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Sukhoi Su27 Detailed Review.pdf

Fact Book About Sukhoi
Su 27 And It’s Families
Compiled by :
Porpat Sodsroy FS.1
Directorate of Intelligence
July 2003
Sukhoi 27 4
Sukhoi 30 7
Sukhoi 32,34 11
Sukhoi 33 15
Sukhoi 35 19
Sukhoi 37 23
Sukhoi Su-30/32/34 By Easy Tarta...
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Sukhoi Su27 Detailed Review.pdf

  1. 1. 1 Fact Book About Sukhoi Su 27 And It’s Families Compiled by : Porpat Sodsroy FS.1 Directorate of Intelligence July 2003
  2. 2. 2 NOTE
  3. 3. 3 Contents Sukhoi 27 4 Sukhoi 30 7 Sukhoi 32,34 11 Sukhoi 33 15 Sukhoi 35 19 Sukhoi 37 23 Sukhoi Su-30/32/34 By Easy Tartar 27 Sukhoi Su-35 by Sergei Drobyshev 37 Sukhoi Su-37 By Easy Tartar 43 Sukhoi Su-37 by Alexander Andrianov 63 Su-30 for India 67 Planes for China 68
  4. 4. 4 Sukhoi Su-27 NATO codename: Flanker Multi-Role Fighter DESCRIPTION: Marking a major improvement in the quality of Soviet fighters, the Su-27 is a long- range air superiority fighter comparable to the US F-15 in size and mission. The Su- 27 is equipped with an analog fly-by-wire control system, a powerful pulse-Doppler radar, and up to ten air-to-air missiles giving it a potent look-down shoot-down capability. The Flanker also features a rearward-facing radar at the end of a long boom placed between the engines allowing the Su-27 to fire at targets behind the aircraft. The Su-27's high thrust-to-weight ratio and refined aerodynamics allow superb flight characteristics at high angles of attack. In addition, the Soviet Navy purchased an improved Su-27K design, later redesignated the Su-33, to operate off its first class of large aircraft carriers. The Su-33 features canards for improved maneuverabilty as well as a strengthened airframe for carrier operations. An interesting feature of the Su-27 is its autopilot which is able to return the aircraft to right-side-up level flight at any altitude when the pilot presses a "panic-button." Besides the Su-33, the basic Su-27 airframe has also been developed into the Su- 30, Su-35 and Su-37 fighters as well as the Su-34 bomber. Data below for Su-27 'Flanker-B' Last modified 8 October 2001 HISTORY: First Flight ('Flanker-A') 20 May 1977 ('Flanker-B') April 1981 Service Entry 1984 CREW: 1 pilot ESTIMATED COST: $40 to $70 million AIRFOIL SECTIONS: Wing Root unknown (5%) Wing Tip unknown (5%) DIMENSIONS: Length 71.92 ft (21.94 m) Wingspan 48.17 ft (14.70 m) Height 19.42 ft (5.92 m) Wing Area 666 ft2 (62.0 m2) Canard Area not applicable WEIGHTS: Empty 32,020 lb (17,700 kg) Typical Load 49,600 lb (22,500 kg) Max Takeoff 66,140 lb (30,000 kg)
  5. 5. 5 Fuel Capacity Internal: unknown External: unknown Max Payload 17,640 lb (8,000 kg) PROPULSION: Powerplant two Saturn/ Lyul'ka AL-31F afterburning turbofans Thrust 55,114 lb (245.16 kN) PERFORMANCE: Max Level Speed at altitude: 1,555 mph (2,500 km/h) at 36,090 ft (11,000 m), Mach 2.35 at sea level: unknown Initial Climb Rate unknown Service Ceiling 59,055 ft (18,000 m) Range typical: 2,100 nm (3,900 km) 810 nm (1,500 km) with max payload ferry: 2,160 nm (4,000 km) g-Limits +8 ARMAMENT: Gun one 30-mm GSh-301 cannon (149 rds) Stations eight external hardpoints and two wingtip rails Air-to-Air Missile R-60/AA-8 Aphid, R-27/AA-10 Alamo, R-73/AA-11 Archer, R- 33/AA-9 Amos Air-to-Surface Missile none Bomb free-fall, cluster bombs Other rocket pods, ECM pods KNOWN VARIANTS: T-10 Original prototype, suffered from excessive drag, weak structure, excessive weight, and flutter T-10S Second redesigned prototype Su-27 'Flanker-A' Production model prototype; 15 built Su-27 'Flanker-B' First production model with refined aerodynamics and aft radar extension Su-27UB 'Flanker-C' Two-seat combat-capable trainer with improved radar in a longer nose Su-27K 'Flanker-D' Prototype of the Su-33 navalized fighter Su-27KU or Su-27IB Prototype of the Su-34 bomber Su-27M Prototype of the Su-35 fighter Su-27P Air defense interceptor to defend against nuclear bombers Su-27PU Prototype of the Su-30 fighter bomber J-11 Chinese designation for the Su-27, perhaps up to 300 to be license built in China KNOWN COMBAT RECORD: none KNOWN OPERATORS: Russian Air Force Belarus China Ukraine
  6. 6. 6 3-VIEW SCHEMATIC:
  7. 7. 7 Sukhoi Su-30 NATO codename: Flanker Multi-Role Fighter DESCRIPTION: Based on the two-seat Su-27UB trainer and originally known as the Su-27PU, the Sukhoi Su-30 is intended to be a long-range precision-attack fighter similar in mission to the F-15E Eagle. Although retaining the air-to-air interceptor duties of the Su-27, the early Su-30 and Su-30K models are optimized for long-endurance missions of 10 hours or so. These aircraft are also fitted with a radiolocation system that allows them to transmit the positions of up to 10 targets to four other aircraft simultaneously. This feature makes the Su-30 suitable for use as a tactical fighter leader designating targets to be attacked by other aircraft. These variants were later joind by the mutli-role Su-30M model that adds precision ground attack capability and the ability to carry a wide range of advanced guided bombs and missiles. Sukhoi has also actively marketed an export model, the Su-30MK, that has been purchased by India (Su-30MKI) and China (Su-30MKK). India has ordered 28 baseline aircraft and another 12 with canards and vectored thrust nozzles for improved maneuverability. India plans to add these upgrades to its entire Su-30 fleet in the future. Indonesia has also reportedly shown great interest in the Su- 30MK, but any acquisition plans have been postponed indefinitely in light of the nation's recent political and economic turmoil. In Russian service, the Su-30 has supplemented and replaced many older MiG-31 and Su-27 intereceptors. Data below for Su-30M and Su-30MKI Last modified 28 May 2001 HISTORY: First Flight 1989 Service Entry : 1992 CREW: 1 pilot, 1 weapons systems officer ESTIMATED COST: $34 million AIRFOIL SECTIONS: Wing Root unknown Wing Tip unknown DIMENSIONS: Length 71.92 ft (21.94 m) Wingspan 48.17 ft (14.70 m) Height 20.83 ft (6.36 m) Wing Area 666 ft2 (62.0 m2) Canard Area not applicable WEIGHTS: Empty 32,020 lb (17,700 kg)
  8. 8. 8 Typical Load (Su-30M) 52,910 lb (24,000 kg) (Su-30MKI) 56,590 lb (25,670 kg) Max Takeoff (Su-30M) 73,855 lb (33,500 kg) (Su-30MKI) 74,955 lb (34,000 kg) Fuel Capacity 20,725 lb (9,400 kg) Max Payload 17,640 lb (8,000 kg) PROPULSION: Powerplant two Saturn/ Lyul'ka AL-31F afterburning turbofans Thrust 55,114 lb (245.16 kN) PERFORMANCE: Max Level Speed at altitude: 1,320 mph (2,125 km/h) at 32,780 ft (10,000 m), Mach 2.3 at sea level: unknown cruise speed: 860 mph (1,380 km/h) at 32,780 ft (10,000 m) Initial Climb Rate 45,235 ft (13,800 m) / min Service Ceiling 57,360 ft (17,500 m) Range typical: 1,620 nm (3,000 km) ferry: 3,770 nm (6,990 km) g-Limits +9 ARMAMENT: Gun one 30-mm GSh-301 cannon (149 rds) Stations ten external hardpoints and two wingtip rails Air-to-Air Missile R-33/AA-9 Amos, R-27/AA-10 Alamo, R-73/AA-11 Archer, R- 77/AA-12 Air-to-Surface Missile Kh-29/AS-14 Kedge, Kh-31/AS-17 Krypton, Kh-59 Bomb free-fall, cluster bombs Other rocket pods, ECM pods KNOWN VARIANTS: Su-27PU Original designation of the Su-30 Su-30 Two-seat long-range, long-endurance interceptor based on the Su-27UB Su-30K Improved Su-30 with in-flight refueling capability, strengthened structure, and greater range Su-30M Upgraded multi-role variant of the Su-30 with ground attack capability and able to carry a wide range of air-to-ground weapons Su-30MK Export version of the Su-30M Su-30MKI Su-30M model for India, all to be upgraded with canards and thrust vectoring nozzles; 40 built and perhaps another 100 to be license built in India Su-30MKK Su-30M model for China; 72 built and approximately 250 to be license built in China KNOWN COMBAT RECORD: none KNOWN OPERATORS: Russian Air Force China India
  9. 9. 9 3-VIEW SCHEMATIC:
  10. 10. 10 NOTE
  11. 11. 11 Sukhoi Su-32, Su-34 NATO codename: Fullback Medium Tactical/ Strategic Bomber DESCRIPTION: Based on the impressive Su-27 fighter, the Su-34 is a new tactical low-level bomber designed to replace the Su-24. The first Su-34 prototype was a modified Su-30 tandem two-seat trainer (itself a variant of the Su-27) reconfigured with two side- by-side seats in a widened fuselage. The widened nose also contains a terrain- following radar and terrain-avoidance system needed for low-level flight. Furthermore, the revised nose shape is a flat, sharp, chined configuration similar to that on the SR-71 Blackbird to reduce the radar cross-section of the aircraft. Like the Su-27, the Su-34 also features a rearward facing radar between the engines to track and fire upon targets behind the aircraft. Improvements over the Su-27 include more sophisticated avionics, addition of canards like those of the Su-33, better maneuverability, greater range, and improved low-level flight performance. The Su-34, originally known as the Su-27IB, is expected to replace the Su-24 bomber by about 2010. A further variant of the Su-34 is the Su-32FN optimized for maritime attack and reconnaissance duties. Some reports also suggest a navalized version of the Su-34 (possibly confused with the Su-33UB) equipped with more powerful engines and thrust vectoring to reduce the takeoff distance, but this variant is doubtful now that the Russian Navy no longer operates any vessels capable of carrying such an aircraft. Last modified 24 May 2001 HISTORY: First Flight (modified Su-30) 13 April 1990 (Su-34) 18 December 1993 Service Entry unknown CREW: 1 pilot, 1 weapon systems officer ESTIMATED COST: unknown AIRFOIL SECTIONS: Wing Root unknown Wing Tip unknown DIMENSIONS: Length 82.67 ft (25.22 m) Wingspan 48.18 ft (14.70 m) Height 20.33 ft (6.20 m) Wing Area 666 ft2 (62.0 m2) Canard Area unknown
  12. 12. 12 WEIGHTS: Empty 30,865 lb (14,000 kg) Typical Load 85,980 lb (39,000 kg) Max Takeoff 99,210 lb (45,000 kg) Fuel Capacity 26,675 lb (12,100 kg) Max Payload 17,640 lb (8,000 kg) PROPULSION: Powerplant two Saturn/ Lyul'ka AL-31MF afterburning turbojets Thrust 58,460 lb (260 kN) PERFORMANCE: Max Level Speed at altitude: 1,180 mph (1,900 km/h) at 32,780 ft (10,000 m), Mach 1.8 at sea level: unknown cruise speed: 810 mph (1,300 km/h) at 32,780 ft (10,000 m) Initial Climb Rate unknown Service Ceiling 45,890 ft (14,000 m) Range typical: 2,160 nm (4,000 km) ferry: 3,775 nm (7,000 km) g-Limits +7 ARMAMENT: Gun one 30-mm GSh-301 cannon (149 rds) Stations ten external hardpoints and two wingtip rails Air-to-Air Missile up to 12 R-27/AA-10 Alamo, R-73/AA-11 Archer, or R-77/AA-12 Air-to-Surface Missile AS-12, AS-13, Kh-29/AS-14 Kedge, Kh-35, Kh-41, Kh-59 Bomb KAB-500, KAB-1500 laser-guided bombs Other rocket pods, ECM pods KNOWN VARIANTS: Su-27IB Original designation of the Su-34 Su-34 Production model based on Su-27 airframe but with widened forward fuselage for side-by-side seating and advanced navigation and attack avionics Su-32FN Maritime attack and reconnaissance model built for export KNOWN COMBAT RECORD: none KNOWN OPERATORS: Russian Air Force
  13. 13. 13 3-VIEW SCHEMATIC:
  14. 14. 14 NOTE
  15. 15. 15 Sukhoi Su-33 NATO codename: Flanker Carrier-borne Multi-Role Fighter DESCRIPTION: The Sukhoi Su-33 is a navalized version of the company's Su-27 originally designed to operate from the Soviet Union's first class of large aircraft carriers. To meet the requirements of shipboard duty, the Su-33 features a strengthened airframe, corrosion resistance, arrestor gear, more powerful engines, and wing and tailplane folding mechanisms for storage aboard ship. The Su-33 is also the first member of the Su-27 family fitted with canards near the juncture of the wing and leading edge extension allowing better maneuverability and reducing the takeoff distance and landing speed. The Su-27K, as the design was first known, was originally developed for the Soviet Navy alongside the MiG-29K, and it was envisioned that both aircraft would be purchased for carrier operations. However, the collapse of the Soviet Union left the Russian Navy with only one Kuznetsov class carrier, and the decision was made to acquire only one aircraft for carrier use. Although more expensive and larger, meaning fewer could be carried, the Navy chose the Su-27K over the competing MiG-29K. After being re-designated the Su-33, about 24 aircraft were acquired, but budget cuts have severely limited operation of the Russian aircraft carrier and these aircraft typically operate from shore bases. A further development of the basic airframe is the two-seat Su-27KUB (or Su-33UB) trainer that features the side-by-side seating arrangement of the Su-34 family. Last modified 6 January 2002 HISTORY: First Flight (Su-27K) May 1985 (Su-27KUB) 29 April 1999 Service Entry 1993 or 1994 CREW: 1 pilot ESTIMATED COST: unknown AIRFOIL SECTIONS: Wing Root unknown Wing Tip unknown DIMENSIONS: Length 71.92 ft (21.94 m) Wingspan 48.17 ft (14.70 m) Height 19.42 ft (5.92 m) Wing Area 666 ft2 (62.0 m2) Canard Area unknown
  16. 16. 16 WEIGHTS: Empty 35,275 lb (16,000 kg) Typical Load 49,605 lb (22,500 kg) Max Takeoff 70,545 lb (32,000 kg) Fuel Capacity internal: 20,725 lb (9,400 kg) external: unknown Max Payload 14,330 lb (6,500 kg) PROPULSION: Powerplant two Saturn/ Lyul'ka AL-31F afterburning turbofans Thrust 61,730 lb (274.6 kN) PERFORMANCE: Max Level Speed at altitude: 1,430 mph (2,300 km/h) at 32,780 ft (10,000 m), Mach 2.17 at sea level: 870 mph (1,400 km/h), Mach 1.1 cruise speed: 870 mph (1,400 km/h) at 32,780 ft (10,000 m) Initial Climb Rate 45,235 ft (13,800 m) / min Service Ceiling 55,720 ft (17,000 m) Range typical: 1,620 nm (3,000 km) ferry: unknown g-Limits +9 ARMAMENT: Gun one 30-mm GSh-301 cannon (149 rds) Stations ten external hardpoints and two wingtip rails Air-to-Air Missile R-27/AA-10 Alamo, R-73/AA-11 Archer, R-77/AA-12 Air-to-Surface Missile Kh-25MP/AS-12 Kegler, Kh-31/AS-17 Krypton, Kh-41 Bomb various Other rocket pods, ECM pods KNOWN VARIANTS: Su-27K 'Flanker-D' Original designation of the Su-33 Su-33 Production model with canards, strenthened structure, folding wings and tailplanes, arrester hook, uprated engine, corrosion protection, an in-flight refueling probe, and other modifications to make the aircraft suitable for carrier operations; approximately 24 built Su-33UB or Su-27KUB Side-by-side two-seat combat-capable trainer similar to the Su-32 or Su-34 but retaining the more rounded nose of the Su-33 KNOWN COMBAT RECORD: none KNOWN OPERATORS: Russian Navy
  17. 17. 17 3-VIEW SCHEMATIC:
  18. 18. 18 NOTE
  19. 19. 19 Sukhoi Su-35 Multi-Role Fighter DESCRIPTION: Another derivative of the Su-27, essentially a ground-based variant of the Su-33, is the Su-35. While its official designation in the Russian Air Force is the Su-27M, Sukhoi has rechristened the design as the Su-35 and is actively marketing the aircraft to potential export customers. The design is largely identical to the Su-27 but incorporates the canards of the Su-33 and more powerful engines plus a digital fly-by-wire control system. The Su-35 is also equipped with a new multi-mode radar, infrared detectors, and upgraded weapons. The Su-35 development program has experienced many delays due to the collapse of the Soviet economy, and the Russian military may not be able to purchase many examples. Brazil is reportedly interested in co-producing the Su-35 to replace its aging Mirage III fighters. Last modified 15 October 2002 HISTORY: First Flight (T-10-24) May 1985 (T-10S-70) 28 June 1988 Service Entry mid-1990s (?) CREW: 1 pilot ESTIMATED COST: unknown AIRFOIL SECTIONS: Wing Root unknown Wing Tip unknown DIMENSIONS: Length 72.83 ft (22.22 m) Wingspan 48.17 ft (14.70 m) Height 21.08 ft (6.43 m) Wing Area 666 ft2 (62.0 m2) Canard Area unknown WEIGHTS: Empty 40,565 lb (18,400 kg) Typical Load 56,660 lb (25,700 kg) Max Takeoff 74,955 lb (34,000 kg) Fuel Capacity 29,540 lb (13,400 kg) Max Payload 17,640 lb (8,000 kg)
  20. 20. 20 PROPULSION: Powerplant two Saturn/ Lyul'ka AL-31F afterburning turbofans Thrust 61,730 lb (274.6 kN) PERFORMANCE: Max Level Speed at altitude: 1,555 mph (2,500 km/h) at 32,780 ft (10,000 m), Mach 2.3 at sea level: 895 mph (1,435 km/h), Mach 1.18 cruise speed: 870 mph (1,400 km/h) at 32,780 ft (10,000 m) Initial Climb Rate 45,235 ft (13,800 m) / min Service Ceiling 59,055 ft (18,000 m) Range typical: 1,730 nm (3,200 km) ferry: 3,505 nm (6,500 km) g-Limits +10 ARMAMENT: Gun one 30-mm GSh-301 cannon (149 rds) Stations twelve external hardpoints and two wingtip rails Air-to-Air Missile R-40/AA-6 Acrid, R-60/AA-8 Aphid, R-27/AA-10 Alamo, R-73/AA-11 Archer, R-77/AA-12 Air-to-Surface Missile Kh-25ML/AS-10 Karen, Kh-25MP/AS-12 Kegler, AS-13, Kh- 29/AS-14 Kedge, Kh-31/AS-17 Krypton Bomb KAB-250, KAB-500, KAB-1500 Other rocket pods, ECM pods KNOWN VARIANTS: T-10-24 Experimental Su-27 prototype with canards T-10S-70 Prototype Su-27M Official designation of the Su-35 in Russian service Su-35 Production model with new radar, improved fire-control system, glass cockpit featuring multi-function displays, and re-designed fly-by-wire system; about 10 built by September 1993 KNOWN COMBAT RECORD: none KNOWN OPERATORS: Russian Air Force
  21. 21. 21 3-VIEW SCHEMATIC:
  22. 22. 22 NOTE
  23. 23. 23 Sukhoi Su-37 Multi-Role Fighter DESCRIPTION: Yet another derivative of the Su-27 family is the Su-37. The Su-37 design incorporates the canards and digital fly-by-wire control system of the Su-35 but also adds axisymmetric steerable nozzles to provide thrust vectoring capability. The resulting design achieves a level of super-maneuverabilty unmatched by any contemporary fighter. A test pilot reported that the controls are so effective that the aircraft can recover from spins and stalls at almost any altitude. Although the Russian Air Force has shown great interest in the remarkable abilities of the Su-37, it is somewhat doubtful that any will be acquired due to the nation's financial difficulties. The aircraft may see more success in the export market, which Sukhoi is actively pursuing. Last modified 27 May 2001 HISTORY: First Flight 2 April 1996 Service Entry mid-2000s (?) CREW: 1 pilot ESTIMATED COST: unknown AIRFOIL SECTIONS: Wing Root unknown Wing Tip unknown DIMENSIONS: Length 72.83 ft (22.22 m) Wingspan 48.17 ft (14.70 m) Height 21.08 ft (6.43 m) Wing Area 666 ft2 (62.0 m2) Canard Area unknown WEIGHTS: Empty 40,785 lb (18,500 kg) Typical Load 56,590 lb (25,670 kg) Max Takeoff 74,955 lb (34,000 kg) Fuel Capacity 29,540 lb (13,400 kg) Max Payload 17,640 lb (8,000 kg) PROPULSION: Powerplant two Saturn/ Lyul'ka AL-31FU afterburning turbofans Thrust unknown
  24. 24. 24 PERFORMANCE: Max Level Speed at altitude: 1,490 mph (2,400 km/h) at 32,780 ft (10,000 m), Mach 2.3 at sea level: unknown cruise speed: 870 mph (1,400 km/h) at 32,780 ft (10,000 m) Initial Climb Rate 45,235 ft (13,800 m) / min Service Ceiling 59,055 ft (18,000 m) Range typical: 1,730 nm (3,200 km) ferry: 3,505 nm (6,500 km) g-Limits +9 ARMAMENT: Gun one 30-mm GSh-301 cannon (149 rds) Stations twelve external hardpoints and two wingtip rails Air-to-Air Missile R-27/AA-10 Alamo, R-73/AA-11 Archer, R-77/AA-12 Air-to-Surface Missile unknown Bomb unknown Other rocket pods, ECM pods KNOWN VARIANTS: Su-37 Prototypes have been built, but the aircraft has not entered production (?) Two-seat model has been reported but designation unknown KNOWN COMBAT RECORD: not in service KNOWN OPERATORS: not in service
  25. 25. 25 3-VIEW SCHEMATIC:
  26. 26. 26 NOTE
  27. 27. 27 Sukhoi Su-30/32/34 By Easy Tartar Date: 18 August 1997 Subj: Su-30/32/34 Update Report The Su-32"FN", originally designated the Su-34, has been on the world scene for several years but only at this year's Paris Air Show did the West get a chance to look at the details of its cockpit, crew-station and its remarkable flight-handling characteristics in a competitive air show environment. It could be said that initially both Sukhoi and Roosvoorzhenie (the Russian Export Commission) wanted to keep the thrust-vector-control Su-37 from stealing the debut of the Su-32"FN" at Paris and hence delayed its arrival until the end of the show-week, but in all fairness, it appeared that political and technical problems hampered the release schedule of the Su-37. The tandem seat Su-30"MK", first seen at Farnborough in 1996, did not make an appearance at Paris despite its recent successes in India and Indonesia. In July, at the Royal International Air Tattoo (RIAT) at RAF Fairford, General Andreyev, the commander of the Russian Air Defense Forces (PVO), brought a tandem seat Su- 30"K" and demonstrated it very effectively to the record crowd. But that baseline PVO Su-30"K" was a beefed up dual-seat Su-27"UB" trainer which then was designated the Su-27"PU" after modifications to accommodate an actual mission- qualified pilot were put in the back-seat for extended range PVO missions. Su-27K (Photo ? Ivan Savin, Sukhoi) In general, the Russian Su-30"K" is a dual-seat full-system Su-27 interceptor with refueling probe, provisions for external fuel tanks, beefed up structure, improved ECM, and a slightly modified comm/oxygen interface block with the RD-36 ejection seat. The Russian home PVO variant is related to the multi-role "MK" or "MKI"
  28. 28. 28 export variants being sold around the world. The laser- optical locator system is advertised to include a day and night FLIR capability and is used in conjunction with the Helmet mounted sighting system. The onboard countermeasures suite includes an illumination warning system, an active jamming station, and passive dispensers for chaff and flares. The Chief Designer for the export Su-30"MK" is Alexcy Knyshev. According to Knyshev, it is capable of performing all tactical tasks of the Su-24 "Fencer" deep interdiction tactical bomber and the Su-27 "Flanker A/B/C" air superiority fighter while having around twice the combat range and 2.5 times the combat effectiveness (Sukhoi numbers). In the early 1990's, the Su-30"MK" supposedly found itself in competition with the Su-27"IB" side-by-side configured Flanker prototype, but there may be a lot of disinformation with these claims. The Su-30 was reported as early as January 1993 (JDW, 02Jan93, pg4) as being "in service" with the Russian Air Force and in series production at the Irkutsk Factory. At that time a modified and beefed-up dual-seat Su-27"PU" was being tested on long range flights, one of which went from Moscow to Komsomolsk in 15 hours and 31 minutes with air refueling. This evidently became the Su-30"K". Sukhoi then proposed a Su-30"MK" to the Russian Air Force as a dual- seat command post fighter that would designate targets for accompanying aircraft, a clear add-on or replacement for the MiG-31 Foxhound fleet that was having serious maintainability problems. Shortly after, a new single-seat strike fighter / medium bomber that could replace both the Su-24 Fencer and the larger Tu-22/Tu-22M Blinder & Backfire bombers was proposed. It would be a low cost alternative to one of the expensive new bomber projects (T-60S). Mikhail Simonov, Sukhoi Chief Designer during this time, confirmed (JDW, 27Nov93, pg11) that the Russian Air Force has in fact funded some production Su-30"MK" aircraft but they would be single-seat variants. As time went on the dual-seat model returned to center stage. Su-32FN (Photo ? Ivan Savin, Sukhoi)
  29. 29. 29 In looking at the weight growth in the Flanker series, note that the normal takeoff weight of the basic single-seat Su-27 was 22,000 kg (48,500 lbs) while the dual-seat "UB" was 24,000 kg (52,900 lbs) with a max-takeoff weight at 33,500 kg (74,000 lbs). The "K" model has a normal takeoff weight of 24,800 kg (56,700 lbs) with a max-takeoff weight of 30,450 kg (67,000 lbs). Hence the beefed-up structure and added avionics subtracted from payload. The Su-35 with advanced weapon system, stronger airframe and canards takes the max-takeoff weight to 34,000 kg (75,000 lbs). The normal takeoff weight of the much larger Su-32"FN" is 42,000 kg (92,600 lbs) with a max-takeoff weight of 44,360 kg (98,000 lbs). It is important to realize that the "FN" prototype, a derivative of the Su-27"IB" (istrebitel-bombardirovschik - fighter bomber), was a relative late-comer to the Sukhoi development scheme. It was always the tandem-seat arrangements of advanced models that prioritized the advanced design teams, not the unique side- by-side arrangement. The Indian Air Force formally inducted its first eight Su-30 aircraft in a ceremony at Lohegaon Air Base, near Pune, in early July. This was barely six months after the $1.8 billion contract to supply 40 aircraft was confirmed, and officially described as Su-30's. The first batch of eight appear to be an enhanced Su-27"PU" variant which become the Su-30"K", modified again with an Indian particular navigation kit. News reports also eluded to the possibility that the InAF would return them at some later date. Another option was mentioned that over the next four years Sukhoi would upgrade these eight aircraft to full Su-30"MKI" status while delivering the 32 x Su- 32"MKI"s in three batches. Deputy Sukhoi Designer Alexander Bartkovski said that the eight aircraft were shipped to India in An-124 Ruslan aircraft from the Irkutsk Aviation Production Association (IAPO) factory. Indian pilots are being trained in groups of ten at the Zhukovski Test Center. As usual, things change, and the contract appears to have been changed top allow the new production aircraft to be delivered with canards and thrust-vectoring control (TVC) engines from the outset. The main difference being that the vectored thrust nozzle assembly would be applied to standard Lyulka-Saturn AL-31F turbofans rather than the AL-37FU's fitted to the Su-37 prototype. The rapid progress being made by the Russians, as Western TVC fighters are barely out of testing, may be due to the relatively conservative Sukhoi flight control system philosophy, which combines manual, analog and digital systems with simple back-up modes, such as the manual mode for the TVC system which returns control of the deflection angle to the pilot. Sukhoi deputy general designer Konstantin Marbashev told Chris Pocock, from Aviation International News, at the Paris Air Show, that the TVC flight test program with the Su-37 prototype had been completed and that many changes were made along with successful testing of the system in yaw as well as pitch, and with differential thrust. Now this confirmation brought the Su-37 VTC evolution into a new level of capability from what we have just seen a year earlier at the Farnborough Air Show. In fact, with "yaw" now as an interactive part of the pilot's
  30. 30. 30 control inputs, the Su-37 could exceed the maneuver potential of the F-16 VISTA, the X-31, and the new F-22, because they are either yaw-channel limited or require yaw-thrusters. Yaw control, integrated with the pilot's standard rudder peddles, which in the fly-by- wire Sukhoi jets are not dis-abled and retain mechanical-electrical backup mechanisms, offer greater tactical freedom to the pilot once committed to the ultra- close dogfight that will feature VTC maneuvering. In-Close, Stay-Close, and Kill- Close would be one way to defeat the new generation of all-aspect, high-off- boresight missiles such as the R-73, Python 4, MICA-IR, and AIM-9X. Obviously one has to survive the transit from beyond visual range (BVR), to within visual range (WVR), to inside of minimum range. Once there however, both Western and Russian gun systems are capable of all-aspect, high crossing angle kills at ranges inside of 1500 feet. The final problem, of course, would be surviving the explosion and resulting trash that would follow the kill. Since Farnborough there have also been changes back at Sukhoi headquarters. Alexei Fedorov, moving over from the senior director's job at the Irkutsk Aviation Industrial Association, took over the reigns of power. Simonov, who seemed weaker and troubled at Paris, was still reluctant to admit that the young Fedorov had in fact unseated him. The Sukhoi Aviation Military Industrial Complex (AVPK) was given life in August of 1996 and validated as both a State Enterprise and a Joint Stock Group by the Russian Government on the 30th of December. AVPK Sukhoi now includes the two main design OKB facilities (Sukhoi & Beriev), three production factories (Komsomolsk-au-Amur, Novosibirsk, and Irkutsk), and several vender organizations. Fedorov studied business management at Oklahoma University and takes over both a complex organization but also a high tech industry in a very competitive marketplace. The mixture of State ownership and privatized holdings will be difficult to manage, but the ultimate goal is to eventually become completely privatized and competitive. The Su-32"FN" is not being thought of as an air combat fighter because of its size, primary air-to-ground mission specialization, and completely different extended range scenarios. Hence, vectored thrust does not demand a high priority, although it does have applications in slowing approach speeds with heavy or asymmetric loadings and could be helpful in onboard computer-aided "dive-toss" deliveries of dumb (non-precision) munitions. As with the "K"/"KM"/"MKI" aircraft, self-defense equipment has focused on active jamming counter-measures, and chaff & flare dispensers. But for the "FN" the new rear-firing version of the R-73 produced by Vympel has become a viable defense system. Approach-warning, acquisition and queuing of targets for these rear-firing missiles would be the function of a small rear-mounted radar housed at the end of the Su-32"FN" center section spine, or "stinger". The radar is located on a raised bracket assembly above the drag chute door which will be maintained. The R-73 missile will lock-on to its target before launch and will maintain its lock-on throughout its launch and flight sequence.
  31. 31. 31 The first Su-35 prototype also was fitted with a rear-facing active threat warning radar in place of its drag chute. Major General Vasili Alexandrov, Chief of the Central Scientific and Research Institute of the Russian Federation Air Forces, said that the purpose of this radar was to provide an "over-the-shoulder" radar missile firing capability. So this would then incorporate forward-facing missiles, which are expected to be R-77 (AA-12) variants, that are given steering commands before launch or have high-angle-off seeker heads (beyond ?160?) locked-on before launch. Su-32"FN" has been characterized by Sukhoi as a "specialized strike fighter" and "a reliable guardian of sea borders". It would be, according to Western terminology, a "missionized reconnaissance-maritime-strike platform" intended for around the clock operations to search for, detect, classify, and then destroy, if necessary, waterborne or submarine targets. It is boldly advertised as the potential successor to the Su-24, F-111, S-3A, RF-4E, EF-111A, A-6E, EA-6A, Tornado GR4, and the F-15E. And guess what, on the brute force merits as a platform, it definitely might be. It all began around 1990 when the unique side-by-side Su-27"IB" was developed at the insistence of Viktor Pugachev, the famous Sukhoi Test Pilot, who at that time was tasked with coming up with a safe and reliable way to teach pilots how to come aboard the new carrier Knuznetzov. It made its maiden flight on 13Apr90, flown by Anatoly Ivanov. This first prototype was reported to not have ejection seats, sported a bolted-on canopy, and the pilots had to enter the aircraft under the fuselage from the rear part of the nose gear wheel well. Like the F-111, Su-24, or A-6, it allowed both crewmembers the opportunity to see forward directly down the aircraft reference line. Pugachev had available to him several Sukhoi platforms from variants of the Su-27 "Flanker" and Su-24 "Fencer" to modifications of the Su-25 "Frogfoot". In the end, the Russian Navy elected to build around a dozen Navy trainer Su-25's, designated Su-28. But to show land-locked Russian Air Force pilots their first "look" at the back end of a full through-deck carrier, Pugachev elected to use the side-by-side variant of the Su-27.
  32. 32. 32 The "IB" was introduced as a carrier demonstrator, but it became instantly a player in a new strike platform competition that was focusing on the tandem-seat Su-30. It was the Western press that has to be given much of the credit for making this happen because they played up the similarity of the "IB" to the Su-24 Fencer and the American F-111. It caught on with the designers and the fact that the avionics growth space had doubled made the idea very attractive. Ultimately two additional operational prototypes were scheduled to be produced at Sukhoi's Novosibirsk factory in Siberia. The first Su-34 prototype made its first flight on 18Dec93 and after transferring the development to Zhukovsky, it was decided that the third prototype would be the first Su-32"FN". This aircraft first flew a year later on 28Dec94 with test pilots Igor Votintsev and Evgeny Reunov at the controls. The roll outs and first flights were reported on Russian TV and Su-34 re-designation was announced, the Su-32"FN" designation did not become public until Paris 1995. The Su-34 has a high degree of commonalty with the Su-30 in wing and lex design but the one most notable unique factor are the tandem double-bogey main landing gear, similar to those on the MiG-31 "Foxhound". Funding was always a problem and delays in acquiring parts and equipment made the task of developing a full system prototype almost impossible, but the Su-32"FN" appeared to have priority. There were claims that Sukhoi received development money but that it was used to shore up the entire Sukhoi Joint Stock Company and its merging attempts to bring many of its venders under one corporate like company. Sukhoi Deputy Designer Vladimir Yakovlev discussed the problems encountered over funding with the soaring Russian inflation rate. Funds promised for the "IB" and other programs often arrived weeks late, and by then the country's monthly 30% inflation rate had severely diminished the value of funding. Sukhoi senior Navigator, Anatoly Gorbatov, was the responsible Test Director for the "IB" in its development and transition into a strike platform. In 1989, Gorbatov, flew into the Paris Air Show in the backseat of a Su-28, piloted by Leo Tsoi, the Chief Test Pilot. The tactical mission concept presented for the "IB" was then "Recce Strike Complex", which had to do with a Cold War "recce-pathfinder" and "post- strike recce" roles in one aircraft. As technology advanced and Sukhoi slowly applied its development money for the "IB", more refined "recce-strike" features were included and better integration with stand-off weapons was perfected. The "IB" was also configured with new titanium-bathtub armored cockpit and enhanced survivability features to allow it to penetrate into high threat environments. Note for a moment that it was the Russian Air Force's decision to standdown, sell off, or give away their MiG-29 fleet (lack of parts and range primarily) and the dismal failure of the MiG-31 to maintain sorties for the PVO forces, that continually fed Sukhoi bits and pieces of budget and mission requirements which netted retrofit money for upgrading dual-seat "UB"s to full mission capable "PU"s / "K"s, and having available the best advanced product lines for the future in the Su-30, Su-34,
  33. 33. 33 Su-35, and Su-37. Through a switch in emergency funding, brought about by the sudden stand-down of Russian Naval Aviation and the collapse of the surface Navy, the Su-32"FN" was born. Program Manager and Chief Designer for the Su-32"FN" is Rollan Martirosov who states that the key difference in the "FN" is its highly automated airborne radio- electronic equipment which will provide broad reconnaissance and combat capabilities. It is also capable of automated terrain following. A production order for 12 x Su-32"FN"s is expected to keep Sukhoi's line open until 1999. Many cockpit improvements were made that included K-36 ejection seats. The Su-32"FN" has 12 armament/store stations and can carry the entire inventory of standoff weapons as well as up to four air-to-air missiles. The total weight for armament comes out to around 8,000 kg (17,600 lbs) with a flight range of around 4,000 km (2,160 nm), increased up to 7,000 km (3,777 nm) with in-flight refueling. It is noteworthy to mention that the Su-32"FN" can carry and employ the UPAZ air refueling store, so one Su-32 could refuel from another. External wing-tip mounted Sorbtsya ECM pods can also be carried. One of the most fascinating features about the Su-32"FN" is its large side-by-side crew station that contains the left command-pilot and right navigator-armament operator's stations. It is a fully pressurized cabin that allows flight up to 10,000 meters (33,000 feet) without oxygen, hence it could effectively be a shirt-sleeve environment for the crew, but they still lack a cabin-module as in some F-111's. Standard K-36DM ejection seats are utilized with ejection being made upwards after the explosive destruction of the large main canopy. Sukhoi designers believe that the cabin environment provides the pilot and navigator with conditions for good combat teamwork. It has been optimized for long-range patrol missions with multiple air refuelings extending to ten to fourteen hours. Once you enter the cabin from the built in stairs, you close up the entry area to access a small crew kitchen with a refrigerator and food-heating unit, a sewage disposal "john", and a first aid station that could serve as a place to laydown and sleep. For one of course. This extended crew compartment also houses primary radio and navigation equipment as well as the ammunition box for the Gsh-301 cannon. Ammunition can then be interestingly exchanged for additional provisions. Beyond the crew station is the main integral fuel tanks and the main engine boost-pumps. The Su-32"FN" is fitted with the "Sea Snake" avionics suite optimized for surface search, anti-surface warfare, mine-detection, reconnaissance, and anti-submarine warfare. The active radar is designed to ensure detection of waterborne targets and submarine wake trails within a dispersion area of more than 3,000 sq.-meters from 150 km range at high altitude. The "Sea Snake" is also capable of detecting airborne targets, including small ones, low over the sea out to 200 to 250 kilometers. The "FN" is equipped with an integrated GLOSNOSS/GPS navigation and with its secure
  34. 34. 34 datalink can serve as a search-and-rescue coordinator or a maritime environment monitor. The avionics suite has an extended architecture of computers, memory boards, color multi-function displays, and processors designed as self-contained information processing modules. They consist of large "Argon" digital computer units with specially programmed processors that use multiplex data-exchange channels. All information modules are controlled by a dual central computing system that fully coordinates workload and provides all relevant information to the flight deck. Two- way data link enables the mission planning and weapon aim-point computations to be loaded or updated while in flight or aircraft to aircraft. According to Martirosov, Sukhoi utilized a high reliability modular approach that could complete most combat missions with a partial failure of any module. The avionics suite is also tailored to specific customer requirement with capabilities added or deleted. Western avionics could also be added at anytime. When the aircraft is engaged in a maritime mission, the main weapon systems functions are performed by the onboard coherent radar, transmitting sonobouys, information provided by offboard data link, an onboard infrared/TV imaging system and a laser rangefinder. Target detection is carried out primarily with the help of the radar, in some cases visual contact is made, and the acoustic signatures are relayed by the sonobouys. To detect submarines, 72 passive sonobouys are allocated in a wide range of frequencies with active directional hydroacoustical buoys and explosive wave generators. Performance characteristics of the Sukhoi sonobouys exceeds American products, according to a Sukhoi representative. There is also a magnetic anomaly detector employed with the sonobouys while the radar can detect small periscopes just breaking the wave tops. Onboard passive radio-electronic reconnaissance systems operate through the entire usable spectrum. In November 1995, static testing of the new Su-32"FN" prototype was completed and a simple flight test program was started. Because of the basic commonalty with the Su-27 family, the canard characteristics of the Su-30/33 and 35, and the almost identical handling qualities with its sister Su-34, the "FN" did not require expensive flight qualities testing. Instead, the flight testing focused on the highly automated avionics equipment that would provide it with broad reconnaissance and combat duties. The all-moving differential canard surfaces have a span of 6.4 meters (21 feet) and an area of some 3 square meters (32 square feet) each. The sweep angle of the leading edge of the canard is 53.5 degrees. Sukhoi literature says that the combination of the front horizontal canards and conventional rear horizontal empennage are intended to ensure good maneuverability and excellent takeoff and landing characteristics with large loads.
  35. 35. 35 In the tunnel under the fuselage between the two engine "pods", there are two tandem hardpoints designed to accept the extra-large anti-ship and air-to-surface munitions. The blended nose has been extended to accept a multi-purpose radar antenna. The wing consists of a large titanium center-wing section and deployed panels with a leading edge sweep angle of 42?. Leading edge extensions contain defensive avionics bays and on the right side the Gsh-301 single-barrel 30mm cannon is mounted. The main telescopic undercarriage legs are fitted with a tandem arrangement of large KT-206 tires. The front dual-nose tire semi-levered undercarriage is equipped with KN-27 tires. The main landing gear are retracted on a forward sweep, with a twist of the bogies, into the center section box well. The front gear are retracted rearward into the equipment compartment behind the cabin. This also seals the crew access door which is why the production aircraft adapted ejection seats and a self-destructive canopy for emergency egress. Undercarriage dimensions are 6.6 meters (21.6 feet) for the wheelbase and 4.4 meters (14.4 feet) for the wheeltrack. An operational mission for the Su-32"FN" begins with a mission planning period that loads into the aircraft's two main computers the coordinates and elevations of every navigation and mission-dependent point from takeoff to landing. At each coordinate- point or time-hack, automatic switching of modes can be accomplished so that the pilots can be hands-off or involved with other parts of the mission. Data link with command aircraft, ground stations, and command ships will be maintained and where line-of-sight limits are reached these communications resort to satellites for expanded coverage. Mission updates can be passed by higher authority anytime during the flight. All types or tactical and strategic ordnance can be utilized with emphasis being placed on long range standoff weapons such as the AS-13/18 Kingbolt cruise missiles, AS-14 Kedge anti-radiation weapon, AS-17 Krypton, Kh-35 Harpoon like anti-ship weapon, and the Kh-41 Moskit long range anti-ship missile.
  36. 36. 36 NOTE
  37. 37. 37 Sukhoi Su-35 by Sergei Drobyshev Head of the Regional Policy and Marketing Department, KnAAPO Via Easy Tartar Subj: SU-35: AIRCRAFT OF THE 21st CENTURY The development of a new combat aircraft is a most intricate gestation period from the R & D work to launch it into series production and operation. A major role here is played by the manufacturer, because there is a long way between the creation of a prototype and the production of a series aircraft. So, during the launch into series production of the Su-27 aircraft developed with the direct participation of specialists from the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Manufacturing Company (KnAAPO), over 50,000 revisions and corrections have been introduced into the designs of the airframe and airborne systems. Without the concerted efforts of KnAAPO, Sukhoi EDB and hundreds of allied enterprises, this wonderful machine would remain a mere blueprint. The design potential of the Su-27 aircraft made it possible for the Sukhoi EDB to develop, on its basis, some new versions of combat aircraft for various roles, such as the Su-27UB combat trainer, Su-30 multipurpose two-seater, Su-33 deck-based fighter, Su-32FN front-line bomber and, of course, the Su-35 multipurpose fighter. A pioneer in the production of the Su-27s, KnAAPO also contributed to the creation of these aircraft, generously sharing its technical and technological know-how tried out on the Su-27s, with other aircraft manufacturing factories which brought the production of these aircraft to the commercial level. Su-35 with the speedbrake open As soon as the work on the Su-35 was started by Sukhoi, the KnAAPO specialists actively participated in the project, designing units and assemblies for the future aircraft. Most experimental aircraft for the trials and a small series of them for the Russian Air Force have also been built by KnAAPO.
  38. 38. 38 To enhance the combat effectiveness and expand the employment area of the aircraft, it was decided to create a multipurpose maneuverable fighter combining high agility and capacity to intercept air targets normally attacked by the Su-27 with a capability to attack ground and water surface targets by both unguided and guided, including high precision, weapons. The Su-35 met these requirements. The Su-35 is intended to destroy existing and prospective remotely piloted vehicles, cruise missiles and other maneuverable targets against the earth background, day and night and in all weathers, to deliver preemptive strikes at any air enemy, including hardly discernible visual objects, to engage ground (and water surface) targets by carrying out standoff attacks with diverse guided weapons, including high-precision ones. The installation of a new set of airborne equipment and additional (as compared to the Su-27) weapon systems on the aircraft required more hardpoints, a robust airframe, and called for changes in many airborne and airframe systems. The main landing gear struts have been modified and the two-wheel nose leg ruggedized. For better agility and takeoff/landing performance, the aircraft was provided with a canard. In terms of aerodynamic layout, the Su-35 is an unstable integral triplane (wing + horizontal tail + canard). The required stability and control are assured by a remote control system. The canard notably assists in controlling the aircraft at large angles of attack and bringing it to a level flight condition. The Su-35 has now acquired a newly developed wing with increased relative thickness, accommodating a large amount of fuel. As in the Su-27, the wing of the Su-35 is provided with high- lift devices featured as deflecting leading edges and flaperons acting as both the flaps and ailerons. In flights at subsonic speeds, the wing profile curvature is changed by a remote control system which deflects the leading edges and flaperons versus the angle of attack. The horizontal tail of the aircraft is essentially a differentially adjustable stabilizer each panel of which is provided with its own quick-acting electro-hydraulic actuator. For a greater combat employment range, the aircraft is fitted with an in-flight refueling system. Inasmuch as a refueling flight of the aircraft may be quite extended (6 - 8 hours or longer) and is only limited by the pilot's physical conditions, its cockpit is provided with containers to store reserves of food and water, and a waste disposal system. The amount of oxygen is increased too. The KD-36DM series ejector seat is set with its back inclined at 30 deg., which helps the pilot resist aircraft accelerations in air combat. The Su-35 avionics equipment comprises: * new-generation forward-looking pulse-doppler radar with a phased antenna array * rearward-looking radar * optical locator with combined functions of infra-red imager and laser range finder
  39. 39. 39 * weapons control system * helmet-mounted target designator * radio reconnaissance system * defense complex * integrated display system using three high-contrast monochrome CRT's * communications and navigation equipment To penetrate enemy air defenses, the Su-35 can fly at low altitudes using its terrain following and obstacle avoidance feature. The armament of the aircraft consists of a fixed gun, aerial bombs, guided and unguided missiles. The missile-bomb armament is arranged at 12 hardpoints and comprises: * prospective medium-range, type RVV-AE, air-to-air 'fire-and- forget' active homing missiles; * medium-range air-to-air missiles of the R-27 family with semi- active radar and passive IR guidance, with engines both conventional and having increased power- to-weight ratio * highly agile missiles of the R-73 class for close air maneuver combat with passive IR guidance and combined (air- and gas-dynamic) control * the X-31A and X-31P air-to-ship and air-to-radar missiles with active and passive radar guidance and capable of flying at a supersonic speed * the X-29 air-to-surface missiles with laser and TV guidance * incendiary tanks, 100-kg, 250-kg and 500-kg bombs and bomb clusters for various purposes, including those fitted with a brake and used for low-altitude attacks Overall, over 70 versions of guided and unguided weapon stores may be employed, which allows the aircraft to fly most diverse tactical missions. The flight-navigation equipment of the aircraft permits it to make flights in all weathers, day and night. The equipment includes a navigation complex, automatic flight control and remote control systems. The navigation complex comprises an inertial directional system and short- and long-range radio navigation systems. The information produced by the systems goes
  40. 40. 40 to unified digital computers which compute the flight paths for a programmed route flight, target approach and return to the landing airfield. The automatic flight control system of the Su-35 makes all phases of its flight automatic, including the combat employment of its weapons. Once the automatic flight control system receives information from the navigation system, it solves the route flight tasks, involving a flight over the programmed waypoints, the return to the landing airfield, making a pre-landing maneuver and approach for landing down to an altitude of 60 m, as well as uses the data supplied from the weapons control and radio guidance command systems to direct the aircraft to the target and accomplish the attack. For flight control, reliability and survivability, the aircraft has a remote control system with quadruple redundancy. Depending on the flight conditions, signals from the control stick position transmitter or automatic flight control system will be coupled to remote control amplifiers. Upon updating, depending on the flight speed and altitude, these signals are combined with feedback signals fed by acceleration sensors and rate gyros. The resultant control signals are coupled to the high-speed electro-hydraulic actuators of the stabilizers, rudders and canard. For greater reliability, all the computers work in parallel. The output signals are compared and, if the difference is significant, the faulty channel is disconnected. An important part of the remote control system is based on a stall warning and barrier mechanism with an individual drive of its own. It prevents development of aircraft stalls through a dramatic (by 15 kgf) increase in the control stick pressure. This allows the pilot to effectively control the aircraft in a maneuver combat without running the risk of reaching the limit values of angles of attack and acceleration. The stall control is accomplished by the computer of a signal limiting system, depending on the configuration and loading of the aircraft. The same system sends voice and visual signals, as the aircraft nears a stall condition. The communications equipment of the aircraft comprises VHF and HF radio sets, a secured digital telecommunications system, and antenna-feeder assembly. The aircraft mounts an automatic noise-proof target data exchange system, which provides for coordination of the actions of several fighters engaged in a group air combat. An integrated ECM system turns on warning units that provide signals about attacking enemy missiles, a new generation radio reconnaissance set, active jamming facilities and radar and heat decoys. The cockpit of the Su-35 boasts an up-to-date display system, which comprises three CRT indicators, head-up display, display system computers, and the computers of an integrated information system. All the required information is provided to the pilot on electronic indicators. The contents of the information frames
  41. 41. 41 can be changed to suit the pilot needs with the aid of the keyboard, while the data can also be altered automatically in the information frames depending on the flight conditions. The integrated information system allows the performance of a ground serviceability test of the entire equipment and location of troubles to an individual plug-in unit. In case of in-flight failure, the indicator of the integrated information system will provide the pilot with a text message about the failure and recommendations on how to correct it or will dictate further actions. The message is also duplicated by voice. Installation of the new avionics equipment with considerable power consumption necessitated increased capacity of the airborne electric and hydraulic power supplies. To this end, new and more powerful generators and hydraulic pumps have been installed. A further development of the Su-35 is the Su-37, the newest superagile fighter powered by engines with a thrust vector control system. The system is integrated with the remote control system of the aircraft. The engine nozzles deflect in pitch by 15 degree up and down with the aid of two couples of hydraulic jacks mounted on each engine. The angular rate of the nozzles is up to 30 degrees per second. The system permits deflection of the nozzles in the same and different directions. The employment of thrust vector control allowed the aircraft to master some new maneuvers, such as 'tumble in the air' (rotation through 360 degrees). There are also some novelties in the aircraft avionics. For example, the cockpit indication system uses four liquid-crystal color displays provided by France's Sextant. These are widescope color displays assuring good readability of the information even in bright sun light. The aircraft is fitted with a satellite navigation system and laser attitude and heading reference system. The employment of the new avionics largely contributed to the accuracy and reliability of the navigation system. The cockpit is also provided with a side control stick and engine control levers with a strain sensitive system responding to the pilot hand pressure. The weapon control system and armament used aboard the Su-37 are mainly consistent with the ones normally employed by the Su-35 and can be enhanced. An AL-35 engine now under development is intended for installation aboard the Su- 35 and Su-37 aircraft. Installation of this engine will markedly improve the acceleration characteristics and maneuverability of the aircraft. Both aircraft have rather spacious compartments to accommodate the existing and prospective sets of avionics. So the design potential of the Su-35 and Su-37 is still far from being exhausted.
  42. 42. 42 The Su-35 and Su-37 have all the merits allowing them to become the principal multipurpose fighters of the Russian Air Force in the beginning of the 21st century. Under respective cooperation agreements signed by the Russian Federation with foreign countries in military and technological spheres, these aircraft may also be supplied to foreign customers. Characteristics of Su-35: Crew 1 Maximum takeoff weight, kg 34,000 Weight of empty aircraft, kg 18,400 Maximum warload, kg 8,000 Power plant, number x type of engine 2 x AL31FM Maximum afterburning thrust, kg 12,800 Maximum flight speed, km/h: near ground 1,400 at high altitude 2,500 Service ceiling, m 18,000 Flight range, km: with internal fuel reserve 3,200 with one refueling 6,500
  43. 43. 43 Sukhoi Su-37 By Easy Tartar Date: 18 August 1997 Picture by: Neville Dawson Subj: Su-37 Flanker Report from Farnborough 96 The Su-37 made a fascinating debut at Farnborough '96 even though it had been known about for over two years. It is the latest in the line of many Flanker variants produced by Sukhoi, the leading member of the "dead" Russian aerospace industry. It is remarkable, not only from the standpoint that it represents perhaps our most dangerous threat and competitor, but also from the fact that it exists at all. The following is an attempt to summarize the design approach characteristic to Sukhoi fighters and with that some of the information learned about the latest of the line, the Su-37 Thrust Vectored Control (TVC) fighter. Su-37, Sukhoi ? Ivan B. Savin The Flanker prototype was first photographed in 1977 by US reconnaissance satellites at the Zhukovsky flight test center, called Ramenskoye by US intelligence because they used the name of what they thought was the nearest recognizable village, unaware at the time that the test center was located in the center of a small town. It was given the provisional designation of "RAM K" and was observed to be a twin-engine fighter with sharply swept-back leading-edge root extensions and twin tails. In early 1984, Air Force Magazine and Jane's published retouched copies of the earlier satellite photo's of both the Su-27 (RAM-K) and the MiG-29 (RAM-L), but by that time, both aircraft were in series production and several variants of both were being developed. The "Family Tree" of the Flanker started when the baseline research was carried out by the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) in the mid 1970's. TsAGI is
  44. 44. 44 located in Moscow and presently run by Professor German I. Zagianov (7-7-09555- 64153 with fax at 7-7-09527-10019). This resulted in the T-10-1 prototype, which was built during 1976-1977 and made its first flight on 20 May 1977, with Sukhoi test pilot Major Vladimir S. Ilyushin, the son of the founder of the Ilyushin OKB, at the controls. Thirty Eight flights were included in the initial test plan that ended in January 1978. Directional stability problems persisted with the narrowly spaced vertical tails at speeds over Mach 2.0, while comparative studies demonstrated that the aircraft would still be inferior to the US F-15 Eagle, having less than 75% of it's weapon system and performance capabilities. The second prototype (T10-2) was built in 1978, but crashed on its second flight. Faults were found in the hybrid fly-by-wire (FBW) control system which eventually cost the lives of two test pilots, the first being the well known Evgeny Soloviev in T- 10-2. These aircraft were configured with the Arkhip-Lyulka AL-21F-3 (11,200 kg/24,692 lbs) engines which carried additional oxygen bottles for afterburner and restart capability. Note that the Arkhip-Lyulka organization became the Saturn- Lyulka organization after the Cold War ended. In 1978, the Sukhoi bureau built the third and fourth prototypes (T-10-3/T-10-4) which were modified to accommodate the new generation AL-31F engines and some aerodynamic improvements which unfortunately did not fix the stability problems and continued to cause concern. To make the necessary extension to the flight test program a small lot of five additional aircraft were produced (T-10-5/6/9/10 and 11). The seventh and eighth models were kept on the design boards as candidates for the radical changes that were now being expected to overcome the growing problems. The other prototype articles were each configured with a specialized set of electronic equipment because along with stability, the Russian Air Force was trying to fit a twenty pound goose into a two pound chicken pot. All single-seat aircraft were being manufactured at the newly renovated Sukhoi Yury Gagarin Aircraft Production Complex in Konsomolsk-on-Amur in the Khabarovsk Territory of Far East Russia. Today it is known as the Konsomolsk-on Amur (KnAPO) Aircraft Production Complex and Viktor Merkulov is the General Director (7-42172-63567 tel and fax at 7-42172-63451). The Irkutsk Aviation Production Association (IAPA) is the second production facility and specializes in the dual-seat variants such as the Su-27UB/PU and Su-30m/MK, and it is located in southern Russia. Series production was of course denied by the Russian Air Force and the entire Flanker program went into a radical redesign phase. The aircraft simply could not meet the required specifications. The avionics package was much too heavy, the engines were eating up too much fuel, and the aero-stability of the platform was in great question, even after eight years of development. Hence, after a period of serious brainstorming and after heads rolled, a new design team was formed under the same General Designer, Mikhail Simonov, whose leadership carried the major redesign work through the next four years and resulted in the family of aircraft seen today.
  45. 45. 45 The resulting T-10S prototype was described by test pilot Vladimir Ilyushin as the aeroplane he had waited all his life for. The new prototype, which was derived from the old T-10-7, had the following differences: * wing area increase from 639 sq-ft to 667 sq-ft. * fixed sweep outer wing section instead of the ogive one * tip air-to-air launchers * leading edge maneuvering flaps instead of fixed sections * lower wing chord camber * removal of ailerons and extension flaps for plain flaperons * smaller canopy and canopy rear-slope * smaller fuselage cross-section in front & rear of cockpit * larger fuselage cross-section just forward of fuel tanks * increased fillet radii between lifting body & forward fuselage * smaller cross-sectional area of dorsal fairing * engine accessory drive moved to the top to decrease frontal area, improved sectional area curve behavior, and to reduce aircraft wetted area decreasing subsonic & wave drag while lowering structure weight * introduction of an extended fuselage stinger section between the engines to recover and increase internal fuel capacity * engine intake screens for FOD protection and shutter suck-in doors under the inlet for additional air when needed * movement of vertical stabilizers outboard of the engines and allowed the stabilator actuators fairings to be blended reducing wetted area and drag while increasing stability * improved anti-flutter of horizontal stabilizers * main landing gear given skewed main pivot joints * air brakes were replaced with a single brake on top * improved wing planform that decreased drag & improved lift
  46. 46. 46 * a workable avionics suite that benefited from extended schedules and western technology finds * improved static-unstable hybrid electronic/hydraulic flight control system * high use of titanium to meet weight/strength requirements * radar diameter increased and lengthened 680 mm The T-10S (T10-7) verified the new installation of the AL-31F engines but was lost in an accident on 3 Sept 1981. The second T-10S prototype came off the line as the T-10-12 because the new fire control system required an entire new airframe construction. But it too was lost on 23 Dec 1981 when it came apart during a high speed test flight killing the test pilot, Alexander Komarov. The T-10-8 prototype was completed in 1982 as the structural loads aircraft. This brought 14 aircraft into the test program. The T-10S prototype design evolved into the production Sukhoi Su-27P ("P" for interceptor) during 1985. NATO considered the re-designed Su-27P the Flanker B, and some 200 were quickly produced for the Air Defense Forces (PVO). The basic production Su-27 continued to evolve with upgrades to its original avionics that would allow the aircraft to be more of a multi-role platform. During the last gasp days of the Cold War, Soviet thinking was envisioning a non-nuclear war with NATO that required long range fighter and fighter-bomber aircraft to strike deep into NATO's rear areas with large waves of attacking formations. The Su-27's tremendous range advantage over the MiG-29 and its great payload potential made it a natural for the tactical air forces. The Su-27"S", then "SK" models ("S" for improved and "K" for export commercial) were introduced for the Tactical Aviation branch which received around 150 aircraft up until the early 1990's. Because there were only subtle internal differences in the aircraft, NATO still referred to them as the Flanker B. From the Su-27"SK" became the export Su-27"SMK" ("M" for multi- role) that was exported to the PRC, Syria, and Vietnam. Remember that we are ficused on single-seat machines, the dual-seat trainer Su- 27"UB" evolved to the Su-27"PU" which became the baseline Su-30, then the export Su-30 became the Su-30"K", then it grew into the more advanced Su-30"MK" which for India, was designated the Su-30"MKI". But more on this later and it will be the focus of another Red File. The Russian Tactical Air Forces (TA) are commanded today by General Nikolai Antoshkin, who is remembered as the Commander of the Moscow Air Defense District and the gentleman who led a formation of Russian Knights Su-27's to the Dutch Air Base at Leeuwarden in 1993 to participate in the F-16 Fighter Weapons Instructor Training (FWIT) Course. Antoshkin commanded an organization that frooze its MiG-29 resources, and in fact has been selling them off, and has come to rely more and more upon the Su-27 and its variants. In 1990, the TA received no new tactical aircraft, the first time in its history. Today it is receiving around a half a dozen new Sukhoi fighters each month, most of them Su-30 dual-seat aircraft.
  47. 47. 47 Benjamin S. Lambeth, senior staff member at the RAND Corporation, who is a well recognized specialist on international security affairs and airpower, published a study, titled "Russia's Air Power at the Crossroads", that elaborated on the fact that Russian Air Force modernization has now come to a standstill. Paul Mann, from Aviation Week's Washington Office, noted that (AW&ST, 14Oct96, pg 28) from Lambeth's data only 23 new combat aircraft entered service in 1993 and 1994 combined. In 1989 the Russian air services had over 5,0000 combat aircraft, many of them spares to augment high intensity operations and there were nearly 450 new platforms being pushed onto the forces whether they wanted them or not. By the year 2000 they will be lucky to field 1,500 aircraft, however, the nature of the country has changed and the majority of older less sophisticated aircraft have transitioned to simple liability holdings years ago. But given miracles in budgets and economics despite the deep seated problems outlined in the RAND report, new modern MiG and Sukhoi fighters, even at those reduced numbers, could return the stature of the Russian Air Force to where it was. During the PVO introduction of the Su-27, the T-10-3 model started its evolution as the Su-27"K" carrier-based prototype by making the first inclined ramp takeoffs in 1982. In 1983 it was equipped with a landing hook and started to make arrested landings at the development center in Saki, on the Crimea in the Ukraine. A new aircraft, the T-10-25 prototype, started to examine the structural and avionics preparations needed for the first carrier takeoffs and landings during 1984 and 85. The first ship-based prototype, designated T-10K-1, was completed in 1987 and flew on 17 Aug 1987. The second naval prototype (T-10K-2) was completed and flown in 1988. The first actual carrier landing, with T-10K-2 aboard the first angle- decked carrier "Tbilisi", whose name was later changed to the "Kuznetsov", was made by Viktor Pugachev on 01 Nov 1989. On the 21st of November, he made the first night landing. The Chief Designer for the Su-27"K" (Su-33) Flanker Naval Strike Fighter was Constantin Marbachev, who is credited with Sukhoi's celebrated victory over the Mikoyan MiG-29"K" Fulcrum "K" competitor platform. More than 60 aircraft, designated the Su-33, were produced to fill two Carrier Air Wings from the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Factory. Both fighters competed in an exhaustive certification program. The Naval Su-27"K" (Su-33) offered many modifications to the basic Su-27 design which include a retractable refueling probe, folding wings and tail plane, improved flight control system, and numerous shipboard enhancements such as a reusable tail hook. The Naval Flanker can also carry an inflight refueling store on its centerline station to refuel other aircraft equipped with drogue and probe systems. The Russian Navy is committed to moving ahead with at least one carrier air wing for their navy which will be assigned to the Northern or Pacific Fleet. The T-10-15 prototype, designated the P-42, was stripped of all unnecessary weight , configured with uprated R-32 engines, and prepared to challenge time-to-climb records. The project was headed by Chief Designer Rolan Martirosov. The aircraft weighed in at only 14,110 kg (31,110 lbs). On 10 March 1987 and 23 March 1988 (Air International, Sep89, pg 156) the P-42, flown by Sukhoi test pilots Viktor
  48. 48. 48 Pugachev, Nikolai Sadovnikov, Evgeny Frolov (who brought the Su-37 to Farnborough) and Oleg Tsoi. They established 27 new world time-to-height/climb records which were formally held by the McAir "Streak Eagle" F-15 on 16 January 1975 flown by Majors Roger Smith and Willard MacFarlane. The new records included: ? 25.373 seconds to 3,000 meters (9,842 feet) ? 36.050 seconds to 6,000 meters (19,685 feet) ? 44.176 seconds to 9,000 meters (29,527 feet) ? 55.542 seconds to 12,000 meters (39,370 feet) ? 70.329 seconds to 15,000 meters (49,213 feet) Linearly moving along, the Su-27 production life eventually included an operational trainer, designated the Su-27"UB" (T-10U-1), which was first produced in 1985 and introduced to service a year later. The T-10U-2 also flew in 1985 and the T-10U-3, which was fitted with the first Flanker air-refueling probe, flew in 1986. The dual- seat aircraft were put into series production at the Irkutsk Factory. As with other air forces, the dual-seat began to interest commanders in its potential and the "UB" was strengthened into the fully qualified Su-27"PU" and its export variant was designated the Su-27"UBK". As air-to-ground munitions improved the range and payload versatility of the Flanker allowed the "PU" to evolve into the Su- 30 which developed both "M" single-seat and "MK" dual-seat fighter-bomber variants. The T-10S prototype also spawned the T-10-24 which began to explore in 1988 the world of advanced digital fly-by-wire flight control and canard surfaces. This was paralleled by improvements in computers and displays which resulted in the Su- 27"M" prototype that led the way to the Su-35 production article. The success of the platform included the introduction of canards, more powerful engines, and air- refueling probes. As we have discussed in this paper, the Su-37 evolved from the production Su-35 when the AL-37FU thrust-vectored-control engine was installed. A third branch-off from the T-10S series of prototypes was the structural refurbishment of one aircraft that resulted in the Su-27"IB" (T-10V-1) side-by-side trainer for the carrier fleet which quickly demonstrated a great potential to be a deep-interdiction strike aircraft to replace the Su-24 Fencer. This development resulted in the Su-34 which was quickly adapted for long-range maritime strike duties as the Su-32"FN". Also unique to this variant is a new offset-tandem main landing gear to handle the increased gross weight which appears to be going well above 95,000 lbs, and an extended fuselage center-line stinger for extra fuel. The T-10-20 prototype first explored this modification and found it transferable to any Flanker. In fact it is worth noting that all Flankers are capable of being fitted with large external wing tanks or can be upgraded with the extended fuselage stinger, all of which could increase the onboard fuel by almost 100%. Combined with air- refueling, the Flanker has reached a range capability once thought for only with larger bombers.
  49. 49. 49 So today, the Su-27, Su-27SK/SMK, Su-30K/MK, Su-33, Su-35, Su-34/32FN, and the Su-37 are all either in limited production, are being prepared for additional export production, have ceased production with tooling intact, or are tooled-up to go into production for the Russian Air ForcE, Navy, and at least four foreign customers. In the longest lead case, it has been estimated that Su-30/37 aircraft or a TVC variant of any Flanker model could be delivered within 18 months. Nicolay Novichkov writes from Moscow (AW&ST, 26Aug96, pg 50) that Sukhoi and Rosvoorouzheniy plan to export thrust-vector capable fighters in the near future. The candidates being variants of the Su-35, Su-30, and MiG-29"M". These platforms or further variants of them are now being actively marketed to the PRC, India, Indonesia, Syria, Algeria, Pakistan, Vietnam, Burma, Iran, Libya, Brazil, Peru, Argentina, North Korea, South Korea, and in the long term, Iraq. At a price tag that appears to be above $30 million, sales are expected to be in small lots, although once purchased, several lots may be procured over time. Sales leverage is obtained by the fact that a complete weapons inventory is offered with the aircraft, a complete support package is outlined (not demonstrated yet), counter-trade offers will be entertained, and that Russian debt payments can be applied towrds them. India negotiated and bought 40 x Su-30"MKIs" for $1.2 billion ($30 million each). The deal was at one time in jeopardy because of political problems brought on by the ousted government of Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Pao who made a $145 million advanced payment (AW&ST, 01Jul96, pg 54) just before leaving office. Even though a joint Indian Air Force / Defense Research & Development Organization Team found the Su-30"MK" to be superior to the Mirage 2000-5 in both range and payload, the election-eve decision of the lame-duck government was considered improper, but that was overcome by the new government. It was interesting to note that the original quote from the Russians before the difficulties was $1.8 billion which is twice the cost of previously produced off-the-shelf aircraft. To the French, it ended the quest to sell the Mirage 2000-5 in the region (Pakistan) and convinced them that to compete with the advanced Sukhoi's in Asia they would have to introduce the Rafale. The Dassault operations team announced in Poland that the Rafale would be offered to the Koreans in their next fighter bid. Jane's Defense Week in October reported from Gdansk that Russia and India made an agreement for "the world's first operational thrust-vectoring combat aircraft". The 40 x Su-30"MKI" multi-role fighters will get vectored thrust control (VTC) engines and canards. The engine manufacturer has said that there are "kits" retrofitable to any Su-27 model. The Jane's report also said that bilateral negotiations on the aircraft's armament have begun and that an Indian export version of the Su-30"MKI", would be fitted with the advanced Phazotron Zhuk-27 fire-control radar. Previous versions of the "Flanker" family have been equipped with radars designed by the NIIP (Naucho-Issledovatelskiy Institut Pribostroyeniya) Bureau. The Zhuk-27, produced by Phazotron, allows for the operation of all current Russian air-to-surface and air-to- air weapons, including the R-77 (AA-12 "Adder") beyond visual range AAM. A prototype of the Su-30MK variant with canards and thrust-vectoring could make its maiden flight early next year and first deliveries are
  50. 50. 50 possible to India in 1999. The Su-30"MKI" has a 3,000 km range, and up to 5,200 km with one mid-air refueling. The obvious insertion of capital from the PRC put Sukhoi back on track and additional cash from an Indian purchase could open up effort on several other advanced design projects. Likewise the TVC variant of the MiG-29"M" is still expected to be unveiled at the MAKS-97 show in Moscow. Tom Orsos, from the International Fighter Pilot's Academy that flies both types can re-affirmed the MiG-29 and Su-27's capabilities and weaknesses. We must always keep a firm respect for their brute power and superior dogfight missiles used in conjunction with a crude, by successful, helmet sight. The F-16, F-18, Mirage 2000- 5, and JAS-39 are overall much better fighters, but there is very little left for error. Piotr Butowski wrote in Jane's (JDW, 10Jul96, pg 11) that Sukhoi estimated that the Su-37 would be 10 times more effective in dogfights against aircraft without TVC. Anatoly Kvotchur, test pilot with "LII" who contracts back to Sukhoi and Mikoyan on occasions, said that the MiG-29 TVC variant will be completed and fly in 1997. These statistical and simulation studies were meticulously done by both the Sukhoi and Mikoyan design bureaus and have been publicly made available. Prior and during the Farnborough introduction of the Su-37, Aviation Week ran two editions (26Aug & 02Sep) with special articles. Actual flight testing of the Su-37 was expected to have utilized up to 50 sorties, all of which were to be completed in Russia at the Zhukovsky Test Center. On 18Aug96 the Su-37 made its first public display at the Tushino Airport in Moscow. The five-month testing program with the single prototype focused on the aerodynamic characteristics and handling qualities of the fly-by-wire flight control system. Flight testing was done by Yevgeny Frolov and Igor Votintsev, who brought the aircraft to Farnborough. Anatoly Kubochur said that since Victor Pugachev was deployed with in Mediterranean for 3 months with the Kuznetsov Air Wing, he would also be involved with the follow-on Su-37 "Super Maneuverability" flight testing at Zhukovsky. He said that initially, the aircraft did not fly because of financial shortages, but the agreement for the license production of 74 additional Su-27's for China (PRC) has made the flight test program possible. He also mentioned that he was promoted to the Deputy Director post of LII last December. The term "super-maneuverability" was coined by Dr. Wolfgang Herbst, initiator of the X-31 prototype program, in defining controllability up to 60? to 70? Angle-of- Attack with transients of 120? or more. In a review of fighter thrust-vectoring programs, Piotr Butowski writes in Air International Magazine (Oct 96, pg 209) an examination of the parallel history of thrust-vector-control (TVC) where the West started with a modified old F-11F "Tiger" in 1988, to the F-15 STOL/MTD (Short- Takeoff-Landing/Maneuver Technology Demonstrator) demonstrator, F-18 HARV (High Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicke), and Lockheed Martin (General Dynamics) F-16 VISTA with MATV (Multi-Axis-Thrust-Vectoring). According to Butowski, Russian designers began analyzing vectored thrust nozzles in 1980 that resulted in two developmental programs. In 1989, the much photographed Su-27"UB" LL-PS
  51. 51. 51 "letayushchaya laboratorya - ploskoye soplo" (flying testbed - flat nozzle) was flown along with the more secretive Su-27 LMK-2405 testbed that had a manual-movable axi-symmetric nozzle installed in the right engine. Mikhail Simonov, Sukhoi's famous General Designer, truly believes that the Su-37 is a fifth-generation "super maneuverability aircraft". The Su-37 prototype was designated the T-10M-11. It was given the side numerals of "711", made its maiden flight on 02Apr96, first moved the nozzles in flight on the sixth sortie, and has evolved as one the most heavily modified Russian designs. As the Su-37, it is characterized as a single-seat, multi-role, all-weather air superiority fighter configured with the advanced AL-37FU (forsazh-upravlaemoye-sopo or "afterburning-articulating/steerable-nozzle") turbofan engines for thrust vectored control (TVC). The axi-symmetric nozzles are controlled by the MNPK Avionika full- authority, digital fly-by-wire flight control system (FCS). It can fulfill a variety of roles with its advanced avionics suite and new weapons. Chief Designer of the Su-37 is Vladimir Konokhov and he has made a point to explain that despite the similarities with the Su-35, the Su-37 represents a new capability utilizing TVC and the new N-011M radar that simultaneously surveys both air and ground space while being tied into a high-precision laser-inertial / GPS navigation system. The electronically scanned phased-array radar will be traditionally positioned in the nose of the Su-37 which is also being redesigned to accommodate the fixed antenna array and more avionics boxes. Russian designers have stated that they believe that the key to dogfight supremacy rests in the pilot's ability to engage the enemy in any position relative to their own aircraft. While TVC permits post-stall maneuvering and pointing which are impossible in conventional aircraft, they are convinced that a rearward facing radar and missiles that can be fired in the aft-quadrant all join to make an unbeatable integrated weapons system. The Farnborough experience of the Su-37 took some time "to-get-off-the-ground", sort of speaking, because the demonstration flown by Yevgeny Frolov had difficulty getting approved due to the radical nature of the maneuvers. The first demo was flown on Thursday evening (29Aug) and it shocked everyone because it was too low, way forward of the foul-line, in fact almost over the first chalet row, and far too dangerous for the British Farnborough safety monitors. But to watch it was amazing, because it clearly showed what was in store. The next day saw a benign practice. The next day started with a "flat" show in the morning but a "vectored show" was performed in the late afternoon that experimented with various heights and directions to the show-line. The next day was more benign work. On 2 and 3 Sept, 45 minutes after the show officially ended, Frolov did a variation of the "vectored show" in an attempt to get certified. The final certified show on the 4th was tamer, but still representative of the vectored thrust capabilities and this carried through for the week. Without a doubt, the Su-37 dampened the glory of the Farnborough favorite, the Eurofighter 2000, and its SAAB/BAe little sister, the JAS-39 Gripen. The F/A-18D
  52. 52. 52 was itself disqualified for scooping out of a dirty roll 50 feet below minimum altitude and left the show. Only the F-16C and Rafale were left to provide the Su-37 with a Western competitive example. This so excited Mikhail Simonov that he challenged the Americans to a dogfight over the Atlantic. As said earlier, the AL-37FU engine is integrated into the digital fly-by-wire control system providing both pitch and roll inputs to the control system. Nozzles are hydraulically actuated with an emergency pneumatic system that aligns them in a neutral position if an onboard system or engine fails. The TVC is activated by a cockpit switch and operates in both AUTOMATIC (hydraulic) and MANUAL (emergency pneumatic) Modes. In the manual mode there is supposed to be a way that the pilot determines the nozzle deflection angle through stick-feel before initiating the pneumatics. The vectored nozzles utilize engine oil in the prototype and will be modified to use engine fuel in the production models. The nozzles are physically steerable to ?15? in any direction but are utilized in pitch only for this phase of evolution, but operate both together for ?pitch and differentially for roll. The engines are fully integrated into the aircraft's digital FCS, however the pilot's use of rudder has been maintained. The FCS optimizes the deflection of tailplanes, rudders, flaperons, canards, leading edge flaps, and engine nozzles to respond to inputs from the pilot. Except for the emergency system, there is no separate control for the thrust vectoring system in the cockpit. The Su-37 is equipped with a side-stick controller located on the right horizontal console and a fixed throttle assembly on the left side. The side-stick controller is supposed to be able to move around one inch in all directions which is more like the JAS-39 configuration than the F-16 which is a more rigid assembly moving only around one-eighth of an inch. The amount of movement is quite debate especially since the pitch & roll commands are recognized as "rates" not amounts of deflection, that is degress/second and G's of pitch. Most pilots agree that inducing the measure of control stick deflection only complicates the factors involved with the flight control computers. The unique fixed throttle is designed to adjust thrust settings according to the pressure exerted by the pilot's thumb on a switch similar to that used by any traditional speed-brake switch. To add thrust you put it forward and electronically the switch instructs the digital engine control to add thrust. When you let go of the button the thrust remains at the level set, but the switch re-sets to the neutral position. To reduce thrust you must push the button back. To utilize the afterburners, the pilot must squeeze switches on the grip of the throttle with his fingers and continue to manipulate the thumb switch to achieve the desired min to max burner setting. The throttle design, in Russian, is properly referred to as a "lift strain-gauge engine control stick", which of course makes us all feel better. To start the engines there is a three position switch on forward surface of throttle (under the afterburner switch) which selects left-right-both. After hitting a position the digital controls continue the start sequence which includes the other engine. The switch resets in the center position.
  53. 53. 53 The Thrust Vector Control (TVC) ability is engaged by an AUTO-MANUAL switch. The digital engine computer balances the thrust of both engines and the deflection of the nozzles is controlled by the flight control system. The MANUAL position allows you to use two switches found in the lower corner of the front bulkhead panel which when engaged fixes the exhaust nozzles to some predetermined angle. Not sure if it is the thrust-boresight of the aircraft or just where the nozzles work best at. Since there are two switches it is obvious that each engine nozzle can be secured independent of the other, but despite the switch labeling, there is no true Manual Override as we would know it. This two-grip cockpit configuration was designed to prevent the pilot from flailing around when doing the exotic maneuvers associated with the vectored-thrust engines. Both the fixed throttle and the side-stick controller provide secure points to brace his hands while running the weapon system. Frolov mentioned that he was not a big fan of the electronic throttle switch, but it did not slow him down either. It appeared as if in his air show routine he would appear to be choosing the right set up to do his maneuvers and would "take it around" when things didn't look right. He caught on to what I was saying and explained that in the "Cobra or Hook" maneuvers with a conventional Su-27/30 or 35 aircraft, he would have to "seek" an essential speed start-regime of 205-215 kph to properly do the maneuver. With the Su-37, he could slam the aircraft around at any speed with only a possible "over-G" to worry about. His real problem during the first two days at Farnborough was that he was having a hard time lining up on the right show-line and since he was used to making a much tighter show he was having a hard time figuring out just where the British wanted him to stage his repositioning maneuvers. From the first day of arrival it was an open rumor in the Press pool that BAe was pressuring the Farnborough Committee (FCC) to ground or limit the Su-37 so it would not upstage the Eurofighter which was making its "coming out debut" while still being forced to fly with a restricted flying envelope. The Committee apparently did not succeed totally. Katsu Tokunaga said that in an off-the-record interview with an FCC member, he was told that the FCC could not make a judgment on the Su- 37's new maneuvers since they were totally unique. The member also joked it was especially difficult for them because most were over 90 years old. Katsu added that he felt there was a loss of the normal show pilot-bonding between the UK/BAe pilots and the rest of the participating airmen because of this attitude. The F/A-18 incident amplified things. For the Russians, they seemed to spend much more time with the Dassault team. The first variable nozzle prototype that was seen publicly was installed on a developmental Su-27UB designated "T-10-16" or the "LL-PS" (flying testbed - flat nozzle) by Sukhoi in 1989. Piotr Butowski reported then in Jane's (JDW, 13Aug94, pg4) that Sukhoi and the Russian Air Force were still focused on developing thrust vectoring in the Su-35 and other aircraft, unmentioned and that the flat-nozzle was for something else. Plans to bring that aircraft to Farnborough 1994 failed. Sukhoi designer Nikolai Nikitim then told Jane's Defense Week (JDW) that the thrust-
  54. 54. 54 vectored rectangular flat nozzles would be a standard feature in the production Su- 35, but as you know, that turned out to be wrong. The actual integration techniques and projected use of the variable flat nozzle were never discussed but they are considered to be for the advanced design "T-60S" Project, a competitor for the MiG 1.42, or for a new SST or medium sized business jet. Design Bureau Chief Simonov is hesitant to discuss Sukhoi advanced military programs in any greater detail because they rest in a delicate state of negotiation with the Russian Ministry of Defense but, he has confirmed that there is a Project T- 60S which is a new intermediate sized supersonic fighter-bomber or just bomber to replace the Tu-16 and Tu-22 families. The "T-60S" design was won by Sukhoi against the tough competition of the traditional bomber maker, Tupolev. Work on the program was reported in Interavia (Dec93, pg 61) as being well under way with in-service dates being projected to the year 2000. The T-60S concept was conceived in the mid to late 1970's, abandoned and subsequently was resurrected after Sukhoi better understood stealth technology. Its role is likely to combine tactical (pre- strategic) nuclear strike with shorter range conventional interdiction missions. The T-60S is expected to surface soon at the secret Sukhoi Research Facility at Novossibirst, Siberia. In a quick summary, the Lyulka-Saturn AL-37FU can deflect its nozzle to a maximum of ?15? at a rate of 30?/sec. The 142.3 kN thrust AL-37FU engine gives around 16% more thrust than its 122.6 kN thrust AL-31F predecessor now in the Su-27 and 12% more than the uprated 137.4 kN AL-35F in the Su-35 aircraft (1 x kN = 224.707 lbs thrust). The vectoring nozzle is utilized primarily in the pitch plane. Magazine articles (Flight International 7-13 June and 16-22 November 1995) have mentioned that the nozzles use in the yaw plane would damage the fuselage stinger. In examining the aircraft at Farnborough, there appeared to be adequate room out to the 15 degree mark to use the nozzle. Frolov also mentioned that it is utilized just a bit in yaw to augment the rudders, but did not elaborate if it was him or the FCS that was making things happen. The important thing is that the entire nozzle assembly moves as a single unit as if on a hinge. There is no "deforming" effects to the flow as in the GE and Pratt candidates. The air flow is bent or pinched a bit when the nozzle deflects, but it apparently does no harm or create any significant losses. In watching the video of Frolov's Farnborough display it was very hard to see a distinct bend in the air flow or nozzles as the Su-37 did one of its incredible pitch maneuvers. What was amazing was seeing the canards in full deflection helping to control the nose. Frolov mentioned that he took off with 4.5 tons of fuel (assumed to mean around 10,000 lbs) and landed with 1.5 tons. The accepted routine was much more organized but he did complete at least one somersault maneuver. Victor Chepkin, Saturn's general designer of the AL-31FU, in a discussion with Butowski confirmed that the most difficult part of the design was sealing and insuring the structural integrity of the junction between the afterburner duct and the vectoring nozzle where temperatures reach 2000? to 2100? K at a pressure of 1.5 MPa (15 bar). In another interview with John Fricker the same points were made.
  55. 55. 55 The advertisements say that the AL-31F is a twin-spool/two-shaft turbofan with a moderate by-pass ratio (0.6 to 1) that provides a low sub-sonic cruise specific fuel consumption (0.67 kg/hr/kg) and a high maximum thrust in afterburner while maintaining a reasonable sfc (1.92 kg/hr/kg). Maximum static dry thrust (military power) is given as 7600 kg (16754.85 lbs/74.56 kn.) and it grows to a maximum wet (afterburner) thrust of 12,500 kg (27,557.32 lbs/122.6 kN). The engine's thrust- to-weight ratio is around 8:1, which is very respectable. The AL-35F produces 14,000 kg (30,864.2 lbs/137.35 kN) maximum wet thrust and the AL-37FU produces 14,500 kg (31,966.5 lbs/142.26 kN). Russian literature also mentions the Saturn/Lyulka AL-31FM turbofan for the Su-35 that gives 13,300 kg (29,320 lbs/130.48 kN) in afterburner, but there is no explanation as to where this variant comes from. The 12% more thrust of the AL-31FU is made possible by increasing the engine diameter by about 20 mm (0.78 in) over the AL-31F's 910 mm (36 in) and by raising the turbine inlet temperature to 1665?K. This increased the engine's specific fuel consumption at max speed without A/B to 0.068 to 0.070 kg/Nh. The Al-31FU has a multi-segment convergent-divergent nozzle that has an adjustable cross-sectional exit area. There is a four-stage low pressure compressor fan and a nine-stage high pressure compressor driven by two single-staged turbines. Internal cooling air alows the turbine blades to maintain rigidity at temperatures exceeding the melting point of the blade alloy. Despite the larger fan and vectored nozzle, the AL-31FU's weight is 1600 kg (3,527 lbs). Note that the Saturn/Lyulka designers have developed a TVC retrofit kit for the AL- 31F engine which is designated the AL-31FP ("FP" for "movable nozzle"). It is being produced now at the Saturn manufacturing facility at Ufa, Russia. This confirms the resolve of the Russian fighter industry to move towards TVC. Saturn/Lyulka General Designer Victor Chepkin confirmed to Piotr Butowski (Jane's) that work on a three- dimensional (axisymmetrical) TVC nozzle was underway but that it was not planned for the Su-37 in the immediate future. The Mean Time Between Overhaul (MTBO) for the AL-31F is given at 1,000 hours with a full-life span of 3,000 hours. It has a conventional hydra-mechanical control system that is interfaced into the electronic flight control system which reacts to flight conditions. In the AL-37FU, the entire engine and nozzle operation is digitally integrated into the fly-by-wire control system. It is expected that the engine MTBO reflects the values experienced in the AL-31F. The inlet diameter on the Su-37 is measured at 0.932 meters (3.05 ft) which is essentially the same in the Su-27 and Su-35. The two-dimensional variable geometry multiple-shock intakes utilize movable ramps deflected from the upper intake area. Air flow data, throttle settings, and flight parameters determine settings. Both the sidewalls and the upper movable ramp are covered with 96,000 holes that form a porous surface to bleed low-energy boundary layer air outboard, via the intake inner and outer side lourves. A meshed titanium screen raises from