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Class 2 fremont and gold 2015

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Class 2 fremont and gold 2015

  1. 1. You know you’reYou know you’re a Tahoe Local if:a Tahoe Local if: YourYour winterwinter householdhousehold planningplanning starts instarts in June!June!
  2. 2. OrographicOrographic precipitationprecipitation  Dams: CaliforniaDams: California versus inversus in NevadaNevada  Cave Creek Dam, Cave Creek Reservoir, Nevada Department of Conservation and Natural Resources  Davis Dam, Lake Mohave, United States Bureau of Reclamation  Derby Dam (diversion dam), USBR  Echo Canyon Dam, Echo Canyon Reservoir, Nevada DCNR  Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, USBR  Lahontan Dam, Lake Lahontan USBR  Rye Patch Dam, Rye Patch Reservoir, USBR  South Fork Dam, South Fork Reservoir, Nevada DCNR  Lake Tahoe Dam, Lake Tahoe, USBR (on California / Nevada border)  unnamed levee, Topaz Lake, Walker Dams in California Dams in Nevada
  3. 3. Piute Last Week We LearnedLast Week We Learned  Week #1- Ancient Peoples,Week #1- Ancient Peoples, Tahoe Geology, Tahoe’s treesTahoe Geology, Tahoe’s trees  This week #2:This week #2:  United States History prior toUnited States History prior to 18441844  Emigrant Trail beginningsEmigrant Trail beginnings  Chapter 3- John C. Fremont –Chapter 3- John C. Fremont – 18441844  Chapter 4 – Gold California andChapter 4 – Gold California and Tahoe GoldTahoe Gold
  4. 4. Tahoe StatisticsTahoe Statistics  22 miles long22 miles long  12 miles wide12 miles wide  72 miles around72 miles around  Deepest spot is 1638 feet deepDeepest spot is 1638 feet deep  You can sink the Empire StateYou can sink the Empire State Building in the deepest part ofBuilding in the deepest part of Tahoe and have to look downTahoe and have to look down 150 feet to see the top!150 feet to see the top! (including broadcast antenna(including broadcast antenna reaches 1472 ft)reaches 1472 ft)  Averages 1000 feet deepAverages 1000 feet deep  Approximately 39 trillionApproximately 39 trillion gallons of water. What wouldgallons of water. What would Tahoe’s net worth would be ifTahoe’s net worth would be if you bottled and sold the water?you bottled and sold the water?
  5. 5. Value of Tahoe Water On TheValue of Tahoe Water On The Open MarketOpen Market  39 trillion gallons39 trillion gallons  $6.00/quart in Cabo San Lucas$6.00/quart in Cabo San Lucas Sheraton, June 2006Sheraton, June 2006  $24/gallon$24/gallon  $936 trillion dollars$936 trillion dollars  USA National debt-USA National debt-  09/28/2009 $18+ trillion09/28/2009 $18+ trillion  http://www.usdebtclock.org/http://www.usdebtclock.org/
  6. 6. Tahoe Is in the Sierra NevadaTahoe Is in the Sierra Nevada Range.Range.  What does Sierra Nevada mean?What does Sierra Nevada mean?  Sierra – sawtooth or capSierra – sawtooth or cap  Nevada – Nevar – Spanish for snowNevada – Nevar – Spanish for snow  We live in the “snow capped” mountains.We live in the “snow capped” mountains.  There is a mountain range named SierraThere is a mountain range named Sierra Nevada in Spain.Nevada in Spain.  Named by Padre Pedro Font in 1776Named by Padre Pedro Font in 1776 looking East near Antioch, California.looking East near Antioch, California.
  7. 7. SierraNevada
  8. 8. California - Where Does the Word Come From?California - Where Does the Word Come From? Either the Spanish name of an earthlyEither the Spanish name of an earthly paradise, in a 16paradise, in a 16thth century novel or fromcentury novel or from the Spanish phrase, hot as a furnace,the Spanish phrase, hot as a furnace, color de fornicolor de forni Dictionary of Word OriginsDictionary of Word Origins Joseph T. Shipley LittlefieldJoseph T. Shipley Littlefield Adams and Co. Totowa New Jersey 1974 pg 335Adams and Co. Totowa New Jersey 1974 pg 335 In the 1510 Spanish author MontalvoIn the 1510 Spanish author Montalvo wrotewrote Las Sergas de EsplandiánLas Sergas de Esplandián (The(The Exploits of Esplandian). The storyExploits of Esplandian). The story described the Island of California and itdescribed the Island of California and it is populated by Amazon black womenis populated by Amazon black women lead by Queen Califia. Their weaponslead by Queen Califia. Their weapons were all made of gold. The islandwere all made of gold. The island abounds with gold and precious stones…"abounds with gold and precious stones…" Pacific Ocean explorer Cortez beingPacific Ocean explorer Cortez being familiar with the story initially named thefamiliar with the story initially named the “Island” (later learned it was a“Island” (later learned it was a peninsula) in 1535 after the gold island.peninsula) in 1535 after the gold island. Rolle/Graines The Golden State: A History of California 2Rolle/Graines The Golden State: A History of California 2ndnd ed Harlaned Harlan Davidson Inc. 1979 Pg 31Davidson Inc. 1979 Pg 31
  9. 9. This 1669 map shows California as an island.
  10. 10. 1720 map shows California as an island.
  11. 11. 1750 map shows California not an island
  12. 12. Early Spanish CaliforniaEarly Spanish California  1769 Spanish Colonization of California started1769 Spanish Colonization of California started with San Diego Mission.with San Diego Mission.  Padre Sera was a priest developing mission. ThePadre Sera was a priest developing mission. The distant property owner - was the King of Spain.distant property owner - was the King of Spain. Charles III (1759 – 1788).Charles III (1759 – 1788).  1792 American fur trading vessel1792 American fur trading vessel ColumbiaColumbia RedivivaRediviva (commonly known as the(commonly known as the ColumbiaColumbia)) was a privately owned ship under Captain Robertwas a privately owned ship under Captain Robert Gray, best known for going to the PacificGray, best known for going to the Pacific Northwest for the maritime fur trade. TheNorthwest for the maritime fur trade. The "Rediviva" ("Rediviva" (LatinLatin "revived") was added to her"revived") was added to her name upon a rebuilding in 1787. Sincename upon a rebuilding in 1787. Since ColumbiaColumbia was privately owned, she did not carry the prefixwas privately owned, she did not carry the prefix designation "USS” and came for the sea otterdesignation "USS” and came for the sea otter pelts (Sea Otter pelt 600,000 hairs per squarepelts (Sea Otter pelt 600,000 hairs per square inch sold for 120 Spanish silver dollars/pelt ininch sold for 120 Spanish silver dollars/pelt in China – equivalent of about $2,400)China – equivalent of about $2,400) John Vaillant TheJohn Vaillant The Golden Spruce Norton and Company 2005 page 19Golden Spruce Norton and Company 2005 page 19 .. Warren A. BeckWarren A. Beck The CaliforniaThe California Experience: a literal odysseyExperience: a literal odyssey Peregrine Smith 1976 pg 50Peregrine Smith 1976 pg 50
  13. 13. Spanish Missions -1769 to 1833
  14. 14. Land Ownership Changed FromLand Ownership Changed From Spain to Mexico ThroughSpain to Mexico Through RancherosRancheros  1821 Mexico wins Independence from1821 Mexico wins Independence from Spain.Spain.  1833 (12 years later) Mexican1833 (12 years later) Mexican Government has control from the SpanishGovernment has control from the Spanish missionaries and granted rancheros to themissionaries and granted rancheros to the soldiers who had fought for Mexico,soldiers who had fought for Mexico, pledged allegiance to Mexico and enteredpledged allegiance to Mexico and entered the Catholic faith.the Catholic faith.  There were exceptions for some who didThere were exceptions for some who did not fight in the war.not fight in the war.
  15. 15. Early California (future LuckyEarly California (future Lucky Baldwin land)Baldwin land)  1839 (1845) Hugo Reid received1839 (1845) Hugo Reid received provisional title to Rancho Santa Anitaprovisional title to Rancho Santa Anita after becoming a naturalized citizen andafter becoming a naturalized citizen and promised to embrace the Catholicpromised to embrace the Catholic religion. (Similar to homesteading)religion. (Similar to homesteading)  Land Grants – Rancheros – The titleLand Grants – Rancheros – The title “Don” were given the owners of the“Don” were given the owners of the rancheros.rancheros.  1875 Lucky Baldwin (famed Tahoe1875 Lucky Baldwin (famed Tahoe resident) purchased the 8,500 acre Santaresident) purchased the 8,500 acre Santa Anita Ranchero. By 1879 he addedAnita Ranchero. By 1879 he added Ranchos: Portero Grande, de Felipe Lugo,Ranchos: Portero Grande, de Felipe Lugo, La Puente, and San Francisquito (46,000La Puente, and San Francisquito (46,000 acres in total).acres in total). California Arboretum FoundationCalifornia Arboretum Foundation Historic Santa Anita: The Development of the LandHistoric Santa Anita: The Development of the Land 20042004 pg 8 -13pg 8 -13
  16. 16. Russians in CaliforniaRussians in California  The Russian-American FurThe Russian-American Fur Company came in 1805 at FortCompany came in 1805 at Fort Ross, above Bodega Bay andRoss, above Bodega Bay and was the principal center ofwas the principal center of Russian activities to growRussian activities to grow supplies for their fellowsupplies for their fellow workers in Alaska.workers in Alaska.  By 1841, over hunting of sealBy 1841, over hunting of seal and sea otters and increasinglyand sea otters and increasingly hostile relations with the Pomohostile relations with the Pomo Indians the Russians leftIndians the Russians left California. They sold theirCalifornia. They sold their moveable property to newmoveable property to new Sacramento resident JohnSacramento resident John Sutter in 1841.Sutter in 1841. Beck WilliamsBeck Williams California: ACalifornia: A History of the Golden StateHistory of the Golden State 1972 DoubleDay and Co. Inc.1972 DoubleDay and Co. Inc. Page 95Page 95
  17. 17. Watercolor of Fort Ross by Il'iaWatercolor of Fort Ross by Il'ia Voznesenky, 1841Voznesenky, 1841
  18. 18. Map of Bodega Bay and Russian RiverMap of Bodega Bay and Russian River Fort Ross
  19. 19. Fort Ross
  20. 20. U n it e d S t a te s 1 8 0 3 S p a n is h o r o th e r ru le U n it e d S t a te s Lo u is ia n a P u rc h a s e 1 8 0 3 N o rt h w e s t Te rrit o r y ThirteenoriginalColonies Louisiana Purchase
  21. 21. US History ContinuedUS History Continued  Lewis and Clark were instructed by PresidentLewis and Clark were instructed by President Jefferson to:Jefferson to:  A. Map a new route to the Pacific OceanA. Map a new route to the Pacific Ocean  B. Make contact with the Native AmericansB. Make contact with the Native Americans  C. Obtain specimens for further studyC. Obtain specimens for further study  D. Keep a full record of activities during theD. Keep a full record of activities during the ExpeditionExpedition  Lewis & Clark along with the Corps of DiscoveryLewis & Clark along with the Corps of Discovery departed from Camp Dubois, (On the east side ofdeparted from Camp Dubois, (On the east side of the Mississippi and Missouri river confluence, directlythe Mississippi and Missouri river confluence, directly East of St. Louis Missouri) on May 14, 1804.East of St. Louis Missouri) on May 14, 1804.  1805 Lewis and Clark passed Fort Vancouver (WA)1805 Lewis and Clark passed Fort Vancouver (WA) and reached the Oregon coast after 18 months ofand reached the Oregon coast after 18 months of travel.travel. California Chronology; A Period of 350 years 1510-1860California Chronology; A Period of 350 years 1510-1860
  22. 22. 1804 - 18061804 - 1806 1805 Fort Ross had1805 Fort Ross had already put a moratoriumalready put a moratorium on sea otter peltson sea otter pelts Spain/ Mexico Russia USA England
  23. 23. M is s o u ri C o m p ro m is e 1 8 2 0 N o rt h e rn F re e S o il S o u th e rn S la v e S o il M isso u ri# 2 4 M a in e # 2 3 F re e S o il S la v e s o il O h io R iv e r 3 6 ’3 0 F e d e ra l Te rrito r y U n ite d S ta t e s S p a n is h R u le 1 7 6 9 u n til 1 8 2 1 th e n M e x ic o SpanishRule until1821then UnitedStates U S a n d B rit is h c o - ru le 1 8 1 8 u n til 1 8 4 6 Missouri is North of theMissouri is North of the Ohio River. This opposesOhio River. This opposes the ban of slavery by thethe ban of slavery by the Northwest Ordinance ofNorthwest Ordinance of 17871787
  24. 24. California HistoryCalifornia History  1838, Sutter went to Fort Vancouver, WA,1838, Sutter went to Fort Vancouver, WA, (remember Lewis and Clark 1805) in hopes of(remember Lewis and Clark 1805) in hopes of finding a ship that would take him to Sanfinding a ship that would take him to San Francisco Bay.Francisco Bay.  His journey involved detours to the HawaiianHis journey involved detours to the Hawaiian Islands and to a Russian colony at Sitka, Alaska.Islands and to a Russian colony at Sitka, Alaska.  1839 July: In California, John Sutter becomes a1839 July: In California, John Sutter becomes a California Mexican citizen and Catholic, thenCalifornia Mexican citizen and Catholic, then receives a land grant along the Sacramento River.receives a land grant along the Sacramento River. California Chronology; A Period of 350 years 1510-1860California Chronology; A Period of 350 years 1510-1860
  25. 25. California HistoryCalifornia History  Sutter was granted nearly fiftySutter was granted nearly fifty thousand acres and authorized "tothousand acres and authorized "to represent in the establishment of Newrepresent in the establishment of New Helvetia for Mexico.”Helvetia for Mexico.”  Sutter's Swiss-inspired name for hisSutter's Swiss-inspired name for his colonycolony New HelvetiaNew Helvetia was built on thewas built on the Sacramento River.Sacramento River.  http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/sutter.http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/sutter. htmhtm
  26. 26. California HistoryCalifornia History  1839 April Sutter built Sutter's Fort, clay1839 April Sutter built Sutter's Fort, clay bricks from Sutterville Bricks structure withbricks from Sutterville Bricks structure with walls eighteen feet high and three feetwalls eighteen feet high and three feet thick.thick.  1841 built a farm named Hock Farm 201841 built a farm named Hock Farm 20 miles north near Yuba City on the Feathermiles north near Yuba City on the Feather River.River.  1841 the Russians abandoned Fort Ross,1841 the Russians abandoned Fort Ross, and after trying several other buyers theyand after trying several other buyers they offered the furnishings to John Sutter foroffered the furnishings to John Sutter for thirty thousand dollars.thirty thousand dollars.  http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/sutter.htmhttp://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/sutter.htm
  27. 27. 9 years after Sutter first arrived.9 years after Sutter first arrived. Purposefully built on higher ground.Purposefully built on higher ground. South of the America River and East ofSouth of the America River and East of the Sacramento River.the Sacramento River.
  28. 28.  1948 Sutter deeded his land to his son, John Sutter, Jr. The1948 Sutter deeded his land to his son, John Sutter, Jr. The younger Sutter began laying out the Sacramento town siteyounger Sutter began laying out the Sacramento town site in January 1849 and selling lots with Sam Brannan.in January 1849 and selling lots with Sam Brannan.  May 12: Sam Brannan set off gold fever in San FranciscoMay 12: Sam Brannan set off gold fever in San Francisco when he waved a bottle of gold dust and shouted "Gold!when he waved a bottle of gold dust and shouted "Gold! Gold! Gold from the American River!" He received the goldGold! Gold from the American River!" He received the gold as payment for goods he sold in his store at New Helvetiaas payment for goods he sold in his store at New Helvetia at Sutter's Fort.at Sutter's Fort.  Sutter moved to Hock Farm, near Yuba City, with his wifeSutter moved to Hock Farm, near Yuba City, with his wife and children. In 1865, Hock Farm was burned down by aand children. In 1865, Hock Farm was burned down by a disgruntled worker. Sutter then decided to try to obtaindisgruntled worker. Sutter then decided to try to obtain reimbursement from Congress for his help settlingreimbursement from Congress for his help settling California; his aid to emigrants; and his losses from havingCalifornia; his aid to emigrants; and his losses from having his Sobrante Land Grant declared invalid by the courts.his Sobrante Land Grant declared invalid by the courts.  In 1871, he moved to Lititz, Pennsylvania because of hisIn 1871, he moved to Lititz, Pennsylvania because of his poor health. On June 16, 1880, Congress adjournedpoor health. On June 16, 1880, Congress adjourned without passing a bill that would have given Sutter $50,000without passing a bill that would have given Sutter $50,000 as reimbursement. Two days later John Sutter died ofas reimbursement. Two days later John Sutter died of heart failure in Washington D.C.. Mrs. Sutter died theheart failure in Washington D.C.. Mrs. Sutter died the following January.following January.
  29. 29. From 1864 to 1873 Sacramento built up the streets 10 to 12 feet high. Choice for building owners , either raise the whole building 10 feet and put on blocks or left the building same level and walked in the second floor! Historic tours are available for the under ground
  30. 30. John C Fremont Stages in LifeJohn C Fremont Stages in Life 1813 - 18901813 - 1890  StudentStudent – Fremont studied excelled in math (and– Fremont studied excelled in math (and starts a life long hobby of questioning authority) atstarts a life long hobby of questioning authority) at Charleston (S.C.) College but was expelled in 1831Charleston (S.C.) College but was expelled in 1831 for bad attendance, he eventually obtains anfor bad attendance, he eventually obtains an degree and teaches mathematics on board USSdegree and teaches mathematics on board USS Natchez.Natchez.  Explorer / Map makerExplorer / Map maker - 5 expeditions covering- 5 expeditions covering 30,000 miles over land surveying and recording30,000 miles over land surveying and recording findings of plant and animals. Expedition#2 hefindings of plant and animals. Expedition#2 he wrote down the sighting of Lake Tahoe Februarywrote down the sighting of Lake Tahoe February 14, 1844 and it was his map made on this trip14, 1844 and it was his map made on this trip used to determine the California Nevada border inused to determine the California Nevada border in the California Constitutional Convention 1849.the California Constitutional Convention 1849.  Gold Mine OwnerGold Mine Owner – Mariposa County (near– Mariposa County (near Yosemite) through a deception of a friend buyingYosemite) through a deception of a friend buying him land.him land.  MilitaryMilitary – Leader in the California Bear Flag Revolt– Leader in the California Bear Flag Revolt - Mexican War and a general in the Civil War,- Mexican War and a general in the Civil War, found guilty of mutiny 1848 for disobeying ordersfound guilty of mutiny 1848 for disobeying orders after the Mexican War.after the Mexican War.  PoliticalPolitical – one of the first two California Senators,– one of the first two California Senators, two time presidential candidate - First Republicantwo time presidential candidate - First Republican Presidential candidate 1856, Ran against AbrahamPresidential candidate 1856, Ran against Abraham Lincoln for president 1864, appointed Governor ofLincoln for president 1864, appointed Governor of Arizona.Arizona.
  31. 31. Ft. Laramie
  32. 32. Fremont’s Father-in-law and WifeFremont’s Father-in-law and Wife 28 year old Fremont elopes with 16 year old Jessie Benton- Fremont in 1841 Missouri 1st Democratic Senator Thomas Hart “Bullion” Benton. Proponent of US currency being backed by gold!
  33. 33.  After two surveys as an understudy, in 1842 Nicollet gets sick soAfter two surveys as an understudy, in 1842 Nicollet gets sick so John C. Fremont becomes the leader of hisJohn C. Fremont becomes the leader of his FirstFirst TopographicalTopographical Expedition. It mapped the trail to the South Pass andExpedition. It mapped the trail to the South Pass and RockyRocky MountainsMountains. (Fremont Peak). (Fremont Peak)  Frémont was his own astronomer, hypsometrist (measureFrémont was his own astronomer, hypsometrist (measure elevation), meteorologist, geologist, botanist, and ethnographerelevation), meteorologist, geologist, botanist, and ethnographer (study of people) --later surveys employed specialists.(study of people) --later surveys employed specialists.
  34. 34. 22ndnd Expedition 1843– 44 TahoeExpedition 1843– 44 Tahoe  1843 to 18441843 to 1844 SecondSecond TopographicalTopographical ExpeditionExpedition, started to the Oregonstarted to the Oregon region through the South Pass.region through the South Pass. Eventually byEventually by TahoeTahoe into Californiainto California and back to St. Louis.and back to St. Louis.  Explore the land, survey and map it,Explore the land, survey and map it, record the location of Indian groupsrecord the location of Indian groups and gather as much “scientific”and gather as much “scientific” (reconnaissance) information about it(reconnaissance) information about it as was possible.as was possible.  ““Manifest Destiny” Atlantic to Pacific.Manifest Destiny” Atlantic to Pacific.
  35. 35. M iss o u ri Mississippi S t J o s e p h C o lu m b ia R iv e r John C. Fremont 2nd trip 1843-John C. Fremont 2nd trip 1843- 1844 Route – Tahoe Discovery1844 Route – Tahoe Discovery Thirty-one year old Second Lieutenant John Charles Frémont's second Topographical Expedition, left Missouri June 5, 1843, and, mapping the Oregon Trail, had traveled to Fort Vancouver. Instead of returning east, the Expedition turned south in Oregon to explore the Great Basin. November 18, 1843 February 14, 1844 January 26, 1844 March 8, 1844 June 5, 1843 August 6, 1844 The expedition was comprised of 39 men and 104 horses and mules and a bronze howitzer cannon.
  36. 36. The Pyramid and Domes, a line of dome-shaped tufa rocks in Pyramid Lake, Nevada photographed in 1867. Taken as part of Clarence King's Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel, Timothy O'Sullivan's mesmerizing pictures of the other-worldly rock formations at Pyramid Lake committed the sacred native American Indian site to camera for the first time. O’Sullivan photographed the land in the 1860s and 1870s. http://www.dailymail.co.uk,/news/article-2149899/The- American-West-youve-seen-Amazing-1 9th-century-pictures-landscape-chartered-time.html
  37. 37. Fremont’sFremont’s CannonCannon  January 29, 1844. BrevetJanuary 29, 1844. Brevet Captain John C. Frémont,Captain John C. Frémont, West Walker River,West Walker River, "It"It was of the kind inventedwas of the kind invented by the French for theby the French for the mountain part of theirmountain part of their war in Algierswar in Algiers. We left. We left it, to the great sorrow ofit, to the great sorrow of the whole party."the whole party."  TheThe Fremont CannonFremont Cannon isis awarded to each season'sawarded to each season's winner the collegewinner the college football game betweenfootball game between the University of Nevada,the University of Nevada, Las Vegas and theLas Vegas and the University of NevadaUniversity of Nevada Reno.Reno.
  38. 38. Where Was Fremont StandingWhere Was Fremont Standing When He First Saw Lake Tahoe?When He First Saw Lake Tahoe?  Red Lake Peak near Carson Pass.Red Lake Peak near Carson Pass.  Highway 88 on the way to KirkwoodHighway 88 on the way to Kirkwood Ski Resort.Ski Resort.
  39. 39. . Red Lake Peak near Carson Pass
  40. 40. Near the Top of Red Lake PeakNear the Top of Red Lake Peak Lake TahoeLake Tahoe
  41. 41. Long Camp View Fremont and Preuss saw from Red Lake Peak
  42. 42. Lake Tahoe First Named:Lake Tahoe First Named:  Washoe - Da ow a ga “Edge of the lake”Washoe - Da ow a ga “Edge of the lake”  Da ow – “life sustaining water”Da ow – “life sustaining water”  Pruess cartographer for Fremont –Pruess cartographer for Fremont – Mountain LakeMountain Lake  Fremont - Lake Bonpland after FrenchFremont - Lake Bonpland after French botanist who traveled with Humboldt.botanist who traveled with Humboldt.  Lake Bigler – third governor of CaliforniaLake Bigler – third governor of California
  43. 43. 120º Longitude 39º Latitude 35º Latitude Fremont’s 1848 MapFremont’s 1848 Map
  44. 44. 1848 Fremont map1848 Fremont map
  45. 45. Stevens-Murphy-TownsendStevens-Murphy-Townsend Split Many Times PartySplit Many Times Party  The Stevens-Murphy-Townsend wagon trainThe Stevens-Murphy-Townsend wagon train left Council Bluffs, Iowa, in May 1844.left Council Bluffs, Iowa, in May 1844. (Fremont was in Sacramento in March 1844)(Fremont was in Sacramento in March 1844)  The trail that they made, opened the EmigrantThe trail that they made, opened the Emigrant Trail for the Donner Party two years after andTrail for the Donner Party two years after and became the route of the 1869 Transcontinentalbecame the route of the 1869 Transcontinental Railroad through the Sierra Range. Same timeRailroad through the Sierra Range. Same time as the 1844 “Micheltorena War."as the 1844 “Micheltorena War." http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1955/4/1http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1955/4/19
  46. 46. Stevens-Murphy-TownsendStevens-Murphy-Townsend  At Fort Hall, Idaho they separated from theAt Fort Hall, Idaho they separated from the Oregon party. At Raft River, eleven wagons inOregon party. At Raft River, eleven wagons in line and headed south and west, following theline and headed south and west, following the wheel tracks of an emigrant party that Joewheel tracks of an emigrant party that Joe Walker, the famous mountain man, had tried toWalker, the famous mountain man, had tried to take to California the year before, but had totake to California the year before, but had to leave the wagons and finished the trip with theleave the wagons and finished the trip with the animals and on foot.animals and on foot.  The party followed the Humboldt 300 milesThe party followed the Humboldt 300 miles river to the Sink. On the advice of an Indianriver to the Sink. On the advice of an Indian chief, whom they called Truckee, they decidedchief, whom they called Truckee, they decided to go West (directly up and over the Sierrato go West (directly up and over the Sierra Nevadas).Nevadas). http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1955/4/19http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1955/4/19
  47. 47. Stevens-Murphy-Townsend PartyStevens-Murphy-Townsend Party 18441844 Future Idaho Future Utah Future Nevada Future California Future Oregon Future Oregon
  48. 48. Stevens-Murphy-Townsend Party – TheStevens-Murphy-Townsend Party – The Split Many Times party Pre Gold RushSplit Many Times party Pre Gold Rush  1844: Townsend-Murphy-1844: Townsend-Murphy- Stevens Party crossed theStevens Party crossed the Sierra Nevada at DonnerSierra Nevada at Donner Summit. Six of theSummit. Six of the “horseback party” split to“horseback party” split to follow the Truckee River tofollow the Truckee River to Lake Tahoe on NovemberLake Tahoe on November 16, 1844, but did not write16, 1844, but did not write about seeing Lake Tahoe.about seeing Lake Tahoe.  Moses SchallenbergerMoses Schallenberger stayed the winter and builtstayed the winter and built a cabin that was used twoa cabin that was used two years later by the Donneryears later by the Donner party.party. . T o R e n o T o C a r s o n C ity 8 98 9 8 9 2 8 2 8 4 3 1 5 0 2 0 7 L a k e T a h o e The “6” Moses stays
  49. 49. Murphy-Stevens-TownsendMurphy-Stevens-Townsend PartyParty  MosesMoses Schallenberger, atSchallenberger, at the age ofthe age of seventeen stayedseventeen stayed the winter.the winter.
  50. 50. Big BendBig Bend  Big Bend was named after the "big bend"Big Bend was named after the "big bend" of the South Yuba river, and was theof the South Yuba river, and was the winter camp of the Stephens party ofwinter camp of the Stephens party of 1844. Members of the Stephens party1844. Members of the Stephens party were trapped there by heavy winterwere trapped there by heavy winter snows in November 1844.snows in November 1844.  The rescue party left the survival campThe rescue party left the survival camp on December 6. Some rode horses, whileon December 6. Some rode horses, while others walked to Sutter's Fort.others walked to Sutter's Fort.
  51. 51. Big Bend was laterBig Bend was later named after the "bignamed after the "big bend" of the Southbend" of the South Yuba river, and wasYuba river, and was the winter camp ofthe winter camp of the Stephens party ofthe Stephens party of 1844-451844-45
  52. 52. Surprise for the Stevens Murphy TownsendSurprise for the Stevens Murphy Townsend Rescue Party at Sutter's FortRescue Party at Sutter's Fort  John Sutter (not Fremont) was involved in the 1844John Sutter (not Fremont) was involved in the 1844 “Micheltorena War" a revolution in Mexican ruled“Micheltorena War" a revolution in Mexican ruled California. Sutter had sided with MicheltorenaCalifornia. Sutter had sided with Micheltorena (eventually was on the losing side) and was overjoyed(eventually was on the losing side) and was overjoyed to find 21 well armed men who were coerced to jointo find 21 well armed men who were coerced to join him on an expedition to Santa Barbara.him on an expedition to Santa Barbara.  Party Captain Elisha Stephens led the group as far asParty Captain Elisha Stephens led the group as far as Monterey, then convinced Sutter that they were notMonterey, then convinced Sutter that they were not needed, and returned to Sutter's Fort. They gatheredneeded, and returned to Sutter's Fort. They gathered supplies and headed back to rescue their families,supplies and headed back to rescue their families, leaving on February 20, 1845 for the Sierra.leaving on February 20, 1845 for the Sierra.  The entire Stephens party arrived in Sacramento withThe entire Stephens party arrived in Sacramento with two more people than they started with, thanks to twotwo more people than they started with, thanks to two births along the trail.births along the trail.
  53. 53. Fremont's 3Fremont's 3rdrd TopographicalTopographical Expedition 1845 – 1846Expedition 1845 – 1846 Mexican WarMexican War  General Jose Castro of the MexicanGeneral Jose Castro of the Mexican Government in Monterey felt Fremont wasGovernment in Monterey felt Fremont was loitering (accused of stealing horses andloitering (accused of stealing horses and insulting the daughter of a prominentinsulting the daughter of a prominent Californio) and was asked to leave.Californio) and was asked to leave.  Fremont took his time. March 4, 1846 andFremont took his time. March 4, 1846 and defiantly he planted the US flag on Hawk Peakdefiantly he planted the US flag on Hawk Peak Gabilan Range, about six miles southeast ofGabilan Range, about six miles southeast of San Juan Bautista (30 miles from Monterey).San Juan Bautista (30 miles from Monterey).  Unknown to Fremont at the time, on March 9,Unknown to Fremont at the time, on March 9, 18461846 General Zachary Taylor's troopsGeneral Zachary Taylor's troops crossed the Nueces River into Mexicocrossed the Nueces River into Mexico intending to go war with Mexico. Skirmishintending to go war with Mexico. Skirmish on 4/25/ 1846 near the Rio Grand.on 4/25/ 1846 near the Rio Grand.
  54. 54. Fremont's 3Fremont's 3rdrd TopographicalTopographical Expedition 1845 – 1846Expedition 1845 – 1846 Mexican WarMexican War  Fremont eventually headed to Oregon mappingFremont eventually headed to Oregon mapping the west side of the Sierra’s. On the way he wasthe west side of the Sierra’s. On the way he was attacked by Modoc Indians near Lake Klamathattacked by Modoc Indians near Lake Klamath now Oregon.now Oregon.  May 9, 1846 Lieutenant Archibald H. Gillespie,May 9, 1846 Lieutenant Archibald H. Gillespie, (after traveling across Mexico to California(after traveling across Mexico to California carrying special messages from Secretary ofcarrying special messages from Secretary of State Buchanan to Thomas Larkin Consul atState Buchanan to Thomas Larkin Consul at Monterey) showed Fremont a copy of theMonterey) showed Fremont a copy of the dispatch to Larkin, as well as a packet of lettersdispatch to Larkin, as well as a packet of letters from father-in-law Senator Benton.from father-in-law Senator Benton.  Fremont (map maker) immediately went back toFremont (map maker) immediately went back to help with the Bear Flag Revolt.help with the Bear Flag Revolt.
  55. 55. Talbot, Kern and Walker Fremont Kit Carson Lt. Archibald H. GillespieLt. Archibald H. Gillespie Klamath Lake ORKlamath Lake OR Hawthorn NVHawthorn NV
  56. 56. Fremont's Third TopographicalFremont's Third Topographical Expedition 1845 - 1846Expedition 1845 - 1846  Navy Commodore Stockton asked him to bringNavy Commodore Stockton asked him to bring northern troops “California Battalion” to defeatnorthern troops “California Battalion” to defeat the Mexican Californio’s. Fremont wins.the Mexican Californio’s. Fremont wins.  January 13, 1847 (Lower ranking) FremontJanuary 13, 1847 (Lower ranking) Fremont signs a Treaty to end the war with Mexicansigns a Treaty to end the war with Mexican General Andres Pico at Cahuenga Pass (nearGeneral Andres Pico at Cahuenga Pass (near Los Angeles River) to sign the Treaty ofLos Angeles River) to sign the Treaty of Cahuenga for Northern Mexico - CaliforniaCahuenga for Northern Mexico - California  Higher ranking Army General Kearny andHigher ranking Army General Kearny and Navy Commodore Stockton were in LosNavy Commodore Stockton were in Los Angeles, not in attendance at the treatyAngeles, not in attendance at the treaty signing and apparently disgruntled.signing and apparently disgruntled. The Campo de CahuengaThe Campo de Cahuenga State Historic Park is located atState Historic Park is located at 3919 Lankershim Boulevard,3919 Lankershim Boulevard, North Hollywood, CaliforniaNorth Hollywood, California USA, across the street fromUSA, across the street from Universal Studios.Universal Studios.
  57. 57.  1846 March 9: Mexico and United States1846 March 9: Mexico and United States have a skirmish over the boundary alonghave a skirmish over the boundary along the Rio Grande. Mexico takes the firstthe Rio Grande. Mexico takes the first battle across the Rio Grande into Texas.battle across the Rio Grande into Texas.  1846 May 11, US President James Polk “…1846 May 11, US President James Polk “… the cup of forbearance (has) beenthe cup of forbearance (has) been exhausted,” and that “American bloodexhausted,” and that “American blood (has) been spilled on American soil.”(has) been spilled on American soil.” www.vivasancarlos.comwww.vivasancarlos.com Actually the spot Polk talkedActually the spot Polk talked about was in America but not within theabout was in America but not within the United States (or Texas) border. PoliticalUnited States (or Texas) border. Political rhetoric (doublespeak) to start a war is notrhetoric (doublespeak) to start a war is not new!new!  With United States Federal Army troopsWith United States Federal Army troops (not Texan) General Zachary Taylor drives(not Texan) General Zachary Taylor drives the Mexican Army back across the Riothe Mexican Army back across the Rio Grande.Grande.
  58. 58. Te x a s a n n e x e d b y U n it e d S t a te s 1 8 4 5 M e x ic a n ru le U n it e d S t a te s R e p u b lic o f Te x a s United StatesMexico Rio Grande Texas Republic President James Polk 1845-49 Manifest DestinyUnited States After the Mexican war 1848 Nueces River 3/4/1846 Fremont is in California defiantly planting the US flag near Monterey during his 3rd Expedition 4/25/1846 Zachary Taylor and US Army skirmish with Mexican Army. 5/9/1846 Archibald Gillespie meets Fremont and Fremont turns back to help the Bear Flag Revolt
  59. 59. Fremont's Volunteer Brigade: five Delaware Indians, a personalFremont's Volunteer Brigade: five Delaware Indians, a personal guard, and assorted mountain men.guard, and assorted mountain men.
  60. 60. Commodore Stockton's Naval SquadronCommodore Stockton's Naval Squadron Stockton sailed with a fourteen piece ItalianStockton sailed with a fourteen piece Italian band, to nourish his love of music.band, to nourish his love of music.
  61. 61. Fremont’sFremont’s Court-martialCourt-martial  Army General Kearny would not recognize Fremont'sArmy General Kearny would not recognize Fremont's military appointment by Navy Commodore Stockton.military appointment by Navy Commodore Stockton. Fremont defiantly refused to follow Army GeneralFremont defiantly refused to follow Army General Kearny's orders. He rationalized that he wasKearny's orders. He rationalized that he was commissioned by Stockton. When Stockton sailedcommissioned by Stockton. When Stockton sailed away from California, Fremont stayed with Kearnyaway from California, Fremont stayed with Kearny and was later arrested for mutiny.and was later arrested for mutiny.  The US hero, battler winner Fremont was taken toThe US hero, battler winner Fremont was taken to Washington, D.C., found guilty and court-martialed.Washington, D.C., found guilty and court-martialed.  President Polk remitted the sentence, but FremontPresident Polk remitted the sentence, but Fremont was bitter and resigned.was bitter and resigned.
  62. 62.  In 1847, during the Mexican war Frémont gave $3,000 to ThomasIn 1847, during the Mexican war Frémont gave $3,000 to Thomas O. Larkin, the U. S. Consul to the Territory of California, in orderO. Larkin, the U. S. Consul to the Territory of California, in order to by the Santa Cruz Rancho, a choice piece of property locatedto by the Santa Cruz Rancho, a choice piece of property located near San Jose.near San Jose.  Later Frémont happened to meet Mr. Larkin at a social function,Later Frémont happened to meet Mr. Larkin at a social function, and found out that Larkin had not bought the Santa Cruz Ranchoand found out that Larkin had not bought the Santa Cruz Rancho as he had agreed to do, but instead had bought a wild tract of landas he had agreed to do, but instead had bought a wild tract of land somewhere high in the Sierra Nevada called the Las Mariposasomewhere high in the Sierra Nevada called the Las Mariposa Rancho.Rancho.  On the negative side the Las Mariposa Rancho Land Grant wasOn the negative side the Las Mariposa Rancho Land Grant was inaccessible, a hundred miles from the nearest settlement, oneinaccessible, a hundred miles from the nearest settlement, one hundred and fifty miles from San Francisco, with no farming land,hundred and fifty miles from San Francisco, with no farming land, too wild and cold in winter even to graze cattle, and overrun withtoo wild and cold in winter even to graze cattle, and overrun with hostile Indians. Quite possibly, Larkin may have bought the Santahostile Indians. Quite possibly, Larkin may have bought the Santa Cruz Ranch for himself.Cruz Ranch for himself.  On the positive side, gold was discovered near his property,On the positive side, gold was discovered near his property, Frémont became less bitter. All Fremont had to do was have someFrémont became less bitter. All Fremont had to do was have some boundary lines changed in his favor and potentially becoming veryboundary lines changed in his favor and potentially becoming very rich. It is speculated that his political connections may haverich. It is speculated that his political connections may have helped alter the Rancho boundaries in his favor.helped alter the Rancho boundaries in his favor. http://www.malakoff.com/goldcountry/mariposa.htmhttp://www.malakoff.com/goldcountry/mariposa.htm Fremont the FortuitousFremont the Fortuitous Gold MinerGold Miner
  63. 63. 1848-491848-49 44thth Expedition -Expedition - RailroadRailroad  Privately funded to find a southern pass for a railroad.Privately funded to find a southern pass for a railroad. 10 men died due to a harsh winter.10 men died due to a harsh winter.  Moved to California because he made money with aMoved to California because he made money with a California gold mine he purchased in February 1846 –California gold mine he purchased in February 1846 – Mariposa County.Mariposa County.
  64. 64. Fremont the PoliticianFremont the Politician He bought real estate inHe bought real estate in San Francisco, winningSan Francisco, winning election as U.S. senatorelection as U.S. senator from California. Hefrom California. He drew the short termdrew the short term and served only fromand served only from Sept. 9, 1850, to MarchSept. 9, 1850, to March 4, 1851.4, 1851.  Afterward he visitedAfterward he visited Paris and London,Paris and London, where he raised fundswhere he raised funds for ambitious schemesfor ambitious schemes on the Mariposa Goldon the Mariposa Gold Mine.Mine.
  65. 65. 1853-541853-54 55thth Expedition -Expedition - RailroadRailroad  Trying to redeem his failed efforts inTrying to redeem his failed efforts in 1848-49 he wanted to show the southern1848-49 he wanted to show the southern route of Colorado’s San Juan Mountainsroute of Colorado’s San Juan Mountains was a good path for an all year roundwas a good path for an all year round railway.railway.  Another cold winter!Another cold winter!  Last expedition for John C. Fremont butLast expedition for John C. Fremont but more public service to come with the Civilmore public service to come with the Civil War and Presidential politics.War and Presidential politics.
  66. 66. Fremont’s 1856Fremont’s 1856 PresidentialPresidential campaigncampaign Wm Dayton fromWm Dayton from New Jersey VPNew Jersey VP
  67. 67. John C. FremontJohn C. Fremont  1856 First1856 First nominatednominated RepublicanRepublican President. LostPresident. Lost to Buchanan.to Buchanan. Free Speech—Free Speech— Free Press--Free Press-- Free Kansas--Free Kansas-- FrémontFrémont
  68. 68. Fremont the CivilFremont the Civil War GeneralWar General
  69. 69. John C. FremontJohn C. Fremont  1861 August 31 Civil War1861 August 31 Civil War Major General who freed slavesMajor General who freed slaves in Missouri (a border state!)in Missouri (a border state!) before Lincoln Emancipationbefore Lincoln Emancipation Proclamation in theProclamation in the Confederate States.Confederate States.  1861 October 24 – Lincoln1861 October 24 – Lincoln removed him from commandremoved him from command of the Army of the West.of the Army of the West.  Re-instated, undersuppliedRe-instated, undersupplied then lost battles to Stonewallthen lost battles to Stonewall Jackson and asked to beJackson and asked to be relieved of duty.relieved of duty. Boston Daily Evening Transcript August 31, 1861Boston Daily Evening Transcript August 31, 1861
  70. 70. 1864 –Fremont’s1864 –Fremont’s second presidentialsecond presidential campaigncampaign Fremont (CA) / Cochrane (NY)Fremont (CA) / Cochrane (NY) Lincoln (IL) / Johnson (TN)Lincoln (IL) / Johnson (TN) McClellan (NY) / Pendleton (OH)McClellan (NY) / Pendleton (OH)
  71. 71.  In the 1860s Frémont lost fortunes in railroadIn the 1860s Frémont lost fortunes in railroad promotion and speculation on never-built lines:promotion and speculation on never-built lines: the Kansas Pacific, Southwest Pacific, Atlantic &the Kansas Pacific, Southwest Pacific, Atlantic & Pacific, Memphis, El Paso & Pacific.Pacific, Memphis, El Paso & Pacific.  It is ironic that one of the world's great fortunesIt is ironic that one of the world's great fortunes was made in the building of the Central Pacific RRwas made in the building of the Central Pacific RR between 1863 and 1869 bybetween 1863 and 1869 by The Big FourThe Big Four alongalong the very route Frémont had traveled in 1845 andthe very route Frémont had traveled in 1845 and rejected as unfeasible in 1854.rejected as unfeasible in 1854.  Frémont lived to cross the continent by railFrémont lived to cross the continent by rail several times.several times.  http://www.longcamp.com/calif_routes_45-46/1845_pass_route.htmlhttp://www.longcamp.com/calif_routes_45-46/1845_pass_route.html
  72. 72. Fremont: the Absent ArizonaFremont: the Absent Arizona Territorial GovernorTerritorial Governor  In 1878 Fremont was appointed to the GovernorshipIn 1878 Fremont was appointed to the Governorship of the territory of Arizona.of the territory of Arizona.  5 months passed before Fremont even entered the5 months passed before Fremont even entered the Arizona territory. He immediately went East afterArizona territory. He immediately went East after giving his annual report of the territory.giving his annual report of the territory.  He was back East from 1879-1881, Jesse BentonHe was back East from 1879-1881, Jesse Benton Fremont remained in the East.Fremont remained in the East.  While Governor of Arizona Fremont tried to establishWhile Governor of Arizona Fremont tried to establish a lottery system that would pay for schools anda lottery system that would pay for schools and public buildings.public buildings.  Fremont was gone for so long back East that hisFremont was gone for so long back East that his Secretary of the Territory John Gosper was doing hisSecretary of the Territory John Gosper was doing his job for him.job for him.  Fremont returned to the Arizona territory in OctoberFremont returned to the Arizona territory in October of 1881 and resigned his office.of 1881 and resigned his office.
  73. 73. Fremont con’tFremont con’t  1873 Fremont1873 Fremont retired from publicretired from public life after the warlife after the war and devoted hisand devoted his time and money totime and money to building a southernbuilding a southern railroad to therailroad to the Pacific Ocean. ThePacific Ocean. The project collapsedproject collapsed and Fremont lost hisand Fremont lost his fortune.fortune.  Died July 13, 1890.Died July 13, 1890. Buried in Piermont,Buried in Piermont, New York.New York.  In his time he wasIn his time he was consideredconsidered American’s WestAmerican’s West greatest explorer.greatest explorer. Jessie BentonJessie Benton Fremont, "From theFremont, "From the ashes of hisashes of his camping sites havecamping sites have sprung cities."sprung cities."
  74. 74. One Minute ReviewOne Minute Review  What was the most useful orWhat was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned duringmeaningful thing you learned during this session?this session?  What question(s) remain upper-mostWhat question(s) remain upper-most in your mind as we end this session?in your mind as we end this session?
  75. 75. Piute So Far We LearnedSo Far We Learned  Chapter One - Tahoe Geology, Tahoe’sChapter One - Tahoe Geology, Tahoe’s treestrees  Ancient peoplesAncient peoples  Chapter Two - United States HistoryChapter Two - United States History prior to 1844prior to 1844  Emigrant Trail beginningsEmigrant Trail beginnings  Chapter Three - John C. Fremont –Chapter Three - John C. Fremont – 18441844  Townsend-Murphy-Stevens PartyTownsend-Murphy-Stevens Party 18441844  This hour #2:This hour #2:  Donner Party 1846 - 1847Donner Party 1846 - 1847  Chapter Four - California Gold RushChapter Four - California Gold Rush
  76. 76. You know you’reYou know you’re a Tahoe Local if:a Tahoe Local if: You cameYou came for thefor the weekendweekend and youand you stayed forstayed for a lifetime.a lifetime.
  77. 77. Lady of the LakeLady of the Lake
  78. 78. Location of Cave RockLocation of Cave Rock .
  79. 79. The Journey West –The Journey West – Ocean or OverlandOcean or Overland  Three ways to get to California: aroundThree ways to get to California: around South America, Atlantic – Panama -South America, Atlantic – Panama - Pacific or the Overland Trail.Pacific or the Overland Trail.  It has been estimated that someIt has been estimated that some 200,000 people took the Emigrant Trail200,000 people took the Emigrant Trail to California between 1840 and 1860,to California between 1840 and 1860, one of the largest peacetime migrationone of the largest peacetime migration in history.in history.  53,000 people traveled the Oregon Trail53,000 people traveled the Oregon Trail during that same period.during that same period. http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/trailofthe49ers/trail.hthttp://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/trailofthe49ers/trail.ht
  80. 80. Overland Journey WestOverland Journey West  California’s Anglo population in 1848-14,000California’s Anglo population in 1848-14,000 1860-300,000. (opposite trend for Indians)1860-300,000. (opposite trend for Indians)  The journey to California usually began at St,The journey to California usually began at St, Joseph, Missouri, Independence, Missouri orJoseph, Missouri, Independence, Missouri or Council Bluffs, Iowa around the first of May.Council Bluffs, Iowa around the first of May.  If travelers left too early, the roads would beIf travelers left too early, the roads would be too muddy, the rivers too full and the grass tootoo muddy, the rivers too full and the grass too immature;immature;  too late, the feed would be all eaten andtoo late, the feed would be all eaten and trampled,trampled,  there was danger of being trapped in thethere was danger of being trapped in the Sierras by an early snowfall.Sierras by an early snowfall. Warren A. BeckWarren A. Beck TheThe California Experience: A Literary OdysseyCalifornia Experience: A Literary Odyssey 1976 Peregrine Smith pg1976 Peregrine Smith pg 7272
  81. 81. What Group of Pioneers WereWhat Group of Pioneers Were Trapped in the Sierra Nevada’s inTrapped in the Sierra Nevada’s in the Winter of 1846-1847?the Winter of 1846-1847? Donner Party (The same winter of the Bear FlagDonner Party (The same winter of the Bear Flag Revolt and Mexican War)Revolt and Mexican War)  The Donner party were using heavy wagons,The Donner party were using heavy wagons, leadership indecision, uncooperative members, andleadership indecision, uncooperative members, and choosing the wrong advice. Purchased Hasting’schoosing the wrong advice. Purchased Hasting’s book.book.  The rule was, due to snow fall it is safe to,The rule was, due to snow fall it is safe to, be overbe over the Sierras no later than October 1.the Sierras no later than October 1.  They left Independence, Missouri on May 12, 1846.They left Independence, Missouri on May 12, 1846. That meant they had 141 days to go about 2200That meant they had 141 days to go about 2200 miles. Must average 15.6 miles per day tomiles. Must average 15.6 miles per day to make itmake it overover by October 1, 1846.by October 1, 1846.  Unfortunately, the Donner party averaged 12.9Unfortunately, the Donner party averaged 12.9 miles per day andmiles per day and made it to Donner Lake onmade it to Donner Lake on October 29, 1846October 29, 1846. Snow fell and fell and fell…. Snow fell and fell and fell…
  82. 82. Overland Emigrant Trails: 1846 Donner Party took the low road (southern) : Hastings Cut-off St. Joseph Independence Council Bluffs Donner Party Trail Conventional Trail Salt Lake City settled in 1846 Fort Bridger Sutter’s Fort CALIFORNIA MISSOURI KANSAS COLORADO UTAH NEVADA IOWA NEBRASKA SOUTH DAKOTA NORTH DAKOTA WYOMING IDAHO MONTANA OREGON WASHINGTON Fort Hall October 29, 1846 May 12,May 12, 18461846 Mormon’s leave Nauvoo, Illinois toward Salt Lake City - February 4, 1846
  83. 83. Donner Party 1846 Shorter Distance / LongerDonner Party 1846 Shorter Distance / Longer Time Due to Difficult Wagon TerrainTime Due to Difficult Wagon Terrain Hastings Cut-off
  84. 84. Snow depth was 22 feet that winter
  85. 85. Donner Lake locationDonner Lake location .
  86. 86. California Early Gold HistoryCalifornia Early Gold History  Gold mining was done by Spaniards asGold mining was done by Spaniards as early as 1780-81 in the Cargoearly as 1780-81 in the Cargo Muchacho Mountains, in SouthernMuchacho Mountains, in Southern California. Later, mining was resumedCalifornia. Later, mining was resumed under Mexican rule.under Mexican rule.  The Cargo Muchacho District receivedThe Cargo Muchacho District received it's name of Cargo Muchacho, orit's name of Cargo Muchacho, or “Loaded Boy” when two young Mexican“Loaded Boy” when two young Mexican boys came into camp one evening withboys came into camp one evening with their shirts loaded with gold.their shirts loaded with gold.  http://www.goldmaps.com/calif/california_gold_minehttp://www.goldmaps.com/calif/california_gold_mine s_1.htms_1.htm
  87. 87. CargoCargo MuchachoMuchacho First recorded gold finding in California 1780-1781
  88. 88. California Gold HistoryCalifornia Gold History  1842: Placer gold (surface gold) was discovered by1842: Placer gold (surface gold) was discovered by Francisco Lopez (near Magic Mountain in SouthernFrancisco Lopez (near Magic Mountain in Southern California Newhall) in Placerita Canyon. FirstCalifornia Newhall) in Placerita Canyon. First commercial gold mining in California. From 1842 tocommercial gold mining in California. From 1842 to 1847, miners culled some 1,300 pounds of gold from1847, miners culled some 1,300 pounds of gold from Placerita.Placerita. Leon WordenLeon Worden Some history texts need re-writingSome history texts need re-writing, The Signal paper January 24, 1996, The Signal paper January 24, 1996  Spring 1848, Lt. William Tecumseh Sherman (LaterSpring 1848, Lt. William Tecumseh Sherman (Later Northern Civil War General) Chapter II memoirs whenNorthern Civil War General) Chapter II memoirs when he was stationed at Monterey CA in the office of the 5he was stationed at Monterey CA in the office of the 5thth California Military Governor Colonel Richard BarnesCalifornia Military Governor Colonel Richard Barnes Mason (1847-1849).Mason (1847-1849). “Two men came with a letter“Two men came with a letter containing a small piece of gold from Sutter’s Mill. Still,containing a small piece of gold from Sutter’s Mill. Still, we attached little importance to the fact,we attached little importance to the fact, for gold wasfor gold was known to exist at San Fernando (Placeritaknown to exist at San Fernando (Placerita Canyon),Canyon), at the south, and yet was not considered ofat the south, and yet was not considered of much value.”much value.” http://www.militarymuseum.org/sherman4.htmlhttp://www.militarymuseum.org/sherman4.html
  89. 89. Placerita Canyon.Placerita Canyon. First commercial goldFirst commercial gold mining California.mining California. From 1842 to 1847From 1842 to 1847 US-Mexican War 1846-1848
  90. 90. California History 1848California History 1848  January 24January 24th:th: Gold was discovered at Coloma,Gold was discovered at Coloma, California 8 miles north of Placerville on theCalifornia 8 miles north of Placerville on the South Fork of the American River.South Fork of the American River.  To put the California gold discovery in worldTo put the California gold discovery in world history perspective; In 1847 the total worldhistory perspective; In 1847 the total world supply of gold was 75 tons. The California goldsupply of gold was 75 tons. The California gold production 1851 alone was 77 tons and in 1853production 1851 alone was 77 tons and in 1853 (at the peak of production) was 93 tons.(at the peak of production) was 93 tons. • The Great American Gold Rush: Timeline, pictures and history FrancisThe Great American Gold Rush: Timeline, pictures and history Francis F. Steen, Communications Studies, University of California Los AngelesF. Steen, Communications Studies, University of California Los Angeles web site.web site.
  91. 91. Sutter’s Mill shut down in 1852
  92. 92. California History 1848California History 1848  Feb 2: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.Feb 2: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Official document to end the Mexican war,Official document to end the Mexican war, $15,000,000 payment for the property$15,000,000 payment for the property was signed giving United States Title towas signed giving United States Title to California, Colorado, Utah TerritoryCalifornia, Colorado, Utah Territory (included Nevada), Arizona, New Mexico(included Nevada), Arizona, New Mexico and Texas.and Texas.  The Treaty was officially ratified by theThe Treaty was officially ratified by the United States government May 30, 1848.United States government May 30, 1848.  New problem, which states are to be slaveNew problem, which states are to be slave or free to keep voting balance in theor free to keep voting balance in the Senate equal?Senate equal? • The Mexican War David Saville Muzzy, Ph.D. Barnard College,The Mexican War David Saville Muzzy, Ph.D. Barnard College, Columbia University, New York 1911 American HistoryColumbia University, New York 1911 American History
  93. 93. Who Were the 49er’s?Who Were the 49er’s?  Placer GoldPlacer Gold prospectorsprospectors  Oro is gold theOro is gold the element/metal.element/metal.  Dorado is gold theDorado is gold the color (or golden).color (or golden).
  94. 94. California Gold RushCalifornia Gold Rush  December 1848 President James Polk –December 1848 President James Polk – “The Gold Rush in California was genuine.”“The Gold Rush in California was genuine.”  Horace Greeley reported: “CaliforniaHorace Greeley reported: “California Fever” New York Tribune.Fever” New York Tribune.  California's largest gold nugget, was foundCalifornia's largest gold nugget, was found at Carson Hill in Calaveras County in 1854at Carson Hill in Calaveras County in 1854 above the Stanislaus River. It weighedabove the Stanislaus River. It weighed (160) 195 pounds and was valued at(160) 195 pounds and was valued at $43,534 in the currency of the day.$43,534 in the currency of the day. http://comspark.com/chronicles/fastfacts.shtmlhttp://comspark.com/chronicles/fastfacts.shtml http://www.historichwy49.com/goldfact.htmlhttp://www.historichwy49.com/goldfact.html
  95. 95. Gold Fever StoriesGold Fever Stories  The lawyer abandoned his client. The farmer his fields,The lawyer abandoned his client. The farmer his fields, the mate his vessel – 600 vessels abandoned in Santhe mate his vessel – 600 vessels abandoned in San Francisco Bay. The California Army Lt. WilliamFrancisco Bay. The California Army Lt. William Tecumseh Sherman lost Army forces – all caught upTecumseh Sherman lost Army forces – all caught up with the excitement- all anxious to see for themselves.with the excitement- all anxious to see for themselves.  A servant returned in a few weeks with over $2000.A servant returned in a few weeks with over $2000.  Four men at the Feather River diggings collected moreFour men at the Feather River diggings collected more than $75,000 in a few weeks.than $75,000 in a few weeks.  A 14 year old boy cleared more than $34,000 in lessA 14 year old boy cleared more than $34,000 in less than two months.than two months.  Two men took $1,000 in one day.Two men took $1,000 in one day.  A little girl found a stone almost of pure gold weighingA little girl found a stone almost of pure gold weighing 7 pounds.7 pounds.  Military Governor Richard Mason reported to hisMilitary Governor Richard Mason reported to his superiors in mid-August 1848 he had first-handsuperiors in mid-August 1848 he had first-hand knowledge placers were producing $30,000 to $40,000knowledge placers were producing $30,000 to $40,000 per day.per day. Beck WilliamsBeck Williams California: A History of the Golden StateCalifornia: A History of the Golden State 19721972 Doubleday and Co. Inc. Page 124Doubleday and Co. Inc. Page 124
  96. 96. Comparison of land based Emigration to Oregon (blue) and CaliforniaComparison of land based Emigration to Oregon (blue) and California (burgundy) between 1840 and 1860. The graph in the exhibit has been(burgundy) between 1840 and 1860. The graph in the exhibit has been reformatted to better fit the graphic design of the exhibitreformatted to better fit the graphic design of the exhibit http://www.fs.fed.us/r5/tahoe/documents/big_bend/emigrant_tr.htmhttp://www.fs.fed.us/r5/tahoe/documents/big_bend/emigrant_tr.htm 1840 1850 1860 Gold rush California 1849 Gold and Silver Nevada 1859
  97. 97. California gold production: 1849-today Hard Road West, 2007, Figure 13.6, p. 267
  98. 98. http://ourworld.compuserve .com/homepages/trailofthe 49ers/sea.htm
  99. 99. San Francisco 1850
  100. 100.  During the Gold Rush of 1849 and 1850s there were no railroads, airplanes, orDuring the Gold Rush of 1849 and 1850s there were no railroads, airplanes, or automobiles. The fastest mode of transportation to the first stop for the gold fields,automobiles. The fastest mode of transportation to the first stop for the gold fields, San Francisco, was aboard a vessel. By the summer of 1850, over 500 vessels wereSan Francisco, was aboard a vessel. By the summer of 1850, over 500 vessels were recorded as being anchored in the vicinity of Yerba Buena Cove. After they hadrecorded as being anchored in the vicinity of Yerba Buena Cove. After they had arrived, whole crews abandoned their ships, along with the passengers, to makearrived, whole crews abandoned their ships, along with the passengers, to make their way up to the gold fields. Many of the vessels were eventually left to rot, otherstheir way up to the gold fields. Many of the vessels were eventually left to rot, others were eventually used for such purposes as storeships, saloons, hotels, jails, andwere eventually used for such purposes as storeships, saloons, hotels, jails, and some were sunk purposefully to secure water lot titles (property that was originallysome were sunk purposefully to secure water lot titles (property that was originally underwater). As wood was scarce at the time, due to the many fires that swept theunderwater). As wood was scarce at the time, due to the many fires that swept the city and the increasing need for building material, many of the vessels were alsocity and the increasing need for building material, many of the vessels were also broken up for their timber as well as other parts such as the metal plating.broken up for their timber as well as other parts such as the metal plating.  By 1851, the wharves had extended out into the cove and numerous buildings hadBy 1851, the wharves had extended out into the cove and numerous buildings had been erected on piles near them. Over the next two decades, under variousbeen erected on piles near them. Over the next two decades, under various waterfront extension bills, Yerba Buena Cove was filled with sand from the downtownwaterfront extension bills, Yerba Buena Cove was filled with sand from the downtown area. According to Bancroft, a local historian, "As late as Jan '57 old hulks stillarea. According to Bancroft, a local historian, "As late as Jan '57 old hulks still obstructed the harbor while others had been overtaken by the bayward march of theobstructed the harbor while others had been overtaken by the bayward march of the city front and formed basements or cellars to tenements built on their decks. Evencity front and formed basements or cellars to tenements built on their decks. Even now [1888] remains of the vessels are found under the filled foundations of houses."now [1888] remains of the vessels are found under the filled foundations of houses." The cove was eventually enclosed by a seawall which was built from 1867 to 1869,The cove was eventually enclosed by a seawall which was built from 1867 to 1869, and which followed roughly along the same path as The Embarcadero.and which followed roughly along the same path as The Embarcadero. http://www.sfgenealogy.com/sf/history/hgshp1.htmhttp://www.sfgenealogy.com/sf/history/hgshp1.htm
  101. 101. 1850 Buried Ships in San1850 Buried Ships in San FranciscoFrancisco  San Francisco Chronicle 9/9/2005San Francisco Chronicle 9/9/2005 “The“The bones of the old ship were discovered lastbones of the old ship were discovered last week 20 feet below Folsom Street nearweek 20 feet below Folsom Street near Spear Street, the site of a 650-unitSpear Street, the site of a 650-unit building now under construction. Passers-building now under construction. Passers- by on Folsom Street could see the sternby on Folsom Street could see the stern section of a ship, lying on its side. Thesection of a ship, lying on its side. The ship was about 125 feet long, built of thickship was about 125 feet long, built of thick wooden timbers, and had a rudder about 6wooden timbers, and had a rudder about 6 feet high.”feet high.”
  102. 102.  There is a difference between money made and money kept.There is a difference between money made and money kept. Inflation, usury and profiteering was rampant. Inflation for neededInflation, usury and profiteering was rampant. Inflation for needed goods in 1849:goods in 1849:  Bacon $2 pound, shirts $30.Bacon $2 pound, shirts $30. LavenderLavender California A bicentennialCalifornia A bicentennial HistoryHistory Norton 1976 pg 55Norton 1976 pg 55  Flour $800/barrel, whisky $100 gallon.Flour $800/barrel, whisky $100 gallon. HutchinsonHutchinson California TheCalifornia The Golden Shore by the Sundown SeaGolden Shore by the Sundown Sea Star 1984 pg 88Star 1984 pg 88  Bankers and merchants kept most of the money.Bankers and merchants kept most of the money.  Charles Crocker, Collis Huntington, Mark Hopkins, Leland StanfordCharles Crocker, Collis Huntington, Mark Hopkins, Leland Stanford were merchants first.were merchants first.  Auto manufacturer Studebaker started as a wagon maker inAuto manufacturer Studebaker started as a wagon maker in Placerville CA.Placerville CA.  Jacob Davis of Reno NV inventor copper rivets to secure denimJacob Davis of Reno NV inventor copper rivets to secure denim fabric.fabric. Levi Strauss was a partner and wholesaler.Levi Strauss was a partner and wholesaler. H. DeWittH. DeWitt California Civilization: an interpretationCalifornia Civilization: an interpretation Kendall/Hunt Pub 1979Kendall/Hunt Pub 1979  Henry Wells and William Fargo offered miners secure, honestHenry Wells and William Fargo offered miners secure, honest banking services in their company, Wells, Fargo & Co.banking services in their company, Wells, Fargo & Co.  Pope Talbot Inc. Lumber CompanyPope Talbot Inc. Lumber Company Did the Miners Come Out on Top Financially FromDid the Miners Come Out on Top Financially From the Largest Gold Find in the World at That Time?the Largest Gold Find in the World at That Time?
  103. 103. California History 1849California History 1849  1849 October 13: Constitution of the State of California.1849 October 13: Constitution of the State of California. “Article 1 Declaration of Rights Sec 1. All men are by nature“Article 1 Declaration of Rights Sec 1. All men are by nature free and independentfree and independent,…, Article 12 BoundaryArticle 12 Boundary: TheThe boundary of the State of California shall be as follows:boundary of the State of California shall be as follows: Commencing at this point of intersection of 42nd degree ofCommencing at this point of intersection of 42nd degree of north latitude with the 120th degree of longitude westnorth latitude with the 120th degree of longitude west (Northeast corner of California/Oregon border) from(Northeast corner of California/Oregon border) from Greenwich, England. (a suburb of London, England)Greenwich, England. (a suburb of London, England) Running South on the line of said 120th degree of westRunning South on the line of said 120th degree of west longitude until it intersects with the 39th degree of northlongitude until it intersects with the 39th degree of north latitude (unknown at the time the point is in Lake Tahoe);latitude (unknown at the time the point is in Lake Tahoe); thence running in a straight line in a South easterlythence running in a straight line in a South easterly direction to the River Colorado, at a point where itdirection to the River Colorado, at a point where it intersects the 35th degree of north latitudeintersects the 35th degree of north latitude; thence down the middle of the channel of said river, to the boundary linethe middle of the channel of said river, to the boundary line between the United Sates and Mexico, as established thebetween the United Sates and Mexico, as established the Treaty of May 30th, 1848; thence running west and alongTreaty of May 30th, 1848; thence running west and along said boundary line to the Pacific Ocean. Also all thesaid boundary line to the Pacific Ocean. Also all the islands, harbors and bays along adjacent to the Pacificislands, harbors and bays along adjacent to the Pacific Coast.” James Jones state delegate recommendation.Coast.” James Jones state delegate recommendation.  John C. Fremont became United States SenatorJohn C. Fremont became United States Senator representing California.`representing California.`
  104. 104. 1848 Fremont 1201848 Fremont 120ºº longitude linelongitude line
  105. 105. 1 2 0 1 2 0 4 2 3 9 3 5 La titu d e La titu d e La titu d e Lo n g it u d e Lo n g it u d e Ta h o e Colorado River 1860 H.A. Higley Survey party corrected the Fremont 120º longitude line
  106. 106. Gold in Tahoe?Gold in Tahoe? LandauerLandauer  A 1853 gold strike was reported in Lake Valley.A 1853 gold strike was reported in Lake Valley. Placerville Herald September 24, 1853Placerville Herald September 24, 1853  ““The discovery has been made. It is a fixedThe discovery has been made. It is a fixed fact and mines are now realizing from five tofact and mines are now realizing from five to seven dollars per day to the man.” The reportseven dollars per day to the man.” The report was given possibly due to Martin Smith (firstwas given possibly due to Martin Smith (first known year-round European resident in Tahoe.)known year-round European resident in Tahoe.)  1863 Centerville near Tahoe City had a strike1863 Centerville near Tahoe City had a strike that petered out after a short time.that petered out after a short time. Landauer pg 43Landauer pg 43  Tahoe was little affected by the Gold RushTahoe was little affected by the Gold Rush (because there was no gold) but the Silver(because there was no gold) but the Silver Rush made drastic changes.Rush made drastic changes.
  107. 107. Gold Close to TahoeGold Close to Tahoe  Near Squaw ValleyNear Squaw Valley August 1863August 1863  KnoxvilleKnoxville  ClaravilleClaraville  Between the two minesBetween the two mines 600 miners in six weeks.600 miners in six weeks.  Some stayed to formSome stayed to form Tahoe City.Tahoe City.  E.B ScottE.B Scott The Saga of Lake TahoeThe Saga of Lake Tahoe Sierra Tahoe Publishing 1960 pg 7Sierra Tahoe Publishing 1960 pg 7  Red, White and BlueRed, White and Blue mining district. Mt Plutomining district. Mt Pluto and Juniper Creek.and Juniper Creek.  Noonchester MineNoonchester Mine . T o R e n o T o C a r s o n C ity 8 98 9 8 9 2 8 2 8 4 3 1 5 0 2 0 7 L a k e T a h o e Knoxville Claraville Mt Pluto Juniper creek Red, White and Blue Mining District Noonchester Mine
  108. 108. Lake Tahoe North Shore Gold RushLake Tahoe North Shore Gold Rush  Prospectors thought they had found gold on theProspectors thought they had found gold on the Middle Fork of Martis Creek. Called the Red,Middle Fork of Martis Creek. Called the Red, White, and Blue Mining District. They wereWhite, and Blue Mining District. They were looking for quartz ledges laced with silver andlooking for quartz ledges laced with silver and gold.gold.  They were discovered by the California - NevadaThey were discovered by the California - Nevada boundary survey crew of 1863 by California.boundary survey crew of 1863 by California.  In May of 1863 the survey party had started workIn May of 1863 the survey party had started work at Lake Tahoe and was working north towards theat Lake Tahoe and was working north towards the Oregon border. Two unnamed survey membersOregon border. Two unnamed survey members found the promising ledges, deserted the surveyfound the promising ledges, deserted the survey party, and started mining operations. By July theparty, and started mining operations. By July the boom was in full swing.boom was in full swing. www.truckeehistory.tripod.comwww.truckeehistory.tripod.com
  109. 109. Tahoe GoldTahoe Gold  Prospectors dug 364 foot long tunnel of JuniperProspectors dug 364 foot long tunnel of Juniper Creek.Creek.  Frank Titus as "The Lost Dutchman's Mine",Frank Titus as "The Lost Dutchman's Mine", was located on the north side of Mount Pluto.was located on the north side of Mount Pluto. Quartz mines were later located aboveQuartz mines were later located above Brockway Hot Springs as well.Brockway Hot Springs as well.  The end came quickly in September. The quartzThe end came quickly in September. The quartz ore was not proving to match the assay values.ore was not proving to match the assay values.  A rumor of a new, more valuable gold strike inA rumor of a new, more valuable gold strike in the Reese River country of Nevada quicklythe Reese River country of Nevada quickly spread among the prospectors of the Red,spread among the prospectors of the Red, White, Blue District and the area emptied.White, Blue District and the area emptied. www.truckeehistory.tripod.comwww.truckeehistory.tripod.com
  110. 110. MiddleMartis Creek Mt Pluto Northstar Ski Resort Red, White and Blue Mining District Brockway Springs
  111. 111. Mt Pluto
  112. 112. Noonchester MineNoonchester Mine  The Noonchester Mine site is on the McKinneyThe Noonchester Mine site is on the McKinney Rubicon Springs Road. It was established byRubicon Springs Road. It was established by Londen Lee Noonchester.Londen Lee Noonchester.  In 1939 he discovered the gold, but delayedIn 1939 he discovered the gold, but delayed operation because of WWII until the mid 40’s.operation because of WWII until the mid 40’s. The value of the find based on assays, wasThe value of the find based on assays, was from $18 - $27 million. They planned to expandfrom $18 - $27 million. They planned to expand to 300 men milling 1,000 tons of ore daily.to 300 men milling 1,000 tons of ore daily.  They formed the "Lake Tahoe Gold MiningThey formed the "Lake Tahoe Gold Mining Company" with 1 million shares at $1 parCompany" with 1 million shares at $1 par value.value.  The ore turned out to be such a poor grade thatThe ore turned out to be such a poor grade that it was not possible to make a profit and it wasit was not possible to make a profit and it was abandoned.abandoned. http://us.geocities.com/dtmcbride/tahoe/noonch.htmlhttp://us.geocities.com/dtmcbride/tahoe/noonch.html
  113. 113. . T o R e n o T o C a r s o n C ity 8 98 9 8 9 2 8 2 8 4 3 1 5 0 2 0 7 Noonchester MineNoonchester Mine
  114. 114. One Minute ReviewOne Minute Review  What was the most useful orWhat was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned duringmeaningful thing you learned during this session?this session?  What question(s) remain upper-mostWhat question(s) remain upper-most in your mind as we end this session?in your mind as we end this session?
  115. 115. Summary and Quiz QuestionsSummary and Quiz Questions  Chapter 4 California GoldChapter 4 California Gold Rush 1849Rush 1849  Next Week #3Next Week #3  Chapter Five - Over Land TrailChapter Five - Over Land Trail  Chapter Six - Lust for SilverChapter Six - Lust for Silver

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