada  Thompson was the most popular but not the first toThompson was the most popular but not the first to carry mail across the Sierras.carry mail across the Sierras.  Fred BishopFred Bishop  Jacob DrittJacob Dritt  George PierceGeorge Pierce  Jack C. JohnsonJack C. Johnson  Landauer page 63Landauer page 63  1853 Fred Bishop and a man named Dritt “alternated1853 Fred Bishop and a man named Dritt “alternated with each other in making the trips.” They used “whatwith each other in making the trips.” They used “what was called the basket form, or Canadian pattern ofwas called the basket form, or Canadian pattern of snowshoe,” George Pierce was said to have succeededsnowshoe,” George Pierce was said to have succeeded Bishop and Dritt. Jack C. Johnson, who likewiseBishop and Dritt. Jack C. Johnson, who likewise preceded Thompson.preceded Thompson. http://www.naha.stolaf.edu/pubs/nas/volume19/vol19_4.htmhttp://www.naha.stolaf.edu/pubs/nas/volume19/vol19_4.htm
  15. 15. 1855 California Wagon Road Act1855 California Wagon Road Act  In 1857, CA State Senator, Captain W.T.In 1857, CA State Senator, Captain W.T. Sherman Day, surveyor of California (with theSherman Day, surveyor of California (with the help from Surveyor General H. S. Marlette)help from Surveyor General H. S. Marlette) decided the American River Canyon (Johnsondecided the American River Canyon (Johnson Route) was the best route over the Sierra’s.Route) was the best route over the Sierra’s.  Estimated cost of $100,000 and could beEstimated cost of $100,000 and could be complete in 10 years.complete in 10 years.  1857 Placerville businesses (Business1857 Placerville businesses (Business Improvement District) raised $5,000 toImprovement District) raised $5,000 to improve the road between Slippery Ford andimprove the road between Slippery Ford and Lake Valley.Lake Valley.  The Virginia City, Comstock Load in 1859The Virginia City, Comstock Load in 1859 accelerated private investors in finishing theaccelerated private investors in finishing the road.road.
  16. 16. 1853 William Bartlett’s Emigrant’s Guide to California had the trail going though the bridge he had rights to charge a toll.
  17. 17. Slippery Ford Lake Valley 1857 Placerville business (Business1857 Placerville business (Business Improvement District) raised $5,000 toImprovement District) raised $5,000 to improve the road between Slippery Fordimprove the road between Slippery Ford and Lake Valleyand Lake Valley
  18. 18. Lack of Funds from El Dorado County ResultedLack of Funds from El Dorado County Resulted In Poor County Road MaintenanceIn Poor County Road Maintenance  County Toll franchisesCounty Toll franchises were primarily used towere primarily used to have new, higher qualityhave new, higher quality roads for the heavy Eastroads for the heavy East bound freight. Eventuallybound freight. Eventually the Emigrants had freethe Emigrants had free passage West bound.passage West bound.  Stream crossings andStream crossings and narrow trails made naturalnarrow trails made natural stopping places for the tollstopping places for the toll keeper.keeper. Osgood's Toll House at the South Lake Tahoe Museum
  19. 19. Slippery Ford 1862 South1862 South Fork TollFork Toll RoadRoad 1860 Swan-1860 Swan- Harvey fromHarvey from Three Mile toThree Mile to Five MileFive Mile 1861 River1861 River Toll RoadToll Road 1856 (58) El Dorado1856 (58) El Dorado County RoadCounty Road 1860 Swan-1860 Swan- Henry Toll RoadHenry Toll Road 1860 18641860 1864 Ogilsby GradeOgilsby Grade 18601860 SouthSouth WeberWeber TurnpikeTurnpike 1860 Osgood1860 Osgood Toll RoadToll Road 1850-51 Col. John Calhoun1850-51 Col. John Calhoun Johnson’s Cut off roadJohnson’s Cut off road Georgetown Junction now (Wright’s Lake Road)
  20. 20. **1862 - Seven Toll Franchises were1862 - Seven Toll Franchises were Granted From Placerville to Lake ValleyGranted From Placerville to Lake Valley  1860 a porch sitter counted 353 wagons in one day.1860 a porch sitter counted 353 wagons in one day. Laundauer pg 70Laundauer pg 70  3000 teams of horses were used to pull the Washoe3000 teams of horses were used to pull the Washoe wagons.wagons.  1860 $700,000 for freight teams alone.1860 $700,000 for freight teams alone.  1860 Total of $1,300,000 was collected by toll road1860 Total of $1,300,000 was collected by toll road operators.operators.  **1869 Central Pacific was operating and the traffic and1869 Central Pacific was operating and the traffic and Toll House revenue quickly dwindled.Toll House revenue quickly dwindled.  **1887 to 1895 the road fell to disrepair and all of the1887 to 1895 the road fell to disrepair and all of the toll road franchises were purchased by El Doradotoll road franchises were purchased by El Dorado County.County.  **1895 the State of California took over as the first1895 the State of California took over as the first State Highway for improvement and maintenance. “TheState Highway for improvement and maintenance. “The Lake Tahoe Wagon Road Act.”Lake Tahoe Wagon Road Act.”
  21. 21. 1862 J. R. Atkins –1862 J. R. Atkins – Central Pacific RailroadCentral Pacific Railroad During the Civil WarDuring the Civil War  Collecting data for train hauling revenueCollecting data for train hauling revenue estimates.estimates.  Eight week period ending October 10, 1862Eight week period ending October 10, 1862 reported.reported.  171 Stages carrying 4,462 passengers to171 Stages carrying 4,462 passengers to Placerville.Placerville.  169 Stages carrying 4,142 away from Placerville.169 Stages carrying 4,142 away from Placerville.  9,692 tons of freight were shipped Eastward from9,692 tons of freight were shipped Eastward from Placerville. 1,211 tons per week!!! 173 tons perPlacerville. 1,211 tons per week!!! 173 tons per day. Approximately 9 - 20 ton Washoe wagonsday. Approximately 9 - 20 ton Washoe wagons per day!!!per day!!!  One wagon made $10,400 while working only 83One wagon made $10,400 while working only 83 days hauling equipment and ore.days hauling equipment and ore. Saga I pg 367Saga I pg 367
  22. 22. Stage Coach Near the SierraStage Coach Near the Sierra NevadaNevada  1857 Pioneer Sierra Nevada Stage line - owners1857 Pioneer Sierra Nevada Stage line - owners Col. JB Crandall and Sunderland.Col. JB Crandall and Sunderland.  Semi weekly $125 each way Placerville – EchoSemi weekly $125 each way Placerville – Echo – Hawley’s Grade – Luther – Carson Valley.– Hawley’s Grade – Luther – Carson Valley.  1858 Three stage trips per week. Placerville to1858 Three stage trips per week. Placerville to Genoa. 12 Concord Coaches.Genoa. 12 Concord Coaches.  1858 Lewis and Brady started a run twice1858 Lewis and Brady started a run twice weekly Sacramento to Carson City. Bought theweekly Sacramento to Carson City. Bought the Pioneer Sierra Nevada Stage line the next year.Pioneer Sierra Nevada Stage line the next year. Then sold to Wells Fargo and Co. in 1860.Then sold to Wells Fargo and Co. in 1860.  1859 Thompson and JH Child opened winter1859 Thompson and JH Child opened winter travel with sleighs from Placerville to Genoa.travel with sleighs from Placerville to Genoa. Wagons up to the snow level.Wagons up to the snow level. Landauer pg 68Landauer pg 68
  23. 23. 1864 J.M. "Doc" Benton, Civil War surgeon. He engaged in mining and milling until 1867 when he entered the livery and stable business. Benton became the proprietor of the stage line running between Carson and Lake Tahoe. Hank Monk was a driver for Benton's Livery for many years.
  24. 24. Hank MonkHank Monk Twain, “Hank Monk cracked his whip and started off at an awful pace. The coach bounced up and down in such a terrific way that it jolted the buttons all off of Horace’s coat. According to legend, Monk could make the 109- mile journey between Carson City and Placerville in less than 10 hours. 1823 - 1883
  25. 25. Pony Express and Telegraph 1860Pony Express and Telegraph 1860
  26. 26. Pony Express RoutePony Express Route
  27. 27. St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, CASt. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, CA  Used 400 horses. (2008 inflation adjusted = $2,000Used 400 horses. (2008 inflation adjusted = $2,000 each)each) (Larry Carpenter - Pony Express Association media chairperson 10/14/2008)(Larry Carpenter - Pony Express Association media chairperson 10/14/2008)  Employed 183 men.Employed 183 men.  Distance of 1,980 miles.Distance of 1,980 miles.  165 stations. Used existing buildings when possible.165 stations. Used existing buildings when possible.  10-16 days one way.10-16 days one way.  $5.00 per 1/2 ounce letter (2008 inflation adjusted =$5.00 per 1/2 ounce letter (2008 inflation adjusted = $82) later reduced to $1.00.$82) later reduced to $1.00.  Riders changed every 70 to 75 miles. Were paid $25/Riders changed every 70 to 75 miles. Were paid $25/ week Buffalo Bill Cody rode for 2½ months. One timeweek Buffalo Bill Cody rode for 2½ months. One time he rode 22 horses in 24 hours about 360 miles.he rode 22 horses in 24 hours about 360 miles.  Changed horses every 10-15 miles.Changed horses every 10-15 miles.  Some National News was given at Carson City NV thenSome National News was given at Carson City NV then telegraphed to Sacramento for newspapers.telegraphed to Sacramento for newspapers.  National Pony Express Association web siteNational Pony Express Association web site www.xphomestation.comwww.xphomestation.com
  28. 28. The Pony Express began in 1860.The Pony Express began in 1860. When did the Pony Express End?When did the Pony Express End?  18611861
  29. 29. Ben Holiday buys Pony ExpressBen Holiday buys Pony Express  18611861 CCentralentral OOverlandverland CCalifornia &alifornia & PPike'sike's PPeak Express Company had $870,000 ofeak Express Company had $870,000 of debt. Russell, Majors, and Waddell haddebt. Russell, Majors, and Waddell had borrowed extensively from Ben Holladay.borrowed extensively from Ben Holladay.  Ben Holladay purchased the company inBen Holladay purchased the company in a foreclosure auction in order to protecta foreclosure auction in order to protect his investment. Included was thehis investment. Included was the stagecoach line. He had no intentions ofstagecoach line. He had no intentions of resurrecting the profit challenged Ponyresurrecting the profit challenged Pony Express.Express. http://www.nps.gov/archive/poex/hrs/hrs9.htmhttp://www.nps.gov/archive/poex/hrs/hrs9.htm
  30. 30. **Name the Two (Three) PonyName the Two (Three) Pony Express Stations in the South Shore.Express Stations in the South Shore.  The Markleeville, Luther Pass toThe Markleeville, Luther Pass to the base of Hawley’s Grade. Lakethe base of Hawley’s Grade. Lake Valley House for a few monthsValley House for a few months then changed to the shorterthen changed to the shorter Daggett Pass - Lake Valley route.Daggett Pass - Lake Valley route.  Friday’s Station – near StatelineFriday’s Station – near Stateline  Yank’s Station – near Lira’sYank’s Station – near Lira’s MarketMarket
  31. 31. Placerville Which would be the fastest route?
  32. 32. Friday’s StationFriday’s Station Blacksmith’s Shop
  33. 33.  This sign was here beforeThis sign was here before Lira’s Market sign.Lira’s Market sign.
  34. 34. Lovers Leap Current bridge Register RockHank Monk’s Rock Slippery Ford House Swan Henry Toll Road Johnson’s Cut-off Used 1853-1861 1860 – 1940’? Used 1940’s to present
  35. 35. Swan Henry Toll Road
  36. 36. Toll Road near Slippery FordToll Road near Slippery Ford Camp Sacramento Horsetail Falls Used 1853-1861 Used 1861 – 1949?
  37. 37. Crossing a fordCrossing a ford  AA fordford is a place in a watercourse (mostis a place in a watercourse (most commonly a stream or river) that iscommonly a stream or river) that is shallow enough to be crossed by wading,shallow enough to be crossed by wading, on horseback, or in a wheeled vehicle.on horseback, or in a wheeled vehicle.  The names of many towns and villages areThe names of many towns and villages are derived from the word 'ford', for examplederived from the word 'ford', for example Oxford (a ford where oxen crossed theOxford (a ford where oxen crossed the river: see the Oxford coat of arms), orriver: see the Oxford coat of arms), or Stratford (a ford on a Roman road).Stratford (a ford on a Roman road). Similarly, the German wordSimilarly, the German word furtfurt (as in(as in Frankfurt and Klagenfurt)Frankfurt and Klagenfurt)
  38. 38. Register RocksRegister Rocks
  39. 39. Slippery Ford HouseSlippery Ford House
  40. 40. Hank Monk’s RockHank Monk’s Rock
  41. 41. Telegraph T- mailTelegraph T- mail  1858 Placerville to1858 Placerville to GenoaGenoa  1861 Salt Lake City1861 Salt Lake City (fall)(fall)  Operators wereOperators were aka “lightingaka “lighting strikers”strikers”
  42. 42. One Minute ReviewOne Minute Review  What was the most useful orWhat was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned duringmeaningful thing you learned during this session?this session?  What question(s) remain upper-mostWhat question(s) remain upper-most in your mind as we end this session?in your mind as we end this session?
  43. 43. You know you’reYou know you’re a Tahoe Local if:a Tahoe Local if: You installYou install securitysecurity lights onlights on your houseyour house and garageand garage and leaveand leave bothboth unlocked.unlocked.
  44. 44. Last Hour We LearnedLast Hour We Learned  From Trail toFrom Trail to Highways, PonyHighways, Pony ExpressExpress  This Hour #2This Hour #2  Harvesting theHarvesting the ForestsForests
  45. 45. US HistoryUS History  1860 Presidential candidates:1860 Presidential candidates:  LincolnLincoln (Republican) received 40% of the Popular vote (plurality) 59% Electoral(Republican) received 40% of the Popular vote (plurality) 59% Electoral vote.vote.  Stephen DouglasStephen Douglas (Northern Democrat, very few Southern votes 29%(Northern Democrat, very few Southern votes 29% Popular vote)Popular vote)  BreckenridgeBreckenridge (Southern Democrat, very few Northern votes. 24% Popular vote)(Southern Democrat, very few Northern votes. 24% Popular vote)  BellBell (Southern Independent, very few votes 7% Popular vote)(Southern Independent, very few votes 7% Popular vote)  November: Lincoln elected President.November: Lincoln elected President. Republican political platform was toRepublican political platform was to restrict slavery. Lincoln was not on therestrict slavery. Lincoln was not on the ballot in 10 southern states.ballot in 10 southern states. • Mississippi History Now On line publication The Road to WarMississippi History Now On line publication The Road to War (1846-1860) site(1846-1860) site
  46. 46. Nevada HistoryNevada History  March 2, 1861: Two days before Lincoln isMarch 2, 1861: Two days before Lincoln is inaugurated the Nevada Territory was createdinaugurated the Nevada Territory was created by Democratic President James Buchanan.by Democratic President James Buchanan.  Nevada Territory set by the FederalNevada Territory set by the Federal Government Chap LXXXIII:Government Chap LXXXIII: “due west to“due west to the dividing ridge separating the watersthe dividing ridge separating the waters of Carson Valley from those that flowof Carson Valley from those that flow into the Pacific; then on said dividinginto the Pacific; then on said dividing ridge…”ridge…” The dividing ridge was the crestThe dividing ridge was the crest of the Sierra Nevada and waters thatof the Sierra Nevada and waters that flow eastward.flow eastward.  The purpose appears to have the land divisionThe purpose appears to have the land division relative to an easily determined naturalrelative to an easily determined natural boundary of the Great Basin. (not theboundary of the Great Basin. (not the existing, difficult to define latitude andexisting, difficult to define latitude and longitude)longitude)  Guy Rocha, Nevada State Archivist http://dmla.clan.lib.nv.us/docs/nsla/archives/myth12.htmGuy Rocha, Nevada State Archivist http://dmla.clan.lib.nv.us/docs/nsla/archives/myth12.htm
  47. 47. 1864 Presidential Election Politics1864 Presidential Election Politics  1864 March 21: Enabling Act1864 March 21: Enabling Act (invitation from the Federal(invitation from the Federal Government to become part of theGovernment to become part of the United States) for Nevada Territory,United States) for Nevada Territory,  Nevada added the local IndianNevada added the local Indian population (usually counted only topopulation (usually counted only to know how large the reservationknow how large the reservation would be) to inflate the population towould be) to inflate the population to meet the minimum number ofmeet the minimum number of 60,000 residents for statehood.60,000 residents for statehood. GuyGuy Rocha, Nevada State ArchivistRocha, Nevada State Archivist http://dmla.clan.lib.nv.us/docs/nsla/archives/myth73.htmhttp://dmla.clan.lib.nv.us/docs/nsla/archives/myth73.htm
  48. 48. 1864 Presidential Election Politics1864 Presidential Election Politics  1864 October 311864 October 31stst Nevada was proclaimedNevada was proclaimed the 36the 36thth state. Came in as a free state.state. Came in as a free state.  1864 November 81864 November 8thth elections Lincoln wonelections Lincoln won decisively over Northern Democrat,decisively over Northern Democrat, McClellan. Nevada had qualified threeMcClellan. Nevada had qualified three Electoral College voters.Electoral College voters.  7th largest land coverage.7th largest land coverage.  U.S. gold producer.U.S. gold producer.
  49. 49. Harvesting the Tahoe Forests –Harvesting the Tahoe Forests – Why?Why?  Comstock Lode in Virginia City needed wood to install powerComstock Lode in Virginia City needed wood to install power driven hoists, 3000 foot deep elevators, ventilation systems, shoredriven hoists, 3000 foot deep elevators, ventilation systems, shore up the mine walls from caving in and steam power for the pumpsup the mine walls from caving in and steam power for the pumps to get excess water out of the depths.to get excess water out of the depths.  The first to go were the straight Douglas-fir. Lumber companiesThe first to go were the straight Douglas-fir. Lumber companies would frequently lop off the top 50 feet that had branches andwould frequently lop off the top 50 feet that had branches and only use the straight trunk.only use the straight trunk.  Philip Deidesheimer, German engineer “square-set” timbering.Philip Deidesheimer, German engineer “square-set” timbering.  12 inches by 12 inches wide, 15 to 20 feet long caused voracious12 inches by 12 inches wide, 15 to 20 feet long caused voracious forest consumption.forest consumption.  A typical Comstock mine could burn upward of 25 cords a day forA typical Comstock mine could burn upward of 25 cords a day for the operation of their hoisting works and the huge Cornish waterthe operation of their hoisting works and the huge Cornish water pumps needed to keep the mines free of water.pumps needed to keep the mines free of water. http://www.vcnevada.com/history/Vnthist.htmhttp://www.vcnevada.com/history/Vnthist.htm  Tahoe’s best trees lay beneath Virginia City’s 400- 700 miles ofTahoe’s best trees lay beneath Virginia City’s 400- 700 miles of shafts.shafts.
  50. 50. Tahoe Forests – where did they go?Tahoe Forests – where did they go? What came back?What came back?  Trees were used to build hotels, houses, barns,Trees were used to build hotels, houses, barns, boats, bridges and powered steam engines.boats, bridges and powered steam engines. Virginia City’s wooden buildings. ConflagrationVirginia City’s wooden buildings. Conflagration 1870’s.1870’s.  **The work was done with a cross cut or buck saw.The work was done with a cross cut or buck saw. Pulled with High-wheel trailers and dragged.Pulled with High-wheel trailers and dragged.
  51. 51. High WheelersHigh Wheelers
  52. 52. . T o R e n o T o C a r s o n C ity 8 98 9 8 9 2 8 2 8 4 3 1 5 0 2 0 7 L a k e T a h o e Woodburn’s Lake Valley Saw Mill 1860 – 1890’s Saga I pg185 Gruener pg 13 Pray’s Mills 1860 -1873 Saga I pg 265 D. L Bliss Mills 1873- 1897 Saga I pg 270 Goff and Morill Mills 1863 -1871 Hit a cannon ball 1871. Saga I pg 267 Saga I pg 196, Grreuner pg 4 Saw Mill Pond Celio 1927 to 1940’s Celio Lumber Co. (Upper Lake Valley) 1905 converted to steam 1910 to 1920 Saga I pg 196 Hobart Mills 1878 – 1897 Sierra Nevada Wood and Lumber Co. Saga I pg 305 Augustus Saxton’s Mill in Tahoe Park. 1863 to 1877 54-foot high overshot double circular saw. Provided ties for the Central Pacific Railroad Saga I pg 57 Lucky Baldwin Mill on Fallen Leaf Lake 1890’s Saga I pg 145 Heavenly Valley Creek Mill 1859 Saga I pg185 Folsom Mills 1888 Saga I pg 240 Spooner, Elliott Brother, Davis Mills Saga I pg 270 Saw Mills Howe and Montrose saw mill Saga I pg 240 William M. Cary Grist Mills 1864 Saga I pg 236 Flood, Fair, O’ Brian, MacKay 1874 - Pacific Wood, Lumber and Fluming Co. Marlette, Folsom wood camp #1 1881 to 1888, Overton 1888 -1895 Saga I pg 317 H. E. Casey Saw Mill Flat 1881 1896 Saga I pg 342 Augustus Colwell Mills 1867 -1877 Saga I pg 91 1860 Pixley’s SawMill Farest Picture Anitonuccipg 68
  53. 53. Fallen Leaf Lake SawmillFallen Leaf Lake Sawmill  Lucky Baldwin's Sawmill at the NW end of Fallen Leaf Lake.Lucky Baldwin's Sawmill at the NW end of Fallen Leaf Lake.  The mill was used for milling lumber for some of the TallacThe mill was used for milling lumber for some of the Tallac Resort buildings. Photo is from 1938 after Anita BaldwinResort buildings. Photo is from 1938 after Anita Baldwin converted it into a boathouse and garage. The building toconverted it into a boathouse and garage. The building to the right is a bathhouse.the right is a bathhouse.
  54. 54. **How Did the Wood Get to theHow Did the Wood Get to the (Pray) Glenbrook Mills?(Pray) Glenbrook Mills?  Cut trees down, put into the lakeCut trees down, put into the lake (being dragged on wooden rails or(being dragged on wooden rails or later by train) and “log booms”later by train) and “log booms” towed to Glenbrook.towed to Glenbrook.  D.L. Bliss, “No trees less than 15D.L. Bliss, “No trees less than 15 inches in diameter at the base shouldinches in diameter at the base should be cut because of the most scenic ofbe cut because of the most scenic of forests should not be ruined.”forests should not be ruined.”
  55. 55. Chain Loading Logs into a Solid WheeledChain Loading Logs into a Solid Wheeled Wagon with a Six Ox TeamWagon with a Six Ox Team
  56. 56. 16 Horses Hauling Logs to the Lake or16 Horses Hauling Logs to the Lake or Mills Before TrainsMills Before Trains
  57. 57. Tripod Log Loaders/UnloadersTripod Log Loaders/Unloaders
  58. 58. Ox Teams Hauling Logs on a SpurOx Teams Hauling Logs on a Spur Track to the Lake or MillsTrack to the Lake or Mills
  59. 59. Trains dump the logs to Lake TahoeTrains dump the logs to Lake Tahoe
  60. 60. Log Booms in TahoeLog Booms in Tahoe
  61. 61. On the way to Spooner SummitOn the way to Spooner Summit switchbacksswitchbacks
  62. 62. **How Do You Move the LumberHow Do You Move the Lumber Down Hill?Down Hill?  1867 V-flume for lumber inventor J.W.1867 V-flume for lumber inventor J.W. Haines.Haines.  Fill with water or grease the sides, let goFill with water or grease the sides, let go and shoot!and shoot!  1873 Carson and Tahoe Lumber and1873 Carson and Tahoe Lumber and Fluming Company, D. L. Bliss and HumeFluming Company, D. L. Bliss and Hume Yerington had a 12 mile long V-flume fromYerington had a 12 mile long V-flume from Spooner’s summit to Carson City.Spooner’s summit to Carson City.  Then load the wood on the V& T Railroad.Then load the wood on the V& T Railroad.
  63. 63. The Carson and Tahoe Lumber andThe Carson and Tahoe Lumber and Fluming Company Railroad atFluming Company Railroad at Spooner SummitSpooner Summit
  64. 64. SpoonerSpooner Summit “V”Summit “V” Flume –Flume – FlowingFlowing TowardsTowards Carson CityCarson City ThroughThrough Clear CreekClear Creek CanyonCanyon
  65. 65. ““V” Flume down Clear CreekV” Flume down Clear Creek Canyon (Current Highway 50)Canyon (Current Highway 50)
  66. 66. ““V” flume to Carson City YardV” flume to Carson City Yard  
  67. 67. Virginia and Truckee Train FlumeVirginia and Truckee Train Flume JunctionJunction
  68. 68. Virginia City Burned Down in 1875.Virginia City Burned Down in 1875. How Did Virginia City Increase theHow Did Virginia City Increase the Water Supply?Water Supply? 1.1. A 12 foot dam at Marlette Lake. Marlette Lake, elevationA 12 foot dam at Marlette Lake. Marlette Lake, elevation 7823 feet, is on the Tahoe side of the Carson Range.7823 feet, is on the Tahoe side of the Carson Range. 2.2. Built a wooden flume to carry water to Incline Village.Built a wooden flume to carry water to Incline Village. 3.3. Blasted a 4000 foot tunnel through the Carson Range.Blasted a 4000 foot tunnel through the Carson Range. 4.4. After the tunnel the water emptied into Hobart Lake.After the tunnel the water emptied into Hobart Lake. 5.5. An 8 inch wrought iron pipe from Hobart Lake to VirginiaAn 8 inch wrought iron pipe from Hobart Lake to Virginia City. 7 mile inverted siphon. (Oklahoma credit card)City. 7 mile inverted siphon. (Oklahoma credit card) 6.6. Filled the reservoir in Virginia City with 10 million extraFilled the reservoir in Virginia City with 10 million extra gallons of water per day.gallons of water per day. 7.7. The Marlette Lake Flume on the Tahoe side is no longerThe Marlette Lake Flume on the Tahoe side is no longer used. Water from Marlette is still used by diesel poweredused. Water from Marlette is still used by diesel powered pumps during drought years. However, the Hobart topumps during drought years. However, the Hobart to Virginia City inverted siphon system has been in continuousVirginia City inverted siphon system has been in continuous use since 1875.use since 1875.
  69. 69. Virginia City Inverted Siphon MapVirginia City Inverted Siphon Map Marlette Lake 1876 Virginia City 1859 Flume Trail (bike) → Hobart Lake 1873
  70. 70.  Old-growth yellowOld-growth yellow pine forests (Jeffreypine forests (Jeffrey or Ponderosa pine)or Ponderosa pine)
  71. 71. Spooner Summit in the 1880’s True or False. Tahoe Has AlwaysTrue or False. Tahoe Has Always Had Acres and Acres of Trees?Had Acres and Acres of Trees?
  72. 72. Forest PlunderedForest Plundered  1875 C.F. McGlashan Sacramento paper “the1875 C.F. McGlashan Sacramento paper “the supply of lumber in the lake basin is by no meanssupply of lumber in the lake basin is by no means in-exhaustible.”in-exhaustible.”  1893 Carson City Appeal, “Forest Devastation.”1893 Carson City Appeal, “Forest Devastation.”  Since the 19th century, white fir and incenseSince the 19th century, white fir and incense cedar have doubled in relative abundance,cedar have doubled in relative abundance, whereas Jeffrey pine has declined by half. Treewhereas Jeffrey pine has declined by half. Tree density is currently 184% of historic conditions,density is currently 184% of historic conditions, most of which is comprised of trees less than 16"most of which is comprised of trees less than 16" in diameter.in diameter. http://www.fs.fed.us/r5/ltbmu/forest-http://www.fs.fed.us/r5/ltbmu/forest- plan/documents/ltbmu.shtmlplan/documents/ltbmu.shtml
  73. 73. TahoeTahoe LoggingLogging MapMap TRPA / Forest ServiceTRPA / Forest Service http://www.trpa.org/documents/agendashttp://www.trpa.org/documents/agendas /Archive/apc_agendas/1985/1985-/Archive/apc_agendas/1985/1985- JANUARY.PDFJANUARY.PDF
  74. 74. Lake Tahoe Fire LookoutsLake Tahoe Fire Lookouts  The Angora Fire Lookout served the Tahoe Basin’sThe Angora Fire Lookout served the Tahoe Basin’s fire surveillance needs for many years until it wasfire surveillance needs for many years until it was replaced in the late 1970s by improvements inreplaced in the late 1970s by improvements in aerial and satellite technology.aerial and satellite technology.  The first lookout was built in 1924 and was one ofThe first lookout was built in 1924 and was one of many standard lookout designs conceived bymany standard lookout designs conceived by forester Coert DuBois in 1914 to be used by theforester Coert DuBois in 1914 to be used by the Forest Service nationwide.Forest Service nationwide.  This structure was later converted into a smallThis structure was later converted into a small residence for the individuals in charge of theresidence for the individuals in charge of the lookout. In 1935, the Civilian Conservation Corpslookout. In 1935, the Civilian Conservation Corps constructed the current lookout alongside theconstructed the current lookout alongside the original and a third structure was built in theoriginal and a third structure was built in the 1940s that served as the garage.1940s that served as the garage. http://www.laketahoenews.net/2009/09/angora-lookout-needs-volunteershttp://www.laketahoenews.net/2009/09/angora-lookout-needs-volunteers
  75. 75. AngoraAngora
  76. 76. Comparison Lake Tahoe Basin forestsComparison Lake Tahoe Basin forests with the Sierra San Pedro Martirwith the Sierra San Pedro Martir (SSPM) in Baja, Mexico.(SSPM) in Baja, Mexico.  The SSPM forests are very similar to those of the LakeThe SSPM forests are very similar to those of the Lake Tahoe Basin in terms of overstory tree composition,Tahoe Basin in terms of overstory tree composition, rainfall, soils, and other ecological parameters.rainfall, soils, and other ecological parameters.  The SSPM have never been logged and still have theThe SSPM have never been logged and still have the historic fire regime intact.historic fire regime intact.  The stem densities are much lower in SSPM forestsThe stem densities are much lower in SSPM forests than in Lake Tahoe forests. For trees over 20 cmthan in Lake Tahoe forests. For trees over 20 cm diameter, densities arediameter, densities are  536 logged Tahoe sites536 logged Tahoe sites  324 unlogged Tahoe sites324 unlogged Tahoe sites  134 trees/hectare SSPM.134 trees/hectare SSPM. http://trg.ucdavis.edu/research/annualreport/contents/forest/article24.hthttp://trg.ucdavis.edu/research/annualreport/contents/forest/article24.ht mlml
  77. 77.  Sierra San PedroSierra San Pedro Martir divides BajaMartir divides Baja California into anCalifornia into an eastern sector (Saneastern sector (San Felipe side) and aFelipe side) and a western sector (forwestern sector (for about 200 km southabout 200 km south of Ensenada). Theof Ensenada). The highest peak in thehighest peak in the range is about 3,100range is about 3,100 meters (10,200meters (10,200 feet). Typical coniferfeet). Typical conifer species includespecies include White Fir, Sugar PineWhite Fir, Sugar Pine and Jeffery Pine.and Jeffery Pine. Snow usually coatsSnow usually coats the highest peaks ofthe highest peaks of the range duringthe range during winterwinter
  78. 78. Forest PlunderedForest Plundered  The 200,000 acre forest surrounding Lake TahoeThe 200,000 acre forest surrounding Lake Tahoe is currently overly dense and stressed. 536 treesis currently overly dense and stressed. 536 trees per acre in logged areas. 134 trees per acre inper acre in logged areas. 134 trees per acre in comparison of similar forest.comparison of similar forest.  Understanding that fires are not avoidable, if youUnderstanding that fires are not avoidable, if you are a fire fighter fighting a fire, which forestare a fire fighter fighting a fire, which forest density would you prefer to defend?density would you prefer to defend?  134 trees per acre.134 trees per acre.  Remember the Angora Fire June 24, 2007.Remember the Angora Fire June 24, 2007.  536 trees per acre536 trees per acre  Due to drought, overstocked forest stands, andDue to drought, overstocked forest stands, and the suppression of fire since the Comstockthe suppression of fire since the Comstock logging era, some of the Tahoe Basin's forestslogging era, some of the Tahoe Basin's forests are in a serious state of decline.are in a serious state of decline.  http://www.usda.gov/news/tahoe/eight.htm137http://www.usda.gov/news/tahoe/eight.htm137
  79. 79. One Minute ReviewOne Minute Review  What was the most useful orWhat was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned duringmeaningful thing you learned during this session?this session?  What question(s) remain upper-mostWhat question(s) remain upper-most in your mind as we end this session?in your mind as we end this session?
  80. 80. Chapter 8 Quiz QuestionChapter 8 Quiz Question  Describe how theDescribe how the lumber got from alumber got from a standing tree instanding tree in Tahoe to a VirginiaTahoe to a Virginia City mine “squareCity mine “square set.”set.”

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