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ENVIRONMENTALSGIENGEEffectivefor Examinationsfrom May/June2011TheCaribbeanAdvancedProficiencyExaminationGAPE@
GontentsRATIONALE ..................AIMSSKILLS AND ABILITIES TO BE ASSESSED ,,..............2PRE-REQUTSTTESOF THE SYLLABUS...
LI AIMSThesyllabusaimsto:l. stimulateinterestin theenvironment:2. developanunderstandingof theinterdisciplinaryandholistic...
Knowledseand ComprehensionTheexaminationwill testcandidatesskillsandabilitiesto:(i) Definetermsandexplainconcepts;(ii) des...
O PRE-REQUISITESOFTHESYLLABUSAny personwith a good graspof the contentsof the CaribbeanSecondaryEducationCertificate(CSEC)...
UNIT1: ECOLOGY,HUMANPOPULATIONANDNATURALRESOURCESMODUTEl: FUNDAMENTATECOLOGICAIPRINCIPLESGENERATOBJECTIVESOncompletionof t...
UNITIMODUTEl: FUNDAMENTATECOIOGICALPRINCIPLES(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVES EXPI.ANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbeableto:3. outline ...
UNITIMODUTEl: FUNDAMENTATECOLOGICALPRINCIPIES(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:EXPTANATORYNOTES9. determine ...
UNITIMODUTEl: FUNDAMENTATECOLOGICALPRINCIPLES(conld)16.measureanddiscussenvironmentalparametersin a givenhabitat;*17. appl...
UNITIMODUTE1:FUNDAMENIATECOLOGICAIPRINCIPLES(contd)RESOURCESBotkin,D., andKeller,E. EnvironmentalScience:Earthasa LivingPl...
UNITIMODUTE2: HUMANPOPUTATIONANDTHEENVIRONMENTGENERATOBJECTIVESOn completionof thisModule,studentsshould:1. understandthe ...
UNITIMODUTE2: HUMANPOPUTATIONANDTHEENVIRONMENT(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:EXPTANATORYNOTES3. describeh...
UNITIMODUTE2: HUMANPOPUTATIONANDTHEENVIRONMENT(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVES EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbeableto:8. assessth...
UNITIMODUTE2: HUMANPOPUTATIONANDTHEENVIRONMENT(conld)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:EXPTANATORYNOTES(iD Current ...
UNITIMODULE2: HUMANPOPUTATIONANDTHEENVIRONMENT(conld)(iii) Population growth and changingconsumptionpatternsas constraints...
UNITIMODUTE2: HUMANPOPUTATIONANDTHEENVIRONMENT(conld)(iv) the 1992United NationsConferenceon Environmentand Development(Th...
UNITIMODULE3: SUSTAINABIEUSEOFNATURATRESOURCESGENERATOBJECTIVESOncompletionof thisModule,studentsshould:1. beawareof thema...
UNIT1MODUTE3: SUSTAINABTEUSEOFNATURATRESOURCES(confd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVES EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbe ableto:4. (i) Bio...
UNITIMODUTE3: SUSTAINABTEUSEOFNATURATRESOURCES(conld)SPECIFICOBJECTIVES EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbeableto:7. evaluate...
UNITIMODUTE3: SUSTAINABTEUSEOFNATURATRESOURCES(conld)SPECIFICOBJECTIVES EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbeableto:(ii) Watera...
9.UNITIMODUTE3: SUSTAINABTEUSEOFNATURATSPECtFtCOBJECTIVESStudentsshould be ableto:RESOURCES(contd)EXPI.ANATORYNOTES(iv) So...
UNITIMODUTE3: SUSTAINABLEUSEOFNATURATRESOURCES(contd)10. describe measuresand tools availablefor naturalresourcemanagement...
UNITIMODUTE3: SUSTAINABTEUSEOFNATURAIRESOURCES(contd)(vii) Protected Area Systems(International Union for theConservationo...
UNITIMODUTE3: SUSTAINABTEUSEOFNATURATRESOURCES(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:EXPTANATORYNOTES(d) Specific...
UNITIMODUTE3:SUSTAINABLEUSEOFNATURATRESOURCES(contd)4. Discussthe main issuesrelating to the natural obligation under UNFC...
UNITIMODUTE3:SUSTAINABTEUSEOFNATURATRESOURCES(contd)Miller G Tyler Living in theEnvironment,PrinciplesConnectionsandSoluti...
UNIT2: AGRICULTURE,ENERGYANDENVIRONMENTALPOLLUTIONMODULEI: AGRICIJT.IUREANDIHEENY,RONMENTGENERATOBJECTIVESOn completion of...
UNIT2MODULEt: AGRICULTUREANDIHEENV,RONMENI(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVES -EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbeableto:2. explainthe ...
UNIT2MODULEl: AGRICULTUREANDIHEENV,RONMENI@ontd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVES EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbe ableto:/ (") habitatde...
UNIT2MODULEl: AGRICUI.IUREANDIHEENVTRONMENI(contd)SPECIFTCOBJECTIVES EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbe able to:(ii) Climate...
UNIT2MODULEI: AGRICULTUREANDTHEENV,RONMENISusqestedTeachineand Learninq ActivitiesTo facilitatestudentsattainmentof the ob...
Arms,K.Byrne,K.Chiras,D.Cunningham,W., andSaigo,B.Ehrlich,P.andEhrlich,A.Enger,E. andSmith,B.Goodbody,I. andThomas-Hope,E....
-MODUTE2: ENERGYANDIHEENY,RONMENIGENERATOBJECTIVESOncompletionof thisModule,studentsshould:1. understandthenatureofenergya...
of1lUNIT2MODUTE2: ENERGYANDIHEENV,RONMENI(conld)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:EXPTANATORYNOTESPrimary EnergySou...
UNIT2MODUTE2: ENERGYANDIHEENV,RONMENI(contd)5.6.SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:EXPTANATORYNOTESSecondaryEnergySo...
8. discussvarious methodsof energyconservation and improvingefficiency;outline the impact of variousforms o.fenergyin the ...
UNIT2MODUTE2: ENERGYANDIHEENV,RONMENI(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVES EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbe able to:10. explainthetota...
UNIT2MODUTE2: ENERGYANDfHEENV,RONMENI(confd)SuesestedTeachineand Learninq ActivitiesTo facilitatestudentsattainmentof the ...
UNII2MODUTE2: ENERGYANDIHEENV,RONMENI(contd)RESOURCESArms,K. Environm:entalScience,Philadelphia:SaundersCollegePublishing(...
UNIT2MODUTE3: POLLUTIONOFTHEENVIRONMENTGENERAIOBJECTIVESOn completionof thisModule,studentsshould:l. beawareof themajortyp...
UNIT2MODUTE3: POLIUTIONOFTHEENVIRONMENT(conld)SPECIFICOBJECTIVES EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbe ableto:4. outline the un...
UNIT2MODUTE3: POILUTIONOFTHEENVIRONMENT(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:EXPI.ANATORYNOTESPrimaryAir Polluta...
UNIT2MODUTE3: POLLUTIONOFTHEENVIRONMENT(confd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbe ableto:EXPTANATORYNOTESGlobal ImpactsPoll...
UNIT2MODUTE3: POLIUTIONOFTHEENVTRONMENT(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbe ableto:EXPI.ANATORYNOTES. Destruction of ...
UNIT2MODUTE3: POILUTIONOFTHEENVIRONMENT(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:EXPLANATORYNOTESWater PollutionProp...
UNIT2MODUTE3: POIIUTIONOFTHEENVIRONMENT(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:(") coralreefdestruction;(d) fishki...
UNIT2MODULE3: POILUTIONOFTHEENVIRONMENT(contd)(c)c.(i)Land PollutionSources:industrial;agricultural;municipal;domestic.(ii...
SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:EXPTANATORYNOTES(v) General mitigative measures andmonitoring(a) Wasteminimizatio...
UNIT2MODUTE3: POILUIIONOFTHEENVIRONMENT(conld)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentJshouldbeableto:EXPTANATORYNOTES(iii) International...
UNIT2MODUTE3: POILUTIONOFTHEENVIRONMENT(contd)9.10.I l.12.13.14.15.Assign studentsto analyse air and water quality in urba...
UNIT2MODULE3: POLIUTIONOFIHEENVIRONMENT(contd)RESOURCESArms, K.rEnvironmental Science,Philadelphia: SaundersCollege Publis...
I OUTLINEOFASSESSMENTEachUnit will be assessedseparately.Theschemeof assessmentfor eachUnit will bethesame.Acandidatesperf...
Copiesof the studentsassignmentthat arenot submittedmustbe retainedby the schooluntil threemonthsafterpublicationby cXC of...
l.Paner02(2 hours30 minutes- 70%oof Total Assessment)Compositionof PaperThepaperis arrangedinto threesections.Eachsectionr...
INTERNAL ASSESSMENTInternalAsessmentis anintegralpartof studentassessmentin thecoursecoveredby thissyllabusItis intendedto...
CRITERIA FOR THE INTERNAL ASSESSMENTThe following are the guidelinesfor assessingthejournal.1. Thejournalis internallyasse...
(i)(ii)(iii)(a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(iv) Objective(s)(v) Activities(vi) Observations(vii) Comments(viii) Follow-uPActivitiesThe tea...
iii) Materialsv) DataCollection/Resultsiv) Procedurevi) DiscussionandConclusions(C) Final Report for JournalTheareasthatwi...
ASSESSINGTHE JOURI{AL REPORTl.2.3.4.5.ProblemStutement. ProblemclearlYstated. Probf1mclearlystatedandconcisePurposeof Proj...
8. Conclusion 3. Conclusionclearandbasedon finding(s) I. Conclusionclear,basedon finding(s) andvalid 2. Conclusionclear,ba...
GENERATGUIDETINESFORTEACHERSL Theteacheris requiredto markthejournal andfinal marksmustberecordedoutof 90.e. The schoolmus...
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6 ch02 01_que_20090116 chem pp gce

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6 ch02 01_que_20090116 chem pp gce

  1. 1. ENVIRONMENTALSGIENGEEffectivefor Examinationsfrom May/June2011TheCaribbeanAdvancedProficiencyExaminationGAPE@
  2. 2. GontentsRATIONALE ..................AIMSSKILLS AND ABILITIES TO BE ASSESSED ,,..............2PRE-REQUTSTTESOF THE SYLLABUS................ ........4STRUCTUREOF THE SYLLABUSUNIT 1: ECOLOGY. HUMAN POPULATION AND NATURAL RESOURCESMODULE 1: FUNDAMENTAL ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES.... .......sMODULE 2: HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT....................10MODULE 3: SUSTAINABLEUSEOF NATURAL RESOURCES........................16UNIT 2: AGRICULTURE. ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTIONMODULE 1: AGRICULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT ..................................26MODULE 2: ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTMODULE 3: POLLUTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT...... ..................39OUTLINE OF ASSESSMENT 5lREGULATIONS FOR PRIVATE CANDIDATES 6lREGULATIONS FOR RE-SIT CANDIDATES ........61ASSESSMENTGRIDGLOSSARYIcel-| cxc,lzs/u2/Io6)
  3. 3. LI AIMSThesyllabusaimsto:l. stimulateinterestin theenvironment:2. developanunderstandingof theinterdisciplinaryandholisticnatureof theenvironment;3. developknowledgeandunderstandingof environmentalissuesandprinciplesandtheabilityto applytheseto environmentalmanagement,particularlyin a Caribbeancontext;4. developtheabilityto identifucriticalresearchquestionsandformulatehypothesisor guidingstatements.5. developtheabilityto collect,collate,analyzeandinterpretenvironmentaldata;6. developthe ability to communicateenvironmentalinformationand ideas logically andconciselyin a variefyof forms;7. provideanunderstandingof interactionsbetweenpeopleandtheenvironment;8. increasean awarenessof theimportanceof tiving in harmonywith theenvironment;. 9. recognizeand evaluatethe socio-economic,political and ethicalissuesin EnvironmentalScience;10. foster positive attitudes,valuesand commitmentto identifying, solving and preventingenvironmentalproblems;I l. developanunderstandingof how naturalresourcesandtheenvironmentaffectqualityof lifeandthequestfor sustainabledevelopmentin theCaribbean.O SKILLSANDABILITIESTOBEASSESSEDThe skills andabilitieswhich studentsareexpectedto developon completionof the syllabushavebeengroupedunderthreemainheadings:(i) KnowledgeandComprehension;(ii) Applicationof Knowledge;(iii) PracticalAbilities.*.l r*, o2s/u2/10
  4. 4. Knowledseand ComprehensionTheexaminationwill testcandidatesskillsandabilitiesto:(i) Definetermsandexplainconcepts;(ii) describeprocesses;(iii) stateprinciplesandproperties;(iv) explaininteractionsandinter-relationships.Application of KnowledeeTheexaminationwill testcandidatesskillsandabilitiesto:(i) analyzeanddiscussdifferentenvironmentalsituations;(ii) evaluateandjustify options(for theuseof resources);(iii) compareandcontrastalternativesolutionsto environmentalproblems;(iv) selecttechniquesandmethodotogiesappropriateto differentenvironmentalsituations;(v) suggestpossiblesolutionsto specificenvironmentalproblems;(vi) drawinferencesfrom environmentaldata.Practica,lAbilitiesTheexaminationwill testcandidatesskillsandabilitiesto:(i) selecttechniques,designs,methodologiesandinstrumentsappropriateto diferentenvironmentalsituations:(ii) useinstrumentsto measureenvironmentalparameters;(iii) collectandcollatedata;(iv) analyze,interpretandpresentdata;(v) usequantitativetechniquesappropriately;(vi) developappropriatesolutionsto specificenvironmentalproblems.*.1r", n2s/u2/ro
  5. 5. O PRE-REQUISITESOFTHESYLLABUSAny personwith a good graspof the contentsof the CaribbeanSecondaryEducationCertificate(CSEC)IntegratedScienceor Physicsor Chemistryor Biologyor Geographyor AgriculturalSciencesyllabuses,or the equivalent,shouldbe ableto pursuethe courseof studydefinedby the syllabus.However,successfulparticipationin thecourseof studywill alsodependon thepossessionof goodverbalandwrittencommunicationskills.r STRUCTUREOFTHESYLLABUSThe subjectis organisedin two Units. EachUnit containsa body of knowledgeandskills drawnfrom severaldisciplinesthat impact on the environment. Unit 1 addressesEcology, HumanPopulation and Natural ResourceUse, while Unit 2 deals with Agriculture, Energy, andEnvironmentalPollution.A Unit comprisesthreeModules,eachrequiring50hours. Thetotaltime for eachUnit,is therefore,expectedto be 150hours. EachUnit canindependentlyoffer studentsa comprehensiveprogrammeof studywith appropriatebalancebetweendepthandcoverageto providea basisfor furtherstudyinthisfield.UNIT l: Ecology,Human PopulationandNatural ResourcesModuleI - FundamentalEcologicalPrinciplesModule2 - HumanPopulationandtheEnvironmentModule3 - SustainableUseof NaturalResourcesUNIT 2: Agriculture,EnergyandEnvironmentalPollutionModuleI - AgricultureandtheEnvironmentModule2 - EnergyandtheEnvironmentModule3 - Pollutionof theEnvironmentIn this syllabus,the specificobjectiveswhich are denotedby an asterisk(*) are particularlysuitablefor practical exercises.However,the project neednot be limited to theseobjectives.*.l r* o2s/u2/to
  6. 6. UNIT1: ECOLOGY,HUMANPOPULATIONANDNATURALRESOURCESMODUTEl: FUNDAMENTATECOLOGICAIPRINCIPLESGENERATOBJECTIVESOncompletionof thisModule,studentsshould:l. understandthebasicecologicalconcepts;2. understandtheprocessesthatgoverntheinteractionsof organismswith thebioticandabioticcomponentsof theirenvironment;3. understandtherelationshipbetweenpeopleandtheenvironment;4. acquireknowledgeanddeveloppracticalandanalyticalskills.SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:l. differentiate between keyecologicaltermsandconcepts;EXPTANATORYNOTES2. explaintherelationshipbetweenliving organisms and theirenvironment;Ecology: species, population, community,ecosystem, biosphere, atmosphere,hydrosphere,lithosphere,habitat,niche,biome,ecotone.(i) Thebioticandabioticenvironments.(ii) Tolerancerangesandlimiting factors.(iii) Ecologicalniches:(a) fundamentalniche;(b) realisedniche.*l r*, u2s/u2/to
  7. 7. UNITIMODUTEl: FUNDAMENTATECOIOGICALPRINCIPLES(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVES EXPI.ANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbeableto:3. outline the importance of (i) CarbonCycle.biogeochemicalcycles;(ii) NitrogenCycle.(iii) PhosphorusCycle.(iv) WaterCycle.Include basic chemical equations and formulafor biogeochemicalcycles.4. Explain the significance ofbiogeochemicalcycleslo organisms;5. explain how energy and nutrients (i) Productivity of producers andflows within ecosystems; ecosystems.(ii) Foodchainsandwebs.(iii) Trophiclevels.(iu) Ecologicalpyramids.6. discusstypes of interactionsbetween (i) Competition.organismsin communities;(ii) Predator-prey.(iii) Symbiosis:(a) parasitisml(b) commensalism;(c) mutualism.7. explain how ecosystems are self- Ecologicalsuccessionandclimax communities.sustaining;8. explaintheprocessof naturalselection Naturalselection,evolutionandadaptation.and adaptationto the environment;*l ,*, n2s/u2/Io
  8. 8. UNITIMODUTEl: FUNDAMENTATECOLOGICALPRINCIPIES(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:EXPTANATORYNOTES9. determine population size using Population sampling methods for moving andappropriatesamplingmethods; non-moving organisms(for example,quadrats,transects,capture.mark, release,recapture).10. calculatespeciesdiversity;o - )n (n1).N (N,1)Where D-speciesDiversity. N - totalnumberof orsanismof allspeciesn - totalnumberof organismof aparticularspeciesI l. analyse the relationship between (i) Diversity within species.species diversity and ecosystemstability; (ii) Diversitybetweenspecies.(iii) Communityandecosystemstability.12. identifyfactorsaffectingpopulation (i) Biotic potential.growthin a naturalecosystem;(ii) Exponentialpopulationgrowth.(iii) Environmentalresistance.13. explain the concept of carryingcapacity;14. evaluatehumaninteractionswithin (i) Human beings as part of the naturalnaturalecosystems; ecosystems.(ii) Benefitsof naturalecosystems(iii) Anthropogenicimpacton ecosystemsandbiodiversityand the needto maintainitsintegrity.15. investigateat leasttwo ecosystems Considerboth terrestrialandaquatic(freshwaterin aterritory;* andmarine)ecosystems.*"l r*, n2s/u2/to
  9. 9. UNITIMODUTEl: FUNDAMENTATECOLOGICALPRINCIPLES(conld)16.measureanddiscussenvironmentalparametersin a givenhabitat;*17. apply scientific method to Seesuggestedteaching-learningactivities.experimentaldesignandanalysis;18. Present and interpret data usingappropriatecharts,table,graPhs.SueeestedTgachinsand Learnins ActivitiesTo facilitatestudentsattainmentof the objectivesof this Module,teachersareadvisedto engagestudentsin theteachingandlearningactivitieslistedbelow.l .s3 .4.5 .6.7 .8 .Ll o .Defineenvironmental scienceFormulatehypothesis,developguidingstatementsandgenerateandinterpretdata.Discusscurrent environmentalissuesand highlight the importanceof adopting an inter-disciplinaryapproach.Sampleanecosystemto determinepopulationdensityanddistribution.Concluctstudyvisits,to fdenttfuspeciesdiversity.Investigateenvironmentalparametersin a naturalaquaticenvironment.Createmodelsof existingecosystemsin a specificlocation.Createfoodwebsandanalysepossibledisruptionof feedingrelationships.Study the source(s)and distributionof a countrys freshwatersupply and its level ofdependenceon naturalwatercycles.Visit to anecosystemto identifyandquantifyhumanuseof its components.*.l r*, n2s/u2/10
  10. 10. UNITIMODUTE1:FUNDAMENIATECOLOGICAIPRINCIPLES(contd)RESOURCESBotkin,D., andKeller,E. EnvironmentalScience:Earthasa LivingPlanet,New York:JohnWilevand Sons.1997.Chiras,DanielD. nn iron*,"ntalScienc:e.Actionfor a SustainableFuture,UnitedStatesof America:TheBenjamin/CummingsPublishingCompanyInc., 1994.Cunningham,W. andSaigo,B. EnvironmentalScience.A GlobalConcern,New York:McGrawHill, 2001.Ehrlich,P.andEhrlich,A. ThePopulationExplosionNew York: SimonandSchuster,1990.Jackson,etal. GlobalIssues1999-2000,Guilford,CT: DuskinPublishingGroupInc.,1998.Jordan,C. Conservation,New York: JohnWiley andSons,1995.Miller, G. Tyler Living in theEnvironment,Principles,ConnectionsandSolutions:WadsworthPublishing,California,I994.Nebel,B. andWright, R. EnvironmentalScience:ThelI/aythe World llorlcs,NewJersey:PrenticeHall. 1997.TheCropperFoundation(TCF),2009.SustainableDevelopment.Termsandconcept:A referenceforteachersandstudent Port-of-Spain,TrinidadBiodiversityof theCaribbean.A learningResourcepreparedfor EasternCaribbeanStates,Canada:EKOSCommunicationsInc. 2009.Websites:www.redlist.org/info/captionswww.biomeso.netbioplan@undp.org*l ,*, n2s/u2/ro
  11. 11. UNITIMODUTE2: HUMANPOPUTATIONANDTHEENVIRONMENTGENERATOBJECTIVESOn completionof thisModule,studentsshould:1. understandthe historical and geographicaltrends in human population growth andconsumptionpatterns;2. understandthesocio-environmentalimpactsrelatedto populationgrowth;3. understandthefactorsthataffectthegrowthrateof humanpopulations;4. appreciatetheneedfor sustainabledevelopment;5. acquireknowledgeanddeveloppracticalandanalyticalskills.SPECTFICOBJECTIVES EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbeableto:1. assesstherelationshipbetwee.npeople (i) Adaptationof peopleto theenvironmentandtheenvironment; (includingbut not limitedto how peopleadapt to the environment,crops theygrow,culture,clothes,shelter).(ii) Abiotic andbiotic factorsthataffectthedistribution of population and theiractivities.(iii) Dependenceof people on ecologicalsystemsandprocesses.(i) Age andsexstructure.(ii) Fertilityrates.(iii) Mortalityrates.(i") Life spanandlife expectancy.(u) Immigration.("i) Emigration.(vii) Doublingtime.2. explainthedemographiccharacteristicsof humanpopulation;*"l r* n2s/u2/to 10
  12. 12. UNITIMODUTE2: HUMANPOPUTATIONANDTHEENVIRONMENT(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:EXPTANATORYNOTES3. describehistorical trends in human Comparehistoricalandcurrenttrendsin humanpopulationsize; populationgrowth.4. describe the current geographical Curent geographicaldistribution of humandistribution of human population populationgrowth:growth;(i) in developingnations;(ii) in developednations.5. interpretdemographictables,graphs (i) Age andsexstructure.andcharts;(ii) Fertilityrate,mortalityrate,birthrate,6. calculate changes in demographic (i) Populationsizeandgrowthrate. characteristics; Fertility rate; mortality rate; migrationrate.birthrate.(ii) Percentageincreaseinpopulation(iii) Doublingtime= ^;79: .o/oannualgrowth7. assessthe factorsaffectingpopulation (i) Culture.growthrate;(ii) Religion.(iii) Level and cost of education.(i") Social and economic statusof women.(u) Availability of pensionschemes.("i) Level of affluence.(vii) Economicdevelopment.l l*.l r*, n2s/u2/ro
  13. 13. UNITIMODUTE2: HUMANPOPUTATIONANDTHEENVIRONMENT(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVES EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbeableto:8. assessthe effectivenessof population PopulationControlMeasures:controlmethodsandmeasures;(i) Direct - Family Planningmeasuresandmethods,governmentpolicies(ii) Indirect - Natural disasters (floods,earthquakes,volcanoes,hurricanes).9. a,r^ses.rthe relationship between (i) The Indicesof poverty:populationgrowth andpoverty;(a) accessto education;(b) accessto healthcare;(c) accessto basic needssuch asfood,housing,water.(ii) Percapita,GrossDomesticProductandGross National Product (GDP andGNP), Human Development Index(HDI), Gender Development Index(GDr).(iii) Environmentalimpacts of populationgrowth (for example, deforestation inHaiti. Include social, biological,economic,physicalconsiderations).10. describe current geographical (i) Consumptionpatternsas quantifiedbyvariation in human consumption statisticson:patterns;(a) percapitawaterconsumption;(b) percapitafoodconsumption;(c) percapitafuelconsumption;(d) percapitagreenhousegasemissions;(e) PercaPitawasteProduction.r*.l r* n2s/a2/Io l2
  14. 14. UNITIMODUTE2: HUMANPOPUTATIONANDTHEENVIRONMENT(conld)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:EXPTANATORYNOTES(iD Current trends in per capitaconsumptionparticularlyinfluencedbylifestylesin developedanddevelopingcountries.I l. explainthe principalways in which Environmentalimpactsof over consumptionpeople impact negatively on the in developedanddevelopingcountries.environment;(i) Overexploitation.(ii) Habitatdestruction.(iii) Pollution..(i") Introductionof exoticspecies.12. explainhowtheimpactsmentioned (i) Changein lifestyles.in SpecificObjectivel l maybemitigated; (ii) Theuseof substitutes.(iii) Applicationofenvironmentallyfriendlytechnology.(iv) Efficientuseof naturalresources,forexample,recycling.Referto Module3, SpecificObjective10.13. explain the environmentalimpacts (i) Causesof urbanisation.of urbanisation:(ii) Environmentalimpactsof urbanization(includingbut not limitedto sanitation,water supply, traffic congestion,housing,pollution,healthcare).14. explain the relationship between (i) Conceptof sustainabledevelopment.populationgrowth and sustainabledevelopment. (ii) Goalsof sustainabledevelopment.r*l rt, n2s/u2/to l3
  15. 15. UNITIMODULE2: HUMANPOPUTATIONANDTHEENVIRONMENT(conld)(iii) Population growth and changingconsumptionpatternsas constraintstosustainabledevelopmentin a finiteworld.(iv) StrategicImperative for SustainableDevelopment #4 "Ensuring aSutainableLevel of Population"(OurCommon Future, BrundtlandRePort,1987).SueeestedTeachineand Learnine ActivitiesTo facilitatestudentsattainmentof the objectivesof this Module,teachersareadvisedto engagestudentsin theteachingandlearningactivitieslistedbelow.l. Studya localpopulationbasedon censusstatistics;generatepopulationagestructure,for allindividualsandseparatelyby sex.2. Calculatecrudebirthrates,age-specificbirthrates,totalfertility rates,crudedeathrates,age-specificdeathrates,infantmortalityrates,percentageannualincreasein populationsize,anddoublingtimesfor populations.3. InterpretWorld PopulationData Sheets,as produced,for example,by the PopulationReferenceBureauInc.4. Arrangea debateon high populationgrowth or high consumerismas principalcausesofglobalenvironmentalproblems,using,for example,reportsfrom the 1992Rio Conference.5. Conductcasestudiesof populationsizemanagementandof relatedchangesin consumptionpatterns.6. Organisea debateon thedefinitionsof developmentandsustainabledevelopment,andon thequestionof whatconstitutesanacceptablestandardof living.7. Discussthemainissuesaddressedby:(i) the1972StockholmConference;(ii) the 1980 InternationalUnion for the Conservationof Nature (IUCN) WorldConservationStrategY;(iii) the 1987BrundtlandReport(Our CommonFuture);*l r*, n2s/u2/to t4
  16. 16. UNITIMODUTE2: HUMANPOPUTATIONANDTHEENVIRONMENT(conld)(iv) the 1992United NationsConferenceon Environmentand Development(The RioConference);(v) the1994UnitedNationsConferenceon SmallIslandDevelopingStates;(vi) the2002World Summiton SustainableDevelopmentJohannesburg.RESOURCESChiras,D. EnvironmentalScience.Action .fo, a SustainableFuture,United States of America: The Benjamin/CummingsPublishingCompany,Inc. 1994.Cunningham,W. andSaigo,B. EnvironmentalScience,A GlobalConcern:SixthEdition,NewYork:McGrawHill, 2001.Ehrlich,P.andEhrlich,A. The PopulationExplosion,New York: Simon and Schuster,I 990.Jordan,c. F. conservation,New York: Johnwiley andSons,1995.Miller, G. Tyler Living in the Environment, Prin.ciples, ContnectionsandSolutions:WadsworthPublishing,California,I 994.Nebel,B., andWright, R. En ironmental Science: The Way the World Worlu, NewJersey:PrenticeHall. 1997.WWF,IUCN, UNEP Caringfor theEarth: A Strategyfor SustainableLiving, 1981.Websites: The Cropper Foundation(TCF), SustainableDevelopment.www.american.edu/TED/hp2l.htm Termsand concept: A referencefor teachersand student.www.undp.org/gef/ port-of-Spain,Trinidad:2009.www.un.org.esa/esa/sustdev/documents/agenda2l/index.htm Biodiversityof the Caribbean. A learningResourceprepared-fo, Eastern Caribbean States, 2009. Canada: EKOSCommunicationsInc.*l r*, n2s/a2/ro l5
  17. 17. UNITIMODULE3: SUSTAINABIEUSEOFNATURATRESOURCESGENERATOBJECTIVESOncompletionof thisModule,studentsshould:1. beawareof themaiornaturalresourcesin theCaribbean;2. understandthe factorsaffectingnaturalresourceuseandthe environmentalimpactsof theiruse;3. be awareof measuresand tools availablefor sustainableuse and conservationof naturalresources;4. understandthevalueofnaturalresources;5. understandtheconceptof ecologicalsustainabilityandimplicationsfor naturalresourceuse;6. acquireknowledgeanddeveloppracticalandanalyticalskillsEXPTANATORYNOTESSPECIFICOBJECTIVES. Studentsshouldbe ableto:l. explaintheterm naturalresources; TemporalDimensionsand limitationsplaced bytechnology.2. differentiatebetween."n"*ubl" und (i) Typesand examplesoJnatural resotlrces:non-renewablenaturalresources; renewqbleqnd nontrenewable.exhaustibleandinexhaustibleresources;(ii) Types and examples of exhaustible andinexhaustibIe resources.3. differentiate betweenthe consumptive (i) Consumptive use (logging, .fishing,andnon-consumptiveuseof natural quarrying)-resources;(ii) Non-consumptive use - bioprospecting,ecotourism,research.*."1r* o2s/u2/to l 6
  18. 18. UNIT1MODUTE3: SUSTAINABTEUSEOFNATURATRESOURCES(confd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVES EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbe ableto:4. (i) Biodiversity:identify themajor categoriesof naturalresourcesin Caribbeancountries; (a) species (b) genetic(c) Ecosystems:forest;coralreefs;wetlands;seagrassbeds;mangroves;freshwaterand marineecosystems.(ii) Water as a resource, for example,waterfalls,lakes,streams,groundwater.(iii) Mineralsandhydrocarbons:bauxite;gold;sandandgravel;oil; naturalgas.(iv) Soil, landscapeand seascape,(beaches,cliffs, mountains).5: identify the location and distributionofnaturalresourcesin theCaribbean;6. assessthe importanceof natural (i) Livelihood(Incomegeneratingactivity).resourcesin theCaribbean;(ii) Foreign exchangeearner.(iii) Food security.(iv) Raw materialfor industrial processes.(v) Recreation.(vi) Sacredand spiritual value.(vii) Ecosystemvalue.(viii) Intrinsic value.(ix) Researchand teaching.*l r*, n2s/u2/ro t7
  19. 19. UNITIMODUTE3: SUSTAINABTEUSEOFNATURATRESOURCES(conld)SPECIFICOBJECTIVES EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbeableto:7. evaluatefactorsaffectingnaturalresource (i) Political - governmentpolicies onusein theCaribbean; naturalresourceuse:(a) economic develoPmentpoliciesl(b) environmentalandnaturalresourcespolicies.(ii) Economic: role of foreigninvestment;exPortof naturalresources os Primary Products,sectoralactivities - tourism,agriculture, mining, manufacturing,nationaldebt.Refe, to SPecific Objective 10Explanatory Note (iv).8. accesstheenvironmentalimpactof (i) Biodiversity:naturalresourceuseincludingtourism;(a) sPecies dePletion andextinction;(b) habitat disruPtion anddestruction;(") disruPtion of ecosystemprocesses.*l r*, n2s/a2/Io l8
  20. 20. UNITIMODUTE3: SUSTAINABTEUSEOFNATURATRESOURCES(conld)SPECIFICOBJECTIVES EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbeableto:(ii) Waterasa resource:(a) Pollution and depletion ofsudace and groundwater,degradation of water, depletionof aquifers.Human health rislcs(water bornedisease)(b) watersheddestruction.(iii) Mineralsandhydrocarbons:(u) physicalconversionofvegetationandland;(b) transformationof landscape(c) dustandnoisepollution;(d) pollutionfromthedischargeofprocesschemicals;(") sedimentationahdsiltation;(0 beachlossandchangein rivercourse;(g) oil spills;(h) humanhealthrisks;(i) socialdynamics(displacementofcommunitiesandintroductionofnewsettlements).*.1 ,*, n2s/a2/ro 19
  21. 21. 9.UNITIMODUTE3: SUSTAINABTEUSEOFNATURATSPECtFtCOBJECTIVESStudentsshould be ableto:RESOURCES(contd)EXPI.ANATORYNOTES(iv) Soil,landscapeand seascape:(c)transformation of naturallandscapeto builtenvironment;soil degradation, erosionand sedimentation; soilproductivitybeacherosion(d) degradation anddestruction of coral reefs,seagrass beds andmangrovesThe broad concept o/ naturalresource conservation including:justify the needfor (v)natural resourceconservation:Soil, landscape and (i)seascape:(e) transformationof naturallandscapetobuilt (ii)environment;soildegradation,erosion andsedimentation;soil productivitybeacherosiondegradation anddestruction ofcoral reefs.seagrass bedsand mangroves(a)(b)manqSement,restoration,rehabilitation;preservation;(0(e)(h)conservati,on(in-situ and ex-situ).Reasonsfor resourceconservation:(a) ecological: depletion ordegradation of naturalresourcesand the threattosustainable development;conservauon ofcomponentsof life supportsystems; conservationofendangeredand threatenedspecies;(b) ethical: sacredness;rightto exist;(c) aestheticalvalue.*.l r*, n2s/u2/to 20
  22. 22. UNITIMODUTE3: SUSTAINABLEUSEOFNATURATRESOURCES(contd)10. describe measuresand tools availablefor naturalresourcemanagement andconservation;(i)(ii)Rates and techniques forexploitation of renewable."rources; Sustainable YieldManagement.Use of substitutes for non-renewable resources; use ofappropriate technology. Refer toModule2, SpecificObjective12.(iii) Reduction and minimization ofwaste - recycling of solid, liquidandgaseouswastes.(iv) Use of economicinstruments:userfees; taxes; penalties; incentives;economic valuation of naturalresources; environmentalaccounting and greening ofnationalbudgets.(v) Land Use Planning and ZoningRegulation;IntegratedDevelopment Planning andIntegrated Coastal ZoneManagement.(vi) Environmental ImpactAssessments(A brief introductionto EIA qs a Planning and decisionmaking tool to natural resourcemanagementand conservation).*.l r*, n2s/a2/ro 2l
  23. 23. UNITIMODUTE3: SUSTAINABTEUSEOFNATURAIRESOURCES(contd)(vii) Protected Area Systems(International Union for theConservationof Nature (IUCN)Classification):a. role;b. ecotourism(viii) Community Based NqturalResource Management(participation, monitoring andevaluation).(ix) Environmental legislation,policies and plans (SustainableDevelopment Plans, NaturalEnvironmental Action Plans(NEAP), Forest ManagementPlans, Integrated Coastal ZoneManagement Plans; Enforcementand implementation.(x) Education, public awareness,advocacy and training. (Agenda21, Chopter 36).(xi) International environmental andconservatignagreements.(a) United NationsFrameworkConvention on ClimateChange (UNFCCC andKyoto Protocol);(b) United NationsConvention on BiologicalDiversity (UNCBD);(c) United NationsConvention to CombatDesertification(UNCCD);I% l cxc,e2s/u2/to 22
  24. 24. UNITIMODUTE3: SUSTAINABTEUSEOFNATURATRESOURCES(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:EXPTANATORYNOTES(d) SpecificallyProtectedAreasandWitdtife(SPAW);(e) RamsarConvention;(0 Marine Pollution (MARPOL).I I . analysetheeffectivenessof measures Referto SO l0implementedfor naturalresourcemanagementandconservation;12. describeways in which Indigenous (i) Agriculture: rotation of fields duringPeoplehaveusedand managedtheir slash/burn activities, use of organicnaturalresources. fertilizers,intercropping;(ii) Use of forest: timber and non-timberforestproducts(NTFPS);(iii) Fishing:traditionalfishingmethods(iv) Case studies from Belize, Dominica,Guyana,St.Vincentand the GrenadinesondSuriname.SuseestedTeachineand Learnins ActivitiesTo facilitatestudentsattainmentof the objectivesof this Module,teachersareadvisedto engagestudentsin theteachingandlearningactivitieslistedbelow.l. Case studies of CommunityBased Natural ResourcesManagement,for example,forest,wetlands.2. Researchon indigenouspeopleandnatural resources.3. Field exercises:speciesidentification; visit to industry; visitsand assessmentof communitybasednatural resourcemanagementinitiatives,visitto indigenouscommunities.*"1 ,*, n2s/a2/ro Z J
  25. 25. UNITIMODUTE3:SUSTAINABLEUSEOFNATURATRESOURCES(contd)4. Discussthe main issuesrelating to the natural obligation under UNFCCC, UNCCD and.theUNCBD.5. Visits to or lectures by represenlatives of natural resource agencies.6. View videos and slides of natural resource managementactivities and protected areas.RESOURCESBossi, R. and Cintro, G. Mangroves of the wider Caribbean: toward sustainableManagement, Barbados: Caribbean Conservationssociation,1990.Chiras,D. Environmental Science.Actionfor a SustainableFuture,United Statesof America:The Benjamin/CummingsPublishing Company Inc., 1994.Cunningham,W. and Saigo,B. Environmental Science,A Global Concern,New York:. McGraw Hill,2001.Cutter, S. and William, R. Exploitation, Conservation, Preservation: A geographicperspective on natural resource use, John HaynesBohaham,2001.David, B., Breton, I. Brom, D., I(asted ResourceManagement:Resilience,Adaptation andand Horne, M. Community Diversity, Canada: IDRC InternationalDevelopmentResearchCentre.Ehrlich, P. and Ehrlich, A. ThePopulation Explosion,New York: Simon and Schuster,1990.Goodbody, I. and Thomas- Natural Resource Management -fo, SustainableHope, E. Developmentof the Caribbean, Canoe Press,University ofthe West Indies.Mona. 2002Gupta, A. Ecology and Development in the Third World, New York:. Routledge,1988.Hinckly, A. RenewableResourcesin our Future, New York: PergamonPressLimited, 1980.Jordan,C. Conservation,New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1995.r*l r*, n2s/u2/Io 24
  26. 26. UNITIMODUTE3:SUSTAINABTEUSEOFNATURATRESOURCES(contd)Miller G Tyler Living in theEnvironment,PrinciplesConnectionsandSolutions,California: WadsworthPublishingCompany,1994.Nebel,B., andWright, R. EnvironmentalScience:The l(ay the l(orld Works,NewJersey:PrenticeHall, 1997.Tivy, J.andOHareoG. HumanImpacton theEcosystem,(ConceptualFrameworksinGeography)UnitedKingdom:LongmanGroup1982.CERMES,SustainableManagementof 46 Shared MarineResourcesof the CaribbeanLarge Marine EcosystemandAdjacentRegions.UWI, CaveHill campus.WCD (World Commission on Environment andDevelopment)OurCommonFuture,1987.II/WF (World Wildlife Fund) 2008. Local to GlobalEnvironmentalConservation. Agenda21Websites:www.wri.org/wri/biodivwww.earthwatch.orgwww.canari.orghttp://cavehill.uwi.edu/cermes/ClMEPub/ENG/BrochureEng.www.panda.org*.l r*, n2s/u2/ro 25
  27. 27. UNIT2: AGRICULTURE,ENERGYANDENVIRONMENTALPOLLUTIONMODULEI: AGRICIJT.IUREANDIHEENY,RONMENTGENERATOBJECTIVESOn completion of this Module, studentshould:1. understand the concepts, typesand role of agriculture in the Caribbean;2. understand the environmental impacts of and threats to agricultural systems in theCaribbean:3. have knowtedge of environmentally sustainable practices in agricultural systems; in theCaribbean:4. acquire knowledge, and develop practical and analytical skills.SPECIFICOBJECTIVES EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbe able to:l. compare and contrast agricultural (i) Definition of agriculture.systemsin the Caribbean;*(ii) Characteristics of Agricultural systemswith respect to commercial and smallscalefarmingincludingsubsistence ((a) scaleof oPeration;(b) inPuts: agro-chemicals,labour,machinery and equiPment,energy.financing;(c) ProductivitY of sYstems: Yieldper unit input, for examPle,tonnesper hectare;(d) mariculture; geneticengineering;(e) aquaculture.*.l r*, o2s/u2/Io 26
  28. 28. UNIT2MODULEt: AGRICULTUREANDIHEENV,RONMENI(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVES -EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbeableto:2. explainthe rolesof agriculturein the (i) Food Security(productionof food andregion; non-foodmaterials).(ii) Production of materials .fo, agro-processing industries.(iii) Economic:(u) livelihood (income generatingactivities);(b) foreignexchangeeamings;(") contribution to Gross DomesticProduct.3. ar.rerr the impact of agriculture on the (i) Technological:environment:(a) increasedproductivity;(b) increasedvarieties:(c) improved resistance to pestinfestation;(ii) Environmental:(u) healthrisks;(b) threatsto sustainablelivelihoodofcommunities;(") land take (needfor vastamountsof landsfor agriculture);(d) pollutionfrominappropriateuseof agro-chemicals(pesticides;fertilisers/; antibiotics andhormonesin aquacultureandmariculture; eutrophication*l r*, n2s/u2/Io 27
  29. 29. UNIT2MODULEl: AGRICULTUREANDIHEENV,RONMENI@ontd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVES EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbe ableto:/ (") habitatdestruction;lossofbiodiversity;/ (f) soil degradation: erosion;/acidification; salinisation; water-logging; soil compaction,monocultureleadins to reductionin soil fertility;/ t9l wasteproduction: wastedisposal/and mtanagement;solid and tiquidwastes;/(h) water degradation:sedimentation;-/ changes in water discharge tocoastal zone surface and ground ,waterpollution;(i) land degradation: inappropriateuseof landtypes;hillside farming,slashandburn agriculture;CI) reduced water availability forirrigation, mariculture andaquaculture;(k) Climate change due to methaneproduction.4. explain the features of sustainable (i) Ecological integrity.agriculture;(ii) Economicviability.(iii) Socialequity.(iv) Adaptability5. discuss threats to sustainable (i) Natural disasters:flood, hurricane, volcano.. agriculture;*.1 ,*, n2s/u2/10 28
  30. 30. UNIT2MODULEl: AGRICUI.IUREANDIHEENVTRONMENI(contd)SPECIFTCOBJECTIVES EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbe able to:(ii) Climate change: temperature rise, sealevel rise. Change in precipitationpatterns.(iii) External shoclcs: global markets, pricefluctuations.(iv) Certification to meet internationalstandards.(v) Importation of cheap agriculturalproducts.AF evaluateenvironmentallysustainable (i) Contourfarming.practicesin agricultural systems; *(ii) Terracing.(iii) Croprotation.(iv) ConservationTillage.- (v) Agro-forestry.,> (vi) Pestcontrol(biologicalandgenetic)and(- Integratedpestmanagemerit._ (vii) Organicfarming.- (viii) Hydroponics./,.t (ix) Post-harvest management: waste/ utilisationandwasteminimisation.(x) Geneticengineering.(xi) Plant andqnimal breeding.7. present and interpret data usingappropriatecharts,tablesandgraphs,*.l r*, n2s/u2/10 29
  31. 31. UNIT2MODULEI: AGRICULTUREANDTHEENV,RONMENISusqestedTeachineand Learninq ActivitiesTo facilitatestudentsattainmentof the objectivesof this Module,teachersare advisedto engagestudentsin theteachingandlearningactivitieslistedbelow.1. Conductfield visitsto agrochemicalfactories,agriculture,aquacultureandmariculturefarmsto observeandanalysetheiroperations.2. Providetheopportunitiesfor studentsto identifyagro-chemicalsusedin territoryandanalysetheircomposition.3. Inviteguestlecturersto discussissuesin agriculture.4. Allow studentsto createmodelsillustratingsoilerosion5. Allow studentsto conductfertiliserexperimentsonplants.6. Conductbrain-stormingsessionsto exploreentrepreneurialopportunitiesfor useof un-usedproduction(for example,fruit undertrees;non-meatpartsof livestock).7. Collectanddocumentinformationon landusein a country,to assesshow primeagriculturallandis beingused.8. Allow studentsto conduct investigationson waste productionand managementin anagriculturalentity.9. Conductinvestigationon waterqualityat agricultureoperations.10. Give studentsassignmentsin which they comparesoil types and fertility in differentagriculturalsystems.1I . Conductfield tripsto compareproductivityof differentfarms.RESOURCES*l r*, o2s/u2/ro 30
  32. 32. Arms,K.Byrne,K.Chiras,D.Cunningham,W., andSaigo,B.Ehrlich,P.andEhrlich,A.Enger,E. andSmith,B.Goodbody,I. andThomas-Hope,E.Goudie,A. andViles.H.Jordan,C.Nebel,B. andWright,R.Miller, G. TylerWebsitewww.mhhe.com/environmentalsciencewww.ecs.co.szlenv_articlesUNIT2ItI cxct2snt2/ro 3lEnvironmentaI Science: Second Edition, Phlladelphia: Holt,RinehartandWinston,2007.EnvironmentalScience: SecondEdition, IJnited.Kingdom:NelsonThornes,200l.EnvironmentalScience.Actionfor a SustainableFuture,UnitesStatesof America:TheBenjamin/CummingsPublishingCompanyInc., 1994.EnvironmentalScience,A Global Concern:SixthEdition.NewYork:McGrawHill. 2001.ThePopulationExplosion,New York: SimonandSchuster,1990.EnvironmentalScience,A Studyof Inter-relationships,NewYork:McGrawHiII,2004.Natural ResourceManagementfor SustainableDevelopmentof theCaribbean,CanoePress,UniversityoftheWestIndies,Mona,2002.The Earth Transformed: An Introduction to HumanImpacts on the Environment: First Edition, Cambridge;Massachusetts: BlackwellPublishersIncorporated,1997.Conservation,New York: JohnWiley andSons,.l995.EnvironmentalScience:Thellay the llorld lTorl<s,NewJersey:PrenticeHal| 1997.Living in theEnvironment,Principles,ConnectionsandSolutions,Califurnia: WadsworthPublishingCompany,1994.WCD (WorldCommissionon EnvironmentandDevelopment)OurCommonFuture,BrundtlandReport,1987.
  33. 33. -MODUTE2: ENERGYANDIHEENY,RONMENIGENERATOBJECTIVESOncompletionof thisModule,studentsshould:1. understandthenatureofenergyandits use;2. understandthe socio-economicand environmentalimpactsof provision and the use ofenergy.3. appreciatetheadvantagesofusing renewableenergysources;4. acquireknowledgeanddeveloppracticalandanalyticalskillsin theareascovered.SPECIFICOBJECTIVES EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbeableto:l. describe the nature, form and (i) Definition: energy, kinetic energy, (conversionofenergy; potentialenergy,power.(ii) Units of measurement:Joule,MJ, TJ,GJ.Watt,MW, KWh.(iii) Types of energy: solar, heat, light,electrical,nuclear,chemical.(iu) Examples of energy and conversion,efficiency of conveision.(") Renewableand non-renewablesourcesof energy.2. explainthe importanceof energyto (i) Useof energywithin societies.society;(ii) Socio-economicdependencyonenergyuse.*.l r*, n2s/a2/Io ) z
  34. 34. of1lUNIT2MODUTE2: ENERGYANDIHEENV,RONMENI(conld)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:EXPTANATORYNOTESPrimary EnergySourcesA. Non-renewable(i) Fossil fuels: location of reserves,extraction, transportationprocessinganduses.(ii) Nuclear Power: nuclear fission andnuclearfusion;useof nuclearfission,nuclearpowerplant(basicstructureandoperation).Nuclearfuel cycleRenewableSolarenergy:harnessinganduse:(a) active(photothermal);(b) passive (solar cookers, solarfurnaces);(c) photovoltaiccells.Indirectsolarpower:principalfeaturesandmethodsof harnessing:(a) wind energy;(b) hydroelectricenergy;(c) biofuels:biomassfuel,biogas.(iii) Geothermalenergy.(iv) Wave,tidalandoceanthermalenergy.describe the characteristicsvariousenergysources;*(iii)B.(i)(ii)*l r*, n2s/a2/to J J
  35. 35. UNIT2MODUTE2: ENERGYANDIHEENV,RONMENI(contd)5.6.SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:EXPTANATORYNOTESSecondaryEnergySourceFuel cells: structure and process,Protonexchangefuelcell.(i) Technologicallimitations(ii) Geographicalrestrictions.(iii) Reliabilityof supply.(iu) Economic (cost of production),.political(energypolicyof country)andsocial.(i) Conventionalgeneration.(ii) Transmission.(i) Generationrates.(ii) Demandpattems.(iii) Energystorage.(i") Stockpiling capabilityfor fossilfuels.(") Diversityof energysources.(ui) Economiccost.(vii) Governmentpolicies.describetheconventionalgenerationanddistributionof electricitv:*evaluate the use of renewableenergy;*discussfactors affecting electricitygeneratingcapacityanddemand;*l r*, n2s/u2/10 34
  36. 36. 8. discussvarious methodsof energyconservation and improvingefficiency;outline the impact of variousforms o.fenergyin the environment;(i) Definition:energyconservation,energyefficiency.(ii) Approacheslo energyconservation(including but not limited totransportation energ1tconservation,domestic energ) conservation,industrial energy conservation).Improvingenergyefficiency:(i) Energyefficientbuildings.(ii) Co-generation.(iii) Combinedcycles.(iu) Use of alternative energy sources (forexample,biofuels).(") Use of renewable energy (for example,wind, solar, water).(ui) Technological ffor example, types oflighting, appliancesand machines).Sustainablelifestyle (practicesthatreducethe demandon naturalresources).(i) Environmental:(a) globalwarming;(b) pollution impact;(c) habitatdestruction.(ii) Socio-economic:(a) healthissues;(b) dislocationof communities.9.*l r* n2s/a2/10 35
  37. 37. UNIT2MODUTE2: ENERGYANDIHEENV,RONMENI(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVES EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbe able to:10. explainthetotal costof energyuse. (i) Political.(ii) Economic.(iii) Social.(iv) Environmental.(v) Technological.I l. interpret data using appropriatecharts,tablesandgraphs.*l r*, n2s/a2/10 36
  38. 38. UNIT2MODUTE2: ENERGYANDfHEENV,RONMENI(confd)SuesestedTeachineand Learninq ActivitiesTo facilitatestudentsattainmentof the objectivesof this module,teachersareadvisedto engagestudentsin theteachingandlearningactivitieslistedbelow.l. Conductfield visits to renewableenergyfacilities,for example,wind farms,solarwaterheatermanufacturersandphotovoltaic(PV) installations.2. Conductresearchon renewableenergysystemsusedin the countryandthe extentof theirmarketpenetration3. Inviteguestlecturersto discussrenewableenergy.4. Usecontourmapsto evaluatelossof areain thecountryif globalwarmingleadsto sealevelrise.5. Constructa simpledeviceto measureenergyuse.6. Constructa simplerenewableenergydevice,for example,a solarwaterheater,a solarcropdryer,a PV powereddevice,anda simplesolarcooker.7. Allow studentsto investigatediversityandpercentagecontributionto total annualgenerationcapacityin yourcountry.8. Conductinvestigationson enefgyuse in home and school and recommendmethodsofimprovingenergyuseandconservation.9. Assignstudentsto conductanassessmentof energyefficiencyin buildingswith respectto thefeaturesthatcharacteriseanenergyefficientbuilding.10. Constructamodelto depictanenergyefficientbuilding.I l. Assignstudentsto conductaninvestigationontheenergyuseof varioussectors.12. Collectdocumentationon policiesthatgovernenergyuseotransportationandextraction,andpromoteenergyconservationandefficiency.*.l r*, o2s/a2/ru J I
  39. 39. UNII2MODUTE2: ENERGYANDIHEENV,RONMENI(contd)RESOURCESArms,K. Environm:entalScience,Philadelphia:SaundersCollegePublishing(HarcourtBracePublisher),1994.Byrne,K. EnvironmentalScience;SecondEdition,UnitedKingdom:NelsonThornes.2001.Chiras,D. EnvironmentalScience.Actionfor a SustainableFuture,UnitedStatesof America:TheBenjamin/CummingsPublishingComPanYlnc., 1994.Cunningham,W. andSaigo, EnvironmentalScience,A GlobalConcern:SixthEdition,B. NewYork:McGrawHill,200l.Ehrlich,P.andEhrlich,A. ThePopulationExplosior,New York: SimonandSchuster,1990.Enger,E.,andSmith,B. EnvironmentalScience,A Study of Inter-relationships,New York: McGrawHrLL,2002.Goodbody, I. and Thomas- Natural Resource Management .fo, SustainahleHope,E. Developmentof theCaribbean,CanoePress,UniversityoftheWestIndies,Mona.2002Jordan.C. Conservation,NewYork:JohnWileyandSons,1995,Miller, G. Tyler Living in theEnvironment,Principles,ConnectionsandSolutions:WadsworthPublishingCompany.BelmontCalifornia,1994.Nebel,B., Wright,R. EnvironmentalScience:TheWaythe WorldLlorks,NewJersev:PrenticeHall.1997.WCD (WorldCommissiononEnvironmentandDevelopment)OurCommonFuture,BrundtlandReport,1987.WWF, IUCN, LJNEP- Caringfor theEarth: A Strategyfor SustainableLiving,1981.Websites:www.mhhe.com/environmentalsciencewww.worldresourcesinstitutewww.eclac.org/publications*.l r*, o2s/u2/ro 38
  40. 40. UNIT2MODUTE3: POLLUTIONOFTHEENVIRONMENTGENERAIOBJECTIVESOn completionof thisModule,studentsshould:l. beawareof themajortypesandsourcesof pollution;2. understandtheenvironmentalimpactsof pollution;3. understandthe methodsavailablefor monitoring,analyzingandmitigatingpollutionanditsenvironmentalimpacts;4. acquireknowledgeanddeveloppracticalandanalyticalskillsin theareascovered.SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:EXPTANATORYNOTESl. describe the general sourcesand (i) Definitionof pollutionandpollutant.natureof pollutants;(ii) Local examples of pollutants andincidencesof pollution.(iii) Nature of pollutants: persistence,mobility,synergisticeffects,toxicity.(iv) Movementthroughtheenvironment.2. identify environmentalreceptorsof Environmental receptors (micro-organisms,specificpollutants;* plants, animals,humans).3. describethe various pathways of Environmentalpathways(bioticandabiotic),pollution in the ecosystemand the feeding relationships,bioaccumulationandbiosphere; biomagnification.*.l r*, n2s/a2/ro 39
  41. 41. UNIT2MODUTE3: POLIUTIONOFTHEENVIRONMENT(conld)SPECIFICOBJECTIVES EXPTANATORYNOTESStudentsshouldbe ableto:4. outline the underlying causes of (i) Resource extraction, transportation,pollution; Processingand use.inappropriate technologY,industrialization;(ii) Population growth: behaviouralpattern,lifestyle, consumPtion Pattern-lack of environmentalconsciousness; !5. outline the underlying causes of (iii) InstitutionalFramework:pollution;(a) Environmental standards,policies, legislation(Absenceand limitedimplementation).(b) Limited economicinstruments(lack of incentives- tax rebates,limited implementationofpollutionprinciples.(iv) Lack of environmdntalethics.6. discussthemajor sources, A. Atmospheric Pollutionimpactandmitigationof pollution.*(i) The Atmosphere.(a) structureandcomPosition;(b) physical processesand featuresrelated to the movement ofpollutants (wind, alr effects oftopography on the movement ofpollutants).*.l r*, n2s/u2/Io 40
  42. 42. UNIT2MODUTE3: POILUTIONOFTHEENVIRONMENT(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:EXPI.ANATORYNOTESPrimaryAir Pollutants:(a) types:carbonmonoxide;nitrogenoxides;sulphuroxides;suspendedparticulatematter;volatileorganiccompounds(includeformulae ofpollutant);(b) sources;(c) environmental pathways andreceptors;(d) environmental impacts (fo,example,public health, CarbonMonoxide (CO) poisoning, acidrain).SecondaryAir Pollutants(a) types:photochemicalsmog andacidrain;(b) mechanism of formation andcharacteristics includinsequations;(c) environmental pathways andreceptors;(d) environmental impacts forexample, acidification of soiland water, damage tobuildings).(ii)(iii)*"l r*, n2i/u2/ro 4l
  43. 43. UNIT2MODUTE3: POLLUTIONOFTHEENVIRONMENT(confd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbe ableto:EXPTANATORYNOTESGlobal ImpactsPollutantsof AtmosphericGlobalWarming:(a) greenhouseeffect and earthsheatbalance;sources of greenhousegases:anthropogenicandnatural;greenhouseeffect and globalworming;impactsof global warming(forexample, sea level rise,increased temperatures,increased intensities ofweatherphenomena,OzoneDepletion:(a) Ozone depletingsubstancesandsources: natural andanthropogenicsubstances;chemical equation of formationand destructionof ozone;. Formation of Ozoneo(g) + hvo(g)+ -)o.(g)o.(g)+ o, (S)+M(g)-- o, (g)+ Mx(g)=heat(i")(b)(c)(d)(b)*l r*, o2s/u2/Io 42
  44. 44. UNIT2MODUTE3: POLIUTIONOFTHEENVTRONMENT(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbe ableto:EXPI.ANATORYNOTES. Destruction of OzoneCFsClc(g) + hv +CF, Cr(g) + Cl(g)Cl(g) + os(g) -+ Clo (g) + o,(g)or2os(g)+ so")(g)Noisepollution:(a) sources: industrial:commercial;(b) social;cultural;transportation;(c) intensitymeasurementandmonitoringl(d) health risks(for example,damageto ear drum,publichealth,stress).(") General Mitigative Mdasures andMonitoring:(a) air quality monitoringmethods;(b) solutions(technologicol,education,public awareness,legislation andpolicy incentive,emissioncontrolandreductionmethods):r*.lr*, o2s/a2/ro 43
  45. 45. UNIT2MODUTE3: POILUTIONOFTHEENVIRONMENT(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:EXPLANATORYNOTESWater PollutionPropertiesof water:(a) physical: colour, taste, odour,appearance,turbiditY;(b) chemical: pH, dissolvedoxYgen(DO) content,salinitY.Water pollutants and their sources.(sediment, heat, nutrients andbiodegradableorganicmatterpathogenssewageand toxic chemicals). Sources(agriculture, municipal and domestic,industrial, atmosPheric).(ii) Pointandnon-Pointsources.(iii) Factors affecting concentration ofpollutants:(a) volumeof emission;(b)(c) volumeof receivingwater;(d) residencetime;(e) rateof degradationandremovalof pollutants.(i") Environmentalpathwaysandreceptors.(") EnvironmentalimPacts:(u) eutroPhication;(b) deoxYgenation;IB.(r,)*.1"*, n2s/u2/Io 44
  46. 46. UNIT2MODUTE3: POIIUTIONOFTHEENVIRONMENT(contd)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:(") coralreefdestruction;(d) fishkills;(") publichealthissues.("i) General mitigative measures andmonitoring.(a) solutionsEXPTANATORYNOTES(i) technological (treatmentof drinking water,treatment of sewageand industrial ffiuent);(ii) educationandpublicawareness;(iii) legislation and policy,for example, ffiuentdischarge regulations.(b) water quality monitoringmethods (water qualityparameters - nitrates,phosphates, Biological OrygenDemand (BOD); ChemicalOxygen Demand (COD);Total Suspended SolidsQSS); faecal coliforms. Anunderstanding of the proto:colfor testing each parameter isrequired);*.1 ,*, n2s/u2/ro 45
  47. 47. UNIT2MODULE3: POILUTIONOFTHEENVIRONMENT(contd)(c)c.(i)Land PollutionSources:industrial;agricultural;municipal;domestic.(ii) Causesof landpollution:(a) atmosphericfallout;(b) waste disPosal (domestic,industrial, oPen dumPs,sanitarylandfills);(d)(e)dumpingof mineralextractionspoils;agricultural processes (seeUnit2 Module1);oil spills.(iii) Environmental PathwaYs andreceptors.(iv) Environmentalimpacts(for example,reducedaestheticquality, lowering ofland value, health imPlications,changein landuse).*l ,*, n2s/u2/to 46
  48. 48. SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentsshouldbeableto:EXPTANATORYNOTES(v) General mitigative measures andmonitoring(a) Wasteminimization(reduction,recycling, reuse,rethink).(b) EnvironmentallmpactAssessments.(Refe, to Unit l, Module 3, Specific /-Objective 10.)(c) Legislation, incentivesand penalties.(d) Public awarenessand participation.(e) Public awarenessand education.(/) Clean up of pollution(bioremediation andphytoremediation).@) Incineration.(a) (h) Research and development(research on status ofenvironmentalcomponentsanddevelopment of policy).6. analyse the environmental impacts (i) Sources(medicalandindustrialwaste).of pollution from specific sources;*(ii) Toxic effects(carcinogenic,mutagenic,tetratogenic effects) .(iii) Improperdisposalmethods.7. assessthe effectivenessof measuresto mitigateenvironmentalimpactsofpollution:8. discuss the importance of (i) UnitedNationsConventionon Climateinternational conventions and Change(UNFCCC) andKyotoProtocol.agreements regarding pollutioncontrol; (ii) MontrealProtocol.*l r*, n2s/a2/ro 47
  49. 49. UNIT2MODUTE3: POILUIIONOFTHEENVIRONMENT(conld)SPECIFICOBJECTIVESStudentJshouldbeableto:EXPTANATORYNOTES(iii) InternationalConventionfor thePreventionof MarinePollution(MARPOL).(iu) CartagenaConvention(") BaselConvention.("i) UnitedNationsConventionon Law oftheSeaUNCLO9.g. interpret data using appropriatecharts,tablesandgraPhsSussestedTeachingand Learnine ActivitiesTo facilitatestudentsattainmentof the objectivesof this Module,teachersare advisedto engagestudentsin theteachingandlearningactivitieslistedbelowl. Assignstudentsto investigateandcategoriselocalpollutionproblems.Z. Assignstudentsto monitorindividualwasteproductionon a weeklybasis.3. Conductresearchto compareemissionfrom leaded,unleadedanddieselfuels.4. Assignexperimentalwork to investigateleadcontentof vegetationnearhighways.5. Conductfield studiesonthecollectionanddisposalof garbage6. Collectinformationon industriesandtheirpotentialto producepollution.7. Conductresearchto analysetheeffectivenessoflocal legislationto reducegreenhousegasesg. Conductfield studieson industriesor factoriesandanalysisof theirprocesseswith respecttodevelopingwastereductionstrategies.Assignstudentsto investigaterespirationailmentsin a community.*l r*, n2s/u2/to 48
  50. 50. UNIT2MODUTE3: POILUTIONOFTHEENVIRONMENT(contd)9.10.I l.12.13.14.15.Assign studentsto analyse air and water quality in urban areas.Review relevantliteratureto establishsizeand location of ozonehole.Assignstudentsto carryout waterqualitymeasurements:andfaecalcoliform: BOD, COD, TSS,pH.Conductan investigationon the categoriesandsourcesof pollutantsin waterbodies.Conductexperimentsto identifytherelationshipbetweenDO andtemperature.Collectinformationon the level of sewagetreatmentat selectedtreatmentplants.Conductsoil samplingexercisefor pollutantsand their concentrationlevels(urban,agriculturalandindustrialareas).Assignstudentsto conducthomeauditfor sourcesandcategoriesof pollutants.Conductinvestigationson the extentof recyclingactivitiesin the country,identificationof wastethatcouldberecycled.Conductbrain-stormingsessionon businessopportunitiesbasedon useof wasteasa resource.Assignstudentsto measurenoiselevelsAssignstudentsto developstrategicplanson climatechange.Encouragestudentsto garnerinformationon nationalpolicieson pollution control.Assignstudentsto collectdataon environmentalimpactassessmentsandmakerecommendations.Encouragestudentsto view An Inconvenient Truth and read ITTC Report, SternReport.21.22.zJ.*l r*, n2s/u2/Io 49
  51. 51. UNIT2MODULE3: POLIUTIONOFIHEENVIRONMENT(contd)RESOURCESArms, K.rEnvironmental Science,Philadelphia: SaundersCollege Publishing(HarcourtBracePublisher),1994Chiras,D. EnvironmentalScience.Actionfor a SustainableFuture,United StatesofAmerica:TheBenjamin/cummingsPublishingcompanylnc.,l994Clarke,R. Marine Pollution,Toronto: Oxford UniversityPressInc., 1997 Cunningham,W. andSaigo,B. EnvironmentalScience,A globalconcernMcGraw HillEnger,E. andSmith,B. EnvironmentalScience,A Study of Inter-relationships,New York:McGraw Hi11.2002.Farmer,A. ManagingEnvironmentalPollution,London:Routledge,1997.Goodbody,L andThomas-Hope,.Natural ResourceManagementfor SustainableDevelopmentofE. the Caribbean, CanoePress,University of the West Indies,Mona.2002.Ehrlich,P.andEhrlich,A. ThePopulationExplosion,New York: Simonandschuster.1990.Jordan,C. Conservatiorz,New York: JohnWiley andSons,1995Miller, G. ReplenishtheEarth,California:WadsworthPublications,1996Nebel,B. andwright, R. Environmentalscience:Theway theworld works,New Jersey:PrenticeHall. 1997.Reeve,R. EnvironmentalAnalysls,New York: JohnWiley andSons,1999.Viessman,W. Jr.,andHammer, WaterSupptyand Pollution Control,Califomia:AddisonWesleM. 1998.Website:www.mhhe.com/environmentalsciencehttp://www.basel.int/convention/about.htmlhttp://ozone.unep.org/publications/exemplary-projectswww.occ.gov.uk/activities/sternwww.imo.orgysafety/mainframe*.l rt, n2s/a2/10 50
  52. 52. I OUTLINEOFASSESSMENTEachUnit will be assessedseparately.Theschemeof assessmentfor eachUnit will bethesame.Acandidatesperformanceon eachUnit will be reportedas an overall gradeand a gradeon eachModuleof theUnit. Theassessmentwill comprisetwo components,externalandintemal.EXTERNAL ASSESSMENT QO%)At theendof theacademicyearin whicha Unit of thesyllabusis taken,thestudentis expectedto sittwowrittenpapersfor a totalof 4 hrs.Paper01(l hour30minutes)Paper02(2 hours30minutes)The paper comprisesforty-five compulsory,multiple-choiceitems,fifteen basedon eachModule.The paper comprises six compulsoryquestions,twobasedon eachModule.(30%)(40%)INTERNAL ASSESSMENT €0%,)The InternalAssessmentin respectof eachUnit will contribute30o/oto the total assessmentof acandidatesperformanceonthatUnit.(i) Paper03AThe assessmentfor eachUnit will be in the form of a journal. Thejournal will comprisereportson site visitsand laboratoryexercises. Thejournal shouldfocus on at leastonespecific objectivefrom any of the three Modulesin the Unit and incorporatethe relevantpractical skills.(ii) Paper03BThisis analternateto Paper03A andis intendedfor privatecandidates.MODERATIONOFINTERNATASSESSMENTEachyearan InternalAssessmentRecordSheetwill be sentto schoolssubmittinestudentsfor theexaminations.All InternalAssessmentRecordSheetsand sampleof assignmentsmustbe submittedto CXC byMay 31 of theyearof the examination.A sampleof assignmentswill be requestedfor moderationpurposesby CXC. Thesesampleswill bere-assessedby CXC Examinerswho moderatetheInternalAssessment.Teachersmarksmaybe.adjustedasa resultof moderation.TheExaminerscommentswill be sentto schools.*.l r*, n2s/u2/ro 51
  53. 53. Copiesof the studentsassignmentthat arenot submittedmustbe retainedby the schooluntil threemonthsafterpublicationby cXC of theexaminationresults.ASSESSMENTDETAILSExternal Asseilmentby Written Papers(70ohof Total Assessment)Paper01 (1 hour 30 minutes- 307oof Total Assessment)1. Compositionof the PaPerThepapercomprisesforty-five multiple-choiceitems,fifteen itemsbasedon eachModule2. SyllabusCoverage(i) Knowledgeof theentiresyllabusis required(ii) Theintentionof thispaper is to testcandidatesknowledgeacrossthebreadthof thesyllabus.3. QuestionTYPeQuestionsmaybebasedon.diagrams,data,graph,photographsor prose.4. Mark Allocation(i) Onemarkwill beassignedforeachitem(ii) The maximum nfark availablefor this paper is forty-five and will be weightedtoninetY.(iii) Thispapercontributes30votowardsthefinal assessment(ir) The marks will be awardedfor Knowledge and Comprehension,Application ofKnowledgeandPracticalAbilities5. Useof CalculatorsCandidateswill be allowedto usea non-programmablecalculatorin theexaminations.Eachcandidateis responsiblefor providinghis/herown calculatorandto ensurethat it functionsthroughouttheexaminations.6. Useof GeometricalInstrumentsCandidatesare allowedto usegeometricalinstrumentsin theexaminations.Eachcandidateis responsiblefor providing hisor her own instruments*.l r*, n2s/a2/Io 52
  54. 54. l.Paner02(2 hours30 minutes- 70%oof Total Assessment)Compositionof PaperThepaperis arrangedinto threesections.Eachsectionrepresentsof theUnit. Eachsectioncontainstwocompulsoryquestions.SyllahusCoverage(i) Comprehensiveknowledgeof theentiresyllabusis required.(ii) Each questionmayfocus on a single themeor developaunconnectedthemes.2.one of the three Modulessingle theme or several3. QuestionTypeQuestionsare of a free-responseform and may be based on diagrams,data, graph,photographsor prose.Responsesareto bewritteninthe separalebookletprovided.4. Mark Allocation(i) Eachquestionis worth 20.marksandthenumberallocatedto eachsub-questionwillappearon theexaminationpaper.(ii) Themaximummarkfor thispaperis 120.(iii) Thispapercontributes40%otowardsthefinal assessment.(iv) The marlrs will be awardedfor Knowledge and Comprehension,Application ofKnowledgeandPracticalAbilities.5. Useof CalculatorsCandidateswill beallowedto usea non-programmablecalculatorin theexaminations.Eachcandidateis responsiblefor providinghis/herown calculatorandto ensurethat it functionsthroushouttheexaminations.6. Use of Geometrical InstrumentsCandidates are allowed to usegeometrical instruments in the examinations. Each candidateis responsiblefor providing his or her own instruments,w.l r*, o2s/a2/to 53
  55. 55. INTERNAL ASSESSMENTInternalAsessmentis anintegralpartof studentassessmentin thecoursecoveredby thissyllabusItis intendedto assiststudentsin acquiringcertainknowledge,skills, andattitudesthatareassociated;ilffi;ffi:il activityfortheInternalAssessmentlslinkedtothesvllabusandshouldformpartof thelearningactivitiesto enablethestudentto achievetheobjectivesof thesyllabusDuring the courseof study for the subject,studentsobtain marksfor the competencethey developand demonstratein undertakingtheir InternalAssessmentassignments.These-markscontributetothefinal marksandgradesthatire awardedto studentsfor theirperformancein theexaminationDuring the courseof studyfor the subject,studentsobtain marksfor the competencethey developanddemonstratein undertakingtheir InternalAssessmentassignments.Thesemarkscontributetothefinal marksandgradesthatire awardedto studentsfor theirperformancein theexaminationTheguidelinesprovidedin thissyllabusfor selectingappropriatetasksareintendedto assistteachersand studentsin selectingassignmentsthat are valid lor the purposeof InternalAssessmentTheguidelinesprovided for the assessmentof theseassignmentsare intendedto assistteachersinawardingmarksthatarereliableestimatesof theachievementof studentsin theInternalAssessmentcomponentof the course.In orderto ensurethatthe scoresawardedby teachersarenot out of linewith the CXC standards,the Council undertakesthe moderationof a sampleof the InternalAssessmentassignmentsmarkedby eachteacherTheInternalAssessmentcomponentis compulsory.Theassignmentis assessedby theteacher,usingInternalAssessmentCriteriaprovidedbelowThefollowingaretheskillsthatwill beassessed:(i) the selectionof techniques,designs,methodologiesandinstrumentsappropriateto differentenvironmentalsituations;(ii) thecollectionandcollationof data;(iii) theanalysis,interpretationandpresentationof suchdata;(iv) theuseof appropriatequantitativetechniques;(v) the developmentof appropriatemodelsas possiblesolutionsto specificenvironmentalproblems.TheInternalAssessmentshouldrelateto at leastoNE specificobjectivein theunit*l r* n2s/u2/Io 54
  56. 56. CRITERIA FOR THE INTERNAL ASSESSMENTThe following are the guidelinesfor assessingthejournal.1. Thejournalis internallyassessedby theteacherandexternallymoderatedby CXCz. Eachcandidatewill be requiredto completea journal in which he/shewill be expectedtodemonstratethepracticalskillslistedon Page53.THE JOARNALThe reportsfor a seriesof site-visitsandarerecordedin thejournal.Thejournalwill comprise:laboratoryexercisesassociatedwith the site-visits(u) anentryfor eachsitevisit(b) areportfor thejournal(") a final reportonthesetof site-visitsEachstudentis expectedto conductandwrite a final reporton a minimum of four (4) sitevisitsandfour (4) laboratoryexercises.(ii)(iii)Sitevisitsshouldbebasedeitheron visitsto onesitewherechangesovera periodoftime areobservedOR on a seriesof visitsto differentsitesto compareandcontrastsimilarprocessesor occurrences.Laboratoryexercisesshouldrelateto eachor anyof theseriesof site-visits.The entriesfor the site-visitsand the reportsfor the laboratoryexercisesMUSTinformthefinal reportfor thejournal. Thefinal reportmustnotexceed1500wordsexpectedto work closelywith studentsby providingfeedbackon all aspectsof theTeachersproject.Studentsreporting,making.should be encouragedto developtheconciserecordingand the ability forkeen observation,relevantand precisethinking, problem-solvingand decision-habit ofcriticalEachstudentis requiredto keepa record(ournal) for thereportson the laboratoryexercisesandafinal reportfor entriesonthesite-visits.It is recommendedthattheassessmentcriteriabeavailableto candidatesatall times.(A) Site-VisitThe entry for eachsite-visitshouldberecordedusingtheformatbelow:I55*, I cxc,e2sru2/Io
  57. 57. (i)(ii)(iii)(a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(iv) Objective(s)(v) Activities(vi) Observations(vii) Comments(viii) Follow-uPActivitiesThe teacheris requiredto assesseachsite-visitformaximumof 40 marksshouldbescaledto l0 marks(B) Laboratorv ExerciseEntryNumberDateSite@d"cation)PlanningandDesigning;.ObservationandRecording;ManipulationandMeasurement;AnalysisandInterPretation;ReportingandPresentation.TotalI mark4 marksa2 marks2 marksI mark10Marksa maximumof 10 marks. The total fromNo fractionalmarksshouldbe awarded.4 marksJ marks2 marks6 marks3 marks20 marks(Scaledto 10marks)Theareasthatwill beassessedin thereportfor eachlaboratory exerciseare:Ijlliil,Theteacheris requiredto mark andawarda scoreout of a maximumof 20 marksfor eachlaboratoryreportandthenscaleto l0 marks.No fractional marks shouldbe awardedTheseentriesfor the site-visitsand the laboratory reportsshouldinform the final report for thejournal.Laboratoryexercisesshouldbereportedusingtheformatbelow:i) Title iD Aimw.l r*, o2s/u2/Io 56
  58. 58. iii) Materialsv) DataCollection/Resultsiv) Procedurevi) DiscussionandConclusions(C) Final Report for JournalTheareasthatwill beassessedin thefinal reportfor thejournalaresummarisedin thetablebelow.Final Report for Journal Marks1 Clarityof thestatementof therealworld problembeingstudied(projectdescription)22 . Definitionof thescopeof theproject (purposeof project) aJ3. Adequacyof information/datagatheredandthe appropriatenessof thedesignchosenfor investigatingtheproblem aJa . Appropriatenessof theliteraturereview 5Presentationof dataiAnalvsisof data 66. Discussionof findings 87 . Conclusion 38. Recommendations 49. Communicationof information 4lo. Bibliography 2Total 40lIIIIIIII I! lIIIIlIrlriiii*l r*, n2s/u2/ro J I
  59. 59. ASSESSINGTHE JOURI{AL REPORTl.2.3.4.5.ProblemStutement. ProblemclearlYstated. Probf1mclearlystatedandconcisePurposeof Project Purposestated. Purposestatedandsomevariablesidentified. Purposestatedandall variablesidentifiedMethodsof Data Collection. Datacollectiondesigndescribed. Designclear,appropriate,carriedoutwith few flaws. Designclear,appropriate,carriedoutwithoutflawsLiterature Review. LiteraturereviewattemPted. LiteraturereviewaPProPriate. LiteraturereviewappropriateandcomprehensivePresentationof Data. Usedgraphs,tables,figuresandstatisticalsymbolsadequately. Usedlruptrr,tables,figuresandstatisticalsymbolscreatively6. AnalYsisof Data SomeanalYsisattemPted AnalysisadequatelYdone Analysisused2 or moreapproaches. Analysisusedavarietyof approachesor exceededrequirementsofthecourseDiscussionof Findings8. Some findings stated. All findings stated. Somefindingsstatedandsupportedby data. All findingsstatedandsupportedby data. Somefindlngsstated,tuppntt.d by dataandtheir interpretabilityaddressed. All findingsstated,supportedby dataandtheir interpretabilityI2l !2aJI2Jl-23-45I2J4I2J45addressed. Reliabilityor validitY,. Reliabilityor validitY,andusefulnessof somefindingsaddressedandusefulnessofall findingsaddressed*l r*, o2s/u2/10 58
  60. 60. 8. Conclusion 3. Conclusionclearandbasedon finding(s) I. Conclusionclear,basedon finding(s) andvalid 2. Conclusionclear,basedon finding(s),validandrelatedto 3purpose(s)of projectg. Recommena"Ion, 4. Fewrecommendationsbasedon findings 2. Mostrecommendationsbasedon findings 3. Recommendationsfully derivedfrom findings 410. Communicationof Information 4. Informationcommunicatedin a fairly logicalmannerwith several Igrammaticalerrors. Informationcommunicatedin a loeicalmannerwith some 2grammaticalenors. Informationcommunicatedin a loeicalmannerwith few 3grammaticalerrors. Informationcommunicatedin a loeicalmannerwith no 4grammaticalerrors11. Bibliography. Numberof referencesis lessthan4. Numberof referencesis greaterthan4, writtenusinga consistent. conventionTotal 40 marksTheoverallassessmentof eachstudentis basedon theentriesfor thefour site-visits(40marks),fourlaboratoryexercises(40marks)andthefinal reportfor thejournal(40marks).A totalof 90 markssummarisedin thetablebelow:Component Raw Marks Total Marks4 site-visits4 x l0:40Scaledto l0l04laboratoryexercises4 x l0:40 40Finalreport 40 40Total 90irItI,l*.l r*, o2s/u2/ro 59
  61. 61. GENERATGUIDETINESFORTEACHERSL Theteacheris requiredto markthejournal andfinal marksmustberecordedoutof 90.e. The schoolmustretainall journalsfor at leastthreemonthsafterpublicationof the resultssincejournalsmayberequestedby CXC for moderationpurposes.3. The specificobjectiveshighlightedby an asteriskaresuitablefor InternalAssessment,buttheassignmentsneednot assessonly theseobjectives;4. The reliabilityof the marksawardedis a significantfactorin the InternalAssessment,andhasfar reachingimplicationsfor thecandidatesfinal grade. Teachersareaskedto notethefollowing:(i) the marksawardedto thejournal must be carefully transferredto the CXC InternalAssessmentforms;theteachermustallocateone-thirdof thetotalscorefor theInternalAssessmenttoeachModule. Fractional marks shouldnot be awarded. [n caseswherethemarkis notdivisibleby three,thentheallocationis asfollows:(a) when theremainderis I mark,themark is allocatedto Module3;(b) Whentheremainderis 2, thena mark is allocatedto Module3 andthe othermarkto Module2.Forexample,35marksareallocatedasfollows:35 13:ll remainder2so 11markstoModuleI and12markstoeachofModules2 and3.(iii) thestandardof markingshouldbeconsistentCandidateswho do not fulfil therequirementsof theInternalAssessmentwill be consideredabsentfrom thewholeexamination.(ii)5 .ll{iIfI;f"*l r*" u2s/u2/to 60

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