Meeting the Needs of Children with Special Needs Assignment Course Title: Inclusion of Children with Special Needs Corse Code: ECEP-233 Case Study Autism Spectrum Disorder Submitted to: Professor Lisa MacCal Submitted by: Tahmina Sultana Student ID: 30067438 Due Date: 4/4/2013
INTRODUCTION TO THE CHILD AND FAMILY• Jamie is almost three years old boy, is autistic• Jamie was diagnosed as an autistic child at 21 months of age.• Jamie is the youngest son of his parents and he has an older brother• They spent a long time at the hospital for Jamie.
INTRODUCTION TO THE CHILD AND FAMILY• Jamie and his family are new to Canada• The few months after the diagnosis were a complete roller coaster for his family.• His mom will never forget quite how many people she met and how many times they had to repeat their family history.• Mom spent most of the time crying or chasing up appointments on the phone. Her husband did not want to talk about it.
INTRODUCTION TO THE CHILD AND FAMILY• When Jamie’s family comes to me, considering this emotional trauma, Jamie and his family would be advised multiple services such as: – Settlement services – Health care service – Medical treatment – Consult with specialist – Join in counselling sessions organized by different organizations to cope with their struggles.
INTRODUCTION TO THE CHILD AND FAMILY• As an ECE, I will consider that most of the requirements for strong foundation of Jamie and his family who are new in Canada. I will also recommend this family: – Going to doctor and therapist – Learn skills and get information from website and other resources – Act as an advocate for Jamie in the community• By doing so, Jamie will feel comfortable and included in the society.
INTRODUCTION TO THE INDIVIDUAL SPECIAL NEED• From Jamie’s Scenario, he is profoundly autistic and was diagnosed that at 21 months old.What is autism?• Autism is the result of a neurological disorder that ― Affects the functioning of the brain ― May delay in language , play, or social interaction ― Is a combination of several developmental challenges ― Often appear relatively typical in their development until the age of 24-30 months
INTRODUCTION TO THE INDIVIDUAL SPECIAL NEED• Autism is a life long condition. Children can benefit from intervention and therapies. Early intervention and therapies can reduce symptoms and increase skills and abilities.• Symptoms are: – Social Challenges: Children with autism have difficulty of social play and understanding and interpreting others feelings. – Communication difficulties: Children may have delayed speaking and use gestures, doesn’t begin to speak until much later, etc. – Repetitive behaviours such as hand flapping, rocking, jumping, or twirling, repeating sound etc. – Physical and medical issues such as gastrointestinal disorder, tendency for chromic constipation or diarrhoea, etc. (Autism Speaks: Symptoms)
Facts and Stats• “Autism now affects 1 in 88 children and 1 in 54 boys (March 2012 statistic)• The 2012 numbers reflect a 78% increase in reported prevalence in the last 6 years• Autism prevalence figures are growing• Boys are four times more likely than girls to have autism• There is no medical detection or cure for autism” (Autism Speaks Canada: Facts and Stats)
INTRODUCTION TO THE INDIVIDUAL SPECIAL NEED• Causes of autism: – “Although a single specific cause of autism is not found – Current research links autism to biological or neurological differences in the brain. – There is a genetic basis to the disorder – No gene as been directly linked – Probably involves several genes in combination” – (Reading Package)
INTRODUCTION TO THE INDIVIDUAL SPECIAL NEEDCause Continued…• “Also there are some non genetic or environmental causes appear to further increase of a child’s risk. These risk factors involves before and during birth, such as: – Advanced Parental age at time of conception – Material illness during pregnancy – Certain difficulties during birth, particularly involving periods of oxygen deprivation to the baby’s brain.” (Autism Speaks: What Is Autism?)
INTRODUCTION TO THE INDIVIDUAL SPECIAL NEEDDifferent types of Autism Spectrum Disorder:• “The umbrella Autism Spectrum Disorder includes the following diagnosis: – Autism – Asperger’s Syndrome – Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) – Childhood Disintegrative Disorder” (Reading Package)
INTRODUCTION TO THE INDIVIDUAL SPECIAL NEED• Autism: – “Associated in social repetitive behaviours, difficulties in social interactions, communication, making changes, sensitive to sensory stimulation and to develop and sustain interests – Increased diagnosis, more common in boys – Lack of eye contact, loss of words, usually by age 3.” (Class handout week 3)
INTRODUCTION TO THE INDIVIDUAL SPECIAL NEED• Asperger’s Syndrome: – “Common characteristics to Autism – Children with Asperger’s Syndrome – Little impairment in language, cognitive or adaptive behaviour but still significant in social development – Common in boys” (Class Handout week 3)
INTRODUCTION TO THE INDIVIDUAL SPECIAL NEED• PDD: “PDD is used when other criterion of Autism do not fit with the child – Commonly referred to as a typical autism – Severe impairment in specified behaviours• Childhood Disintegrative Disorder: – “Normal development for at least the first 2 years. – Followed by a significant loss of previously acquired skills (Reading Package)
INTRODUCTION TO THE INDIVIDUAL SPECIAL NEED• Diagnosis system: – “There is no medical tests for diagnosis autism. – Diagnosis is based on observation and communication – Also behaviour developmental levels – Should be evaluated by multi disciplinary team.” (Reading Package)
INTRODUCTION TO THE INDIVIDUAL SPECIAL NEEDTreatment:There are different treatment services for children with sufferingfrom ASD. The process of care for each children will dependupon his/her needs and requirements:• Information of effects of ASD on a child• Behaviour therapy: proactive and reactive strategies• Speech-language intervention• Service co-ordination• Social work support: parent support groups (McMaster Children’s Hospital: Autism Spectrum Disorder Service)
MEETING THE NEEDS IN THE CHILD CARE CENTER• Involve parents in the program: – I will invite Jamie’s parents in the program to spend some time to interact with the children – It will help other typical children’s parents to inform about Jamie and his special needs – So that Jamie and his parents will feel like more included in the program – I will also suggest Jamie’s parents to record his behaviour and activities and share with me and other professionals
MEETING THE NEEDS IN THE CHILD CARE CENTER• Using Resources: – I will provide Jamie’s parents more books, articles, website which can help them to get information. – Encourage them to join in different training programs and counselling sessions, organized by different organization
MEETING THE NEEDS IN THE CHILD CARE CENTER• Modification of physical environment of classroom by: – Organize classroom area with different activities that Jamie can participate in experience with the other children – Use symbols of toys for Jamie can recognize easily – Use a set of sign or symbols to demonstrate Jamie set steps of task.
MEETING THE NEEDS IN THE CHILD CARE CENTER• Teaching strategies: – I will assist in creating an individual program plan (IPP) for Jamie, collaborating with other professional according to Jamie’s abilities and needs – By using cues, visual symbols, communication posters, with Jamie through out the day – I also will use Jamie’ name and get down to his eye level to get his attention – It will be comfortable for Jamie if I allow enough time for him to understand instruction
MEETING THE NEEDS IN THE CHILD CARE CENTER• I will continue my teaching strategies by: – Helping Jamie doing his tasks in small steps – Support him to learn new skills by prompting and fading strategy – Always reinforce him for motivation and encouragement – For Jamie’s participation in play I will provide adaptive toys, which will help his independence and interactions with peers.
MEETING THE NEEDS IN THE CHILD CARE CENTER• Provide opportunities to develop communication and social skills: – Encourage Jamie to share toys and taking turn – Create social stories for Jamie’s understanding with visual support – Engage him in parallel play with others – I will prefer peer mediated approaches for Jamie, because he can be motivated more by his peers
MEETING THE NEEDS IN THE CHILD CARE CENTER• Arrange program for fund raising and others:• The equipment and aids for child special needs to communicate is very expressive and many child care center does not have these facilities, so – We need to work together to arrange program for fund raising to manage equipment for Jamie – We also can advocate for extra trained staff for Jamie so he gets one to one attention – I can join in available professional training for special need – I will participate in world autism awareness day in April 2, every year by giving newsletter for growing awareness of parents
Overview of Referred Agency/Agencies• Information about the agency Adventure Place, a child and family center, has been working to assist young children and their families since 1972. The organization started operation with an aim to serve pre-school aged children who have special needs and to their families. They have also stretched their services to include ‘Early Intervention services’ within schools, childcare centers, and other community settings and ‘Prevention programs’ for children at risk and their families. The Ministry of Children and Youth Services funded ‘continuum of service program model’ - a variety of new services, which recognized the importance of prevention, early intervention, and treatment.Mission of Adventure Place“To provide comprehensive mental health, social, and developmental servicesdedicated to the well-being and success of children in their early years and to theirfamilies”
What do they do and what people they serve?Adventure Place offers a range of integrated services like prevention, earlyintervention, and day treatment etc. The organization offers services to all familiesliving in Toronto, North Quadrant, with children up to 12 years of age who are facingdifficulties in one or more of the following areas:• Development, learning, Communication (Speech and Language), Behavior, Social and/or Emotional Functioning,They offer:Day Program: The program provides assessment, diagnosis, treatment and educationand operates in a school setting from September through June for children aged fourto seven who are experiencing a range of difficulties and challenges.Early Intervention: The program aims on providing services in childrens natural dailyenvironments including home, school, childcare, and/or other early childdevelopment program settings.
Autism Day Program: The program provides high quality individualized education andtreatment programs for children of the Autism Spectrum aged four to seven who areexperiencing a range of complexity.Prevention: The organization offers to the parents of children from pre-birth to sixyears of age. They aim on health promotion by offering services for parentingcompetency and skill building.Training: They offer training workshops for parents and teachers.CostAdventure Place is a registered charitable organization. So, there is no charge forservices from the organization. The organization is supported by Children’s MentalHealth Ontario. Charitable Business Number 106686652 RR0001Referral process and availability“7,702 children and families received services from the agency in 2011 – 2012. 375were received through TPAS and/or Toronto Autism ABA Services” (Adventure Place annual report)
Information about the agencyTwo agencies ‘Discoveries Child and Family Centre’ and ‘Aisling Centre for Children andFamilies’ merged together and started operation under the name of Aisling DiscoveriesChild and Family Centre from 1998. Their new journey began with a hope of flourishingfuture since both the agencies had very successful history of committed services to childrenand families.The agency is partnering with the families and communities, promoting healthydevelopment along with social and emotional welfare of the children.Mission Statement“we promote the social, emotional and developmental well-being of children by providingresponsive services in partnership with families and communities”.
What do they do?‘Aisling Discoveries Child and Family Centre’ offers services for the children from 0 to 12years who are facing or at risk of problems related to social, emotional or behavioralaspects.By offering ‘range of prevention, intervention and treatment’ services, the Centre isdedicated in promoting and contributing to grow welfare of emotional and socialaspects of children and their families. The agency focuses on the families and makesservices available to all, even to the people who are culturally sensitive.What population they serve?The agency offers services for children and their families. They focus the children from 0to 12 years who are facing or at risk of problems related to social, emotional orbehavioral aspects.‘Aisling Discoveries Child and Family Centre’ mainly offers services to the communitiesaround East York and Scarborough.
Cost‘Aisling Discoveries Child and Family Centre’ is accredited by Children’s Mental HealthOntario. There is no cost for the services from the centre.Referral process and availability“Aisling Discoveries Child and Family Centre to ensure that clients and otherstakeholders would be able to readily identify the continuity of service from bothformer agencies.”Contact Address:325 Milner Avenue, Suite 110 Scarborough, ON, Canada, M1B 5N1Telephone: 416-321-5464 Fax: 416-321-1510 Email: email@example.comOffice Hours: Mon-Thurs. 9:00 am-7:30 pm, Fri. 9:00am-4:00pm (Aisling Discoveries: History)
Information about the agencyAfter 1984, Geneva Centre for Autism formally began to transform from a small-scaleresidential camp into a full service agency and resource centre. But first time theresidential camp for just 20 children with autism was initiated back in 1974 inSwitzerland. Continued initiative of the camp, as an international conference, laterreceived government funding as grant. Later research data showed goodperformances of participation and the initiative made decision to forward funding fornon-residential services with huge government support.Mission of the agency:“To empower individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder, and their families, tofully participate in their communities”.The agency, Geneva Centre for Autism, is dedicated for supporting individuals withAutism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their families. Currently Geneva Centre forAutism giving services, training programs, and resources to more than 18,000 peoplein each year. The organization also reached in a global leading position in the field ofdevelopment and delivery of clinical intervention services and training.
They offer:Services for Children: Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) get services.Services for Youth and Adults: From adolescents to adults with Autism SpectrumDisorder (ASD) get services to fight against social isolation, frustration and depression.Services for Parents/Caregivers: Families get services to have better understanding oftheir child who has an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).Services for Professionals: Professionals get services those who provide consultationsand trainings. Apart from those childcare providers, speech languagepathologists, occupational therapists and psychologists also need services for the same.
What population they serve?The agency, Geneva Centre for Autism, is dedicated for supporting individuals withAutism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and parent, sibling and peer support groups of theirfamilies.Multi-disciplinary people support clinical services of Geneva Centre for Autism.Reasonably the agency also offers trainings and knowledge based services toempathic professionals including speech-language pathologists, behavioranalysts, therapists, early childhood educators, occupationaltherapists, developmental pediatricians, psychiatrists, psychologists and socialworkers.CostSocial Skills-Building Programs of Geneva Centre for Autism do not receivegovernment funding. So the program fully depend on dollars raised bycorporations, foundations and individual donors.Referral process and availability“A multi-disciplinary team approach to the design and delivery of training, coachingand modelling.” Geneva Centre: Training Institute Transformation
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