Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

QC 03 Tajweed for Everyone by TIS

1,683 views

Published on

Learn Quran Online by qualified expert live Quran teachers. Learn Bold Letters, Madda Letters, Ghunna Rules, Harakaat, Tanween, Madd Muttasil, Munfasil, Ikhfa, Idgham, Izhar, Iqlab and Rules of Meem Sakin, Rules of Raa, Rules of Sajdah, Rules of stopping, Attributes of the letters (Siffat ul Huroof). Students from all over the world can join us. TheIslamSchool.com (An Online Quran Institute) with Quran teaching , Quran Learning and Quran reading Classes. Live Quran Tutoring for Adults and Kids.

"The best and easiest book for learning Tajweed ul Quran by TIS" (theislamschool.com)

This book teaches how to recite Quran the way it was revealed for those who do know how to read Arabic text. It goes gradually from the simplest rules of Tajweed that can be applied on the short Surahs that most people know and recite
during Salah. The teacher can teach the rules step by step and apply them on the way on each Surah starting from Surah Annas ( )سورۃ الناسuntil the learners can get all the rules on the way while they are reading from Quran.
May Allah teach us that which benefits us and may He benefit us with what He taught us.
---Muhammad Tahir bashir

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • The #1 Woodworking Resource With Over 16,000 Plans, Download 50 FREE Plans...  http://tinyurl.com/yy9yh8fu
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Get access to 16,000 woodworking plans, Download 50 FREE Plans... ♣♣♣ http://ishbv.com/tedsplans/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • The #1 Woodworking Resource With Over 16,000 Plans, Download 50 FREE Plans... ◆◆◆ http://tinyurl.com/yy9yh8fu
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

QC 03 Tajweed for Everyone by TIS

  1. 1. 2016 Muhammad Tahir Bashir Theislamschool.com 2/15/2016 Tajweed for Everyone
  2. 2. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 1 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com Table of Contents Helpful Tips towards learning Tajweed ..................................................................................................................6 Revelation of the Qur'an in Seven Ahruf ................................................................................................................6 Difference between Ahruf and Qira'at ...................................................................................................................8 Quranic orthography ..............................................................................................................................................9 Conditions for the validity of a qira'a (reading)......................................................................................................9 The chain of narration of different Qira'at ...........................................................................................................10 INTRODUCTION TO TAJWEED...............................................................................................................................12 Tajweed ilmi .........................................................................................................................................................12 Tajweed amali.......................................................................................................................................................12 Tajweed explained................................................................................................................................................14 History of Tajweed................................................................................................................................................14 Importance of Tajweed ........................................................................................................................................15 Reciting the Qur’an melodiously ..........................................................................................................................16 Consensus of the community on the obligation of Tajweed................................................................................17 MANNERS OF STUDENTS OF THE QURAN ............................................................................................................18 Manners with the Qur’an .....................................................................................................................................18 Manners of the Heart ...........................................................................................................................................18 External manners..................................................................................................................................................18 Signs of Purity of Intention ...................................................................................................................................19 How to Learn and Master.....................................................................................................................................19 Manners with the teacher....................................................................................................................................19 TAJWEED TERMINOLOGY (‫)االصطالحات‬ ....................................................................................................................21 ARABIC ALPHABET ( ‫الحروف‬‫الھجا‬ )..............................................................................................................................24 HARAKAAT AND TANWEEN ( ‫الحرکات‬‫والتنو‬‫ی‬‫ن‬ ) ............................................................................................................25 Vowels ( ‫الحرک‬‫ات‬ ) .....................................................................................................................................................25 SHORT VOWELS (1 count) (‫)الحرکات‬ ........................................................................................................................25 LONG VOWELS [2 counts] ( ‫الحرکات‬‫الطو‬‫ی‬‫ل‬‫ۃ‬ )................................................................................................................25 Tanween ...............................................................................................................................................................26 Tanween ( ‫التنو‬‫ی‬‫ن‬ ) ....................................................................................................................................................26 MISCELLANEOUS...................................................................................................................................................26 METHOD OF RECITATION .....................................................................................................................................28
  3. 3. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 2 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com Rules of Ta’awwudh and Tasmiyyah (‫ل‬‫اصو‬‫التعوذ‬‫والتسم‬‫یۃ‬) .......................................................................................28 1. Starting recitation from the beginning of Surah ( ‫بدأ‬‫التالوة‬‫من‬‫بدايۃ‬‫السورة‬ ) ............................................................28 2. Starting recitation from the mid of Surah ( ‫بدأ‬‫التالوة‬‫من‬‫منتصف‬‫السورة‬ ) ..................................................................28 3. During recitation starting a Surah from beginning ( ‫بدأ‬‫ف‬‫ی‬‫السورة‬‫ى‬‫أخر‬‫أثناء‬‫التالوة‬ )......................................................28 NAMES OF TOOTH ( ‫اسماء‬‫االسنان‬ ) .............................................................................................................................30 MAKHAARIJ UL HUROOF ( ‫مخ‬‫ارج‬‫الحروف‬ )...................................................................................................................30 Number of Makhaarij / Emission Points...............................................................................................................30 Main articulation points (‫ل‬‫اصو‬‫املخارج‬) .....................................................................................................................31 Types of Makhaarij ...............................................................................................................................................32 1. Al-Jawf (Empty Space in Mouth and Throat)....................................................................................................32 2. Al Halq (The Throat)..........................................................................................................................................33 3. Al-Lisaan (The Tongue) .....................................................................................................................................34 4. Ash-Shafataan (two lips)...................................................................................................................................37 5. Al-Khyshoom (Nasal Passage)...........................................................................................................................37 MADDAH AND LEEN LETTERS ( ‫الحروف‬‫املد‬‫یۃ‬‫والل‬‫ی‬‫ن‬ ) ......................................................................................................39 Maddah letters ( ‫الحروف‬‫املد‬‫یۃ‬ ) .................................................................................................................................39 Letters of Leen (‫الحروف‬‫الل‬‫ی‬‫ن‬) ...................................................................................................................................39 THICKNESS AND THINNESS ( ‫التفخ‬‫ی‬‫م‬‫و‬‫الترق‬‫ی‬‫ق‬ ).............................................................................................................40 Heavy letters (‫الحروف‬‫املفخمہ‬) ...................................................................................................................................40 Light letters (‫الحروف‬‫املرققہ‬) .......................................................................................................................................40 The Rules of the letter ‫ر‬ ('RA')...............................................................................................................................40 Thickness of letter ‘raa’ ( ‫التفخ‬‫ی‬‫م‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ال‬ ).......................................................................................................................40 Thinness of the letter ‘raa’ ( ‫الترق‬‫ی‬‫ق‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ال‬ )....................................................................................................................42 The rules of the Letter ‫ل‬ ('Laam')..........................................................................................................................43 Thickness of the letter ‘laam’ ( ‫تفخ‬‫ی‬‫م‬‫الالم‬ )................................................................................................................43 Thinness of the letter ‘laam’ ( ‫ترق‬‫ی‬‫ق‬‫الالم‬ )..................................................................................................................43 3 categories: .........................................................................................................................................................43 Miscellaneous.......................................................................................................................................................44 ECHO SOUND ( ‫القلقل‬‫ۃ‬ ) .............................................................................................................................................45 Strongest echo ( ‫القلقل‬‫ۃ‬‫الکبر‬‫ی‬ ) ...................................................................................................................................45 Medium echo ( ‫القلقلہ‬‫الوسط‬‫ی‬ ) ...................................................................................................................................46 Subtle echo ( ‫القلقلہ‬‫الصغر‬‫ی‬ ) ......................................................................................................................................46 NOON SAKIN AND TANWEEN ( ‫ن‬‫النو‬‫الساکنہ‬‫والتنو‬‫ی‬‫ن‬ )...................................................................................................47
  4. 4. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 3 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com Rules of Noon Sakin and Tanween ( ‫احکام‬‫ن‬‫النو‬‫الساکنہ‬‫والتنو‬‫ی‬‫ن‬ )....................................................................................47 1. Izhar..................................................................................................................................................................48 2. IqlaaB................................................................................................................................................................49 3. Idghaam............................................................................................................................................................49 1. Idghaam Taam (without ghunnah) ...............................................................................................................49 2. Idghaam Naqis (with ghunnah).....................................................................................................................50 3. Idghaam Mukhtalif Feeh (with ghunnah) .....................................................................................................50 4. Ikhfaa ................................................................................................................................................................51 Ghunnah for the ikhfaa.........................................................................................................................................52 Rules of Noon and Meem mushaddad ( ‫احکام‬‫ن‬‫النو‬‫وامل‬‫ی‬‫م‬‫املشددت‬‫ی‬‫ن‬ ).............................................................................52 IDGHAAM ( ‫د‬ِ‫إ‬‫ﻏا‬‫م‬ ) ....................................................................................................................................................53 Idgham of 2 identical letters (‫ادغام‬‫متماثل‬‫ی‬‫ن‬) ............................................................................................................53 Idghaam of Similarity ( ‫ادغام‬‫متجانس‬‫ی‬‫ن‬ ) .....................................................................................................................54 Complete Idghaam (no trace of the saakin letter) ‫ادغام‬‫کامل‬ ..................................................................................54 Incomplete Idghaam ‫ادغام‬‫ناقص‬ .............................................................................................................................55 Complete Idghaam ...............................................................................................................................................55 Complete Idghaam ...............................................................................................................................................56 Idghaam Mutaqaaribain (near, close) ‫ادغام‬‫متقارب‬‫ی‬‫ن‬ ................................................................................................56 Complete Idghaam ...............................................................................................................................................56 Incomplete Idghaam.............................................................................................................................................56 Complete Idghaam ...............................................................................................................................................57 RULES OF MEEM SAAKIN ( ‫احکام‬‫امل‬‫ی‬‫م‬‫الساکن‬‫ۃ‬ ).............................................................................................................58 1. Idghaam Shafawee ...........................................................................................................................................58 2. Ikhfaa Shafawee................................................................................................................................................58 3. Iz-haar Shafawee ..............................................................................................................................................59 TYPES OF MADD / STRETCHING (‫)املد‬.....................................................................................................................60 Madd Tabee’ee ( ‫املد‬‫الطب‬‫ی‬‫ع‬‫ی‬ ).....................................................................................................................................60 Madd Al-Badal ( ‫املد‬‫البدل‬ ).........................................................................................................................................60 Madd Ewadh ( ‫املد‬‫العوض‬ ) .........................................................................................................................................61 Madd Far’ee ( ‫املدالفرع‬‫ی‬ )............................................................................................................................................61 Madd Wajib Muttasil (‫املد‬‫واج‬‫ب‬‫متصل‬) ......................................................................................................................61 Madd Jaiz Munfasil (‫املد‬‫جائز‬‫منفصل‬) .........................................................................................................................61 Madd Aaridh Waqfi (Aaridh lis Sukun) (‫املد‬‫العارض‬‫وقف‬‫ی‬‫ن‬‫للسکو‬) ..................................................................................61
  5. 5. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 4 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com Madd Leen Aaridh Waqfi (‫املد‬‫الل‬‫ی‬‫ن‬‫عارض‬‫وقف‬‫ی‬) ...........................................................................................................62 Madd Lazim ( ‫املد‬‫الالزم‬ ) .............................................................................................................................................62 Madd Lazim Kalmee ( ‫املد‬‫الالزم‬‫لکلم‬‫ۃ‬ )..........................................................................................................................62 Madd Lazim Kalmee Muthaqqal ( ‫املد‬‫الالزم‬‫لکلم‬‫ۃ‬‫مثقل‬‫ۃ‬ )................................................................................................62 Madd Lazim Kalmee Mukhaffaf ( ‫املد‬‫الالزم‬‫لکلم‬‫ۃ‬‫مخفف‬‫ۃ‬ ) ...............................................................................................62 Madd Lazim Harfee ( ‫املد‬‫الالزم‬‫لحرف‬ )..........................................................................................................................63 Madd Lazim Harfee Muthaqqal ( ‫املد‬‫الالزم‬‫لحرف‬‫مثقل‬‫ۃ‬ ).................................................................................................63 Madd Lazim Harfee Mukhaffaf ( ‫املد‬‫الالزم‬‫لحرف‬‫مخفف‬‫ۃ‬ )................................................................................................63 MISTAKES IN TAJWEED.........................................................................................................................................64 Lahn ul Jalee .........................................................................................................................................................64 Lahn ul Khafee ......................................................................................................................................................66 SOLAR AND LUNAR LETTERS ( ‫الحروف‬‫الشمس‬‫یۃ‬‫والقمر‬‫یۃ‬ )................................................................................................67 Rules .....................................................................................................................................................................67 SYMBOLS OF STOPPING ( ‫موز‬‫ر‬‫االوقاف‬ ).......................................................................................................................68 RULES OF STOPPING ( ‫احکام‬‫الوقوف‬ ) ..........................................................................................................................70 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LETTERS ( ‫الصفات‬‫الحروف‬ )................................................................................................71 Permanent Qualities with Opposites ( ‫الصفات‬‫الالزم‬‫ۃ‬‫املتضاد‬‫ۃ‬ )......................................................................................71 Permanent Qualities without Opposites ( ‫الصفات‬‫الالزم‬‫ۃ‬‫ﻏ‬‫ی‬‫املتضاد‬‫ر‬‫ۃ‬ ).............................................................................71 the permanent qualities with opposistes ( ‫الصفات‬‫الالزم‬‫ۃ‬‫املتضاد‬‫ۃ‬ )...............................................................................72 Types and definitions............................................................................................................................................72 the permanent qualities without opposistes ( ‫الصفات‬‫الالزم‬‫ۃ‬‫ﻏ‬‫ی‬‫ر‬‫املتضاد‬‫ۃ‬ ).....................................................................73 PROSTRATION OF RECITATION ( ‫السجد‬‫ۃ‬‫التالو‬‫ۃ‬ )..........................................................................................................76 How to Perform the Sajdah Tilawat?....................................................................................................................77
  6. 6. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 5 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com ُ‫د‬ ْ‫م‬ َ‫ح‬ ْ ‫ل‬ َ ‫ا‬ ْ ‫ال‬ ٰ‫ب‬َ‫ر‬ ٰ ‫ہ‬ ٰ‫ّلِل‬‫الص‬َ‫و‬ َ ‫ن‬ْ‫ی‬ٰ‫م‬ َ ‫ل‬ٰ‫ع‬َ‫س‬ ‫ی‬ ٰ ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ ُ‫م‬ َ ‫ال‬‫الس‬َ‫و‬ ُ ‫وۃ‬ ٰ ‫ل‬ؕ َ ‫ین‬ٰ‫ل‬ َ‫س‬ْ‫ر‬ ُ ْ ‫امل‬ ٰ‫د‬ٰ‫ی‬ ٰ‫م‬ ْ‫س‬ٰ‫ب‬ ؕ ٰ‫م‬ْ‫ی‬ ٰ‫ج‬‫الر‬ ٰ‫ن‬ ٰ ‫ط‬ْ‫ی‬‫الش‬ َ‫ن‬ٰ‫م‬ ٰ ‫ہ‬‫اّلِل‬ ‫ا‬ٰ‫ب‬ ُ ‫ذ‬ْ‫و‬ُ‫ع‬ َ ‫ا‬ َ ‫ف‬ ُ‫د‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ َ ‫ا‬ؕ ٰ‫م‬ْ‫ی‬ ٰ‫ح‬‫الر‬ ٰ‫ن‬ٰ‫م‬ ْ‫ح‬‫الر‬ ٰ ‫ہ‬‫اّلِل‬ In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful All praise be to Allah, we praise Him and seek His help and forgiveness. We seek refuge with Allah from the evil of our own selves and from our evil deeds. Whomsoever Allah guides, no one can lead astray, and whomsoever Allah leaves astray, no one can guide. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah Alone, with no partner or associate, and I bear witness that Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) is His slave and Messenger. Qur’an is divine book of Allah Subhaa-nahu Wa-Ta'ala. On the Day of Resurrection, the Qur'an will petition Allah (Subhaa-nahu Wa-Ta'ala) to cloak the one who was a companion of the Qur'an (recited it often) with garments of honor and respect. A crown of honor will then be placed on the head of the reciter. The Qur'an will then petition Allah (Subhaa-nahu Wa-Ta'ala) to shower His pleasure on the reciter. Allah (Subhaa-nahu Wa-Ta'ala) will then become pleased with him. The reciter will then be asked to recite the Qur'an, thereby attaining higher ranks of elevation. In reward for each Ayah, a good deed will be given to him. (Tirmidhi, Ibn Maajaah)  Rasulullah (Sallallahu-Alayhi Wa-Sallam) said; "To seek knowledge is an obligation upon every Muslim." (Ibn Maajaah) To seek knowledge is a sacred duty for every Muslim male and female. The first word revealed of the Qur'an was "Iqra" (read) Seek knowledge! Educate yourselves! Be educated. Every one young, man, woman, should at least acquire sufficient knowledge to enable ourselves to understand the essence of the teachings of the Qur'an and the purpose for which it has been sent down. We should also be able to understand clearly the mission, which our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu-Alayhi Wa-Sallam) came into this world to fulfil. We should also recognize the corrupt order and system, which he came to destroy. We should acquaint ourselves, too, with the way of life, which is Allah (Subhaa-nahu Wa-Ta'ala) has ordained for us. No great amount of time is required to acquire this simple knowledge. If we truly value Iman, it cannot be too difficult to find one hour every day to devote for our Iman.  Hazrat Ibn Abbas (Radi yllaahu Ta'ala 'anhu) narrates Rasulullah (Sallallahu-Alayhi Wa-Sallam) said; "A single scholar of religion is more formidable against Shaitaan than a thousand devout persons. Islam is our greatest gift. We have to be thankful for this gift. We have to render to Allah His due. Allah (Subhaa-nahu Wa-Ta'ala) has given us so much by making us a part of the Ummah of the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu-Alayhi Wa-Sallam) so we must totally commit ourselves as followers of the Prophet (Sallallahu-Alayhi Wa-Sallam). We must become true Muslims." (Tirmidhi, Ibn Maajaah) The best of knowledge is the knowledge of the Qur'an:  Hazrat Uthman (Radi yllaahu Ta'ala 'anhu) narrates Rasulullah (Sallallahu-Alayhi Wa-Sallam) said; "The best amongst you is the one who learns the Qur'an and teaches it "(to others)." (Bukhari, Tirmidhi)
  7. 7. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 6 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com HELPFUL TIPS TOWARDS LEARNING TAJWEED  You must sit with a Qur’an teacher who has studied Tajweed to listen to your recitation and correct you. Tajweed cannot merely be learnt from books, because the movements of your mouth as well as the sounds are important and only a teacher can correct you and make sure you are applying the rules correctly. Qur’an recitation is a science which was passed down generation by generation through teachers not just books, with a direct line to the Prophet (Sallallahu-Alayhi Wa-Sallam).  Follow this book containing the rules of Tajweed and learn each rule little by little, applying it as you go along with the help of your teacher. Following the charts will make it even better to understand and remember the rules in shaa Allah.  Listen to Qur’an tapes of reciters who recite very clearly (you can find that also at www.reciter.org), at a medium or slow speed and notice them applying the different rules of Tajweed. Repeat after them while trying to apply the rules you’ve learnt. Try to copy their tone and melody as well and see how it changes as the meaning of what they’re reciting changes.  Apply the rules you learn to the Surahs you have already memorized and don’t save any effort about reciting correctly. You might have to revise the surahs by looking back at them.  Practice and repetition will make perfect in shaa Allah: As Ibn al-Jazaree says in his poem about acquiring Tajweed: ‘And there is no obstacle between it (learning Tajweed) and leaving it, except that a person must exercise his mouth with it!’ May Allah help us all to give His Book its right when we recite it and make reciting it more beloved to our tongues than anything else. Aameen. REVELATION OF THE QUR'AN IN SEVEN AHRUF According to Hadith literature, the Qur'an is revealed in seven Ahruf (the plural of harf). The most famous of those Hadiths is reported in the Muwatta compiled by Malik ibn Anas.  Malik Ibn Anas has reported: Abd Al-Rahman Ibn Abd al-Qari narrated: “Umar Ibn al-Khattab said before me: I heard Hisham Ibn Hakim Ibn Hizam reading Surat Al-Furqan in a different way from the one I used to read it, and the Prophet himself had read out this surah to me. Consequently, as soon as I heard him, I wanted to get hold of him. However, I gave him respite until he had finished the prayer. Then I got hold of his cloak and dragged him to the Prophet. I said to him: “I have heard this person [Hisham Ibn Hakim Ibn Hizam] reading Surah Al Furqan in a different way from the one you had read it out to me.” The Prophet said: “Leave him alone [O ‘Umar].” Then he said to Hisham: “Read [it].” [Umar said:] “He read it out in the same way as he had done before me.” [At this,] the Prophet said: “It was revealed thus.” Then the Prophet asked me to read it out. So I read it out. [At this], he said: “It was revealed thus; this Qur’an has been revealed in Seven Ahruf. You can read it in any of them you find easy from among them. Many reports contradict presence of variant readings:  Abu Abd Al-Rahman al-Sulami reports, "The reading of Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Zayd ibn Thabit and that of all the Muhajirun and the Ansar was the same. They would read the Qur’an according to the Qira’at al-‘ammah. This is the same reading which was read out twice by the Prophet to Gabriel in the year of his death. Zayd ibn Thabit was also present in this reading [called] the ‘Ardah-i akhirah. It was this very reading that he taught the Qur’an to people till his death".  Ibn Sirin writes, "the reading on which the Qur’an was read out to the prophet in the year of his death is the same according to which people are reading the Qur’an today".
  8. 8. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 7 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com OTHER HADITH  From Abu Hurairah: The Messenger of Allah said: "The Qur'an was sent down in seven Ahruf. Disputation concerning the Qurʾan is unbelief" - he said this three times - "and you should put into practice what you know of it, and leave what you do not know of it to someone who does."  From Abu Hurairah: The Messenger of Allah said: "An All-knowing, Wise, Forgiving, Merciful sent down the Qur'an in seven Ahruf."  From ʿAbdallah Ibn Masʿūd: The Messenger of Allah said: "The Qur'an was sent down in seven Ahruf. Each of these Ahruf has an outward aspect (zahr) and an inward aspect (batn); each of the Ahruf has a border, and each border has a lookout." The meaning of this Hadith is explained as: As for the Prophet's words concerning the Qur'an, each of the Ahruf has a border, it means that each of the seven aspects has a border which God has marked off and which no one may overstep. And as for his words each of the Ahruf has an outward aspect (zahr) and an inward aspect (batn), its outward aspect is the ostensive meaning of the recitation, and its inward aspect is its interpretation, which is concealed. And by his words each border has a lookout he means that for each of the borders which God marked off in the Qur'an - of the lawful and unlawful, and its other legal injunctions - there is a measure of God's reward and punishment which surveys it in the Hereafter, and inspects it at the Resurrection.  Abdullah Ibn Masʿud said: The Messenger of Allah said: "The first Book came down from one gate according to one harf, but the Qur'an came down from seven gates according to seven Ahruf: prohibiting and commanding, lawful and unlawful, clear and ambiguous, and parables. So, allow what it makes lawful, proscribe what it makes unlawful, do what it commands you to do, forbid what it prohibits, be warned by its parables, act on its clear passages, trust in its ambiguous passages." And they said: "We believe in it; it is all from our Lord."  Abu Qilaba narrated: It has reached me that the Prophet said: "The Qur'an was sent down according to seven Ahruf: command and prohibition, encouragement of good and discouragement of evil, dialectic, narrative, and parable."
  9. 9. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 8 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AHRUF AND QIRA'AT Qur'an continued to be read according to the seven Ahruf until midway through Caliph 'Uthman's rule when some confusion arose in the outlying provinces concerning the Qur'an's recitation. Some Arab tribes had begun to boast about the superiority of their Ahruf and a rivalry began to develop. At the same time, some new Muslims also began mixing the various forms of recitation out of ignorance. Caliph 'Uthman decided to make official copies of the Qur'an according to the writing conventions of the Quraysh and send them along with the Qur'anic reciters to the major centers of Islam. This decision was approved by Sahaabah and all unofficial copies of the Qur'an were destroyed. Uthman burned the unofficial copies of the Quran. Following the distribution of the official copies, all the other Ahruf were dropped and the Qur'an began to be read in only one harf. Thus, the Qur'an which is available throughout the world today is written and recited only according to the harf of Quraysh. On Qir’at, Philips writes that it is for the most part a method of pronunciation used in the recitations of the Qur'an. These methods are different from the seven forms or modes (Ahruf) in which the Qur'an was revealed. The seven modes were reduced to one, that of the Quraysh, during the era of Caliph 'Uthman, and all of the methods of recitation are based on this mode. The various methods have all been traced back to the Prophet through a number of Sahaabah who were most noted for their Qur'anic recitations. That is, these Sahaabah recited the Qur'an to the Prophet or in his presence and received his approval. Among them were the following: Ubayy Ibn K'ab, 'Alee Ibn Abi Taalib, Zayd Ibn Thaabit, 'Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud, Abu ad-Dardaa and Abu Musaa al-Ash'aree. Many of the other Sahaabah learned from these masters. For example, Ibn 'Abbaas, the master commentator of the Qur'an among the Sahaabah, learned from both Ubayy and Zayd. On transmission of Qur'an, Philips writes that among the next generation of Muslims referred to as Tabi'in, there arose many scholars who learned the various methods of recitation from the Sahaabah and taught them to others. Centres of Qur'anic recitation developed in al-Madeenah, Makkah, Kufa, Basrah and Syria, leading to the evolution of Qur'anic recitation into an independent science. By mid-eighth century CE, there existed a large number of outstanding scholars all of whom were considered specialists in the field of recitation. Most of their methods of recitations were authenticated by chains of reliable narrators ending with the Prophet. Those methods which were supported by a large number of reliable narrators on each level of their chain were called Mutawaatir and were considered to be the most accurate. Those methods in which the number of narrators were few or only one on any level of the chain were referred to as shaadhdh. Some of the scholars of the following period began the practice of designating a set number of individual scholars from the previous period as being the most noteworthy and accurate. By the middle of the tenth century, the number seven became popular since it coincided with the number of dialects in which the Qur'an was revealed. It is said that Abu ‘Ubayd Qasim Ibn Sallam (d. 224 AH) selected twenty five readings in his book. The seven readings which are famous in current times were selected by Abu Bakr Ibn Mujahid (d. 324 AH) at the end of the third century Hijrah. Thus it is generally accepted that their number cannot be ascertained but every reading is Qur'an which has been reported through a correct chain of narration, are found in any way in the Masahif prepared by ‘Uthman and are correct from any aspect as far as the Arabic language is concerned. Some of these readings are regarded as Mutawatir; however, a look at their chains of narration which are found in books leaves no doubt that they are Ahad (isolate), most narrators of which are suspect in the eyes of the Rijal authorities.
  10. 10. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 9 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com QURANIC ORTHOGRAPHY To ensure correct reading of the written texts of the Qur’an, particularly for those coming after the first generation of Muslims, steps were taken gradually to improve the orthography. This started by introducing dots to indicate different vowels and nunation and these were put in different coloured ink from that of the text. There were also dots to distinguish between consonants of similar shape. This work was carried out chiefly by three men: Abu'l Aswad ad-Du'ali (d. 69 / 688), Naṣr Ibn Aṣim (d. 89 / 707) and Yaḥya Ibn Yaʿmur (d.129 /746). Understandably there was some opposition at first to adding anything to the way the Qur’an was written. Ibn Umar (73/692) disliked the dotting; others welcomed it, clearly because it was, in fact, doing no more than ensuring proper reading of the Qur’an as received from the Prophet, and this view was accepted by the majority of Muslims throughout the different parts of the Muslim world, from the time of the tabiʿun. The people of Madinah were reported to have used red dots for vowels - tanwin, tashdid, takhfif, sukun, wasl and madd and yellow dots for the hamzas in particular. Naqt (placing dots on the rasm), became a separate subject of study with many books written on it. CONDITIONS FOR THE VALIDITY OF A QIRA'A (READING) For any given recitation to be accepted as authentic (Sahih), it had to fulfill three conditions and if any of the conditions were missing such a recitation was classified as Shadhdh (unusual). 1. The first condition was that the recitation has an authentic chain of narration in which the chain of narrators was continuous; the narrators were all known to be righteous and they were all known to possess good memories. It was also required that the recitation be conveyed by a large number of narrators on each level of the chain of narration below the level of Sahaabah (the condition of Tawaatur). Narrations which had authentic chains but lacked the condition of Tawaatur were accepted as explanations (Tafseer) of the Sahaabah but were not considered as methods of reciting the Qur'an. As for the narrations which did not even have an authentic chain of narration, they were classified as Baatil (false) and rejected totally. 2. The second condition was that the variations in recitations match known Arabic grammatical constructions. Unusual constructions could be verified by their existence in passages of pre-Islamic prose or poetry. 3. The third condition required the recitation to coincide with the script of one of the copies of the Qur'an distributed during the era of Caliph Uthman. Hence differences which result from dot placement (i.e., ta'lamoon and ya'lamoon) are considered acceptable provided the other conditions are met. A recitation of a construction for which no evidence could be found would be classified Shaadhdh. This classification did not mean that all aspects of the recitation was considered Shaadhdh. it only meant that the unverified constructions were considered Shaadhdh.
  11. 11. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 10 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com THE CHAIN OF NARRATION OF DIFFERENT QIRA'AT In this section, the chain of narration or isnaad of each Qiraʾat will be presented. It is worth noting that the chains of narration here are mutawatir.  Qiraʾa from Madinah: The reading of Madinah known as the reading of Nafiʿ Ibn Abi Naʿim (more precisely Abu ʿAbd ar-Raḥman Nafiʿ Ibn ʿAbd ar-Raḥman). Nafiʿ died in 169 H. He reported from Yazid Ibn al-Qaʿqaʿ and ʿAbd ar-Raḥman Ibn Hurmuz al-'Araj and Muslim Ibn Jundub al-Hudhali and Yazid Ibn Roman and Shaybah Ibn Nisaʾ. All of them reported from Abu Hurayrah and Ibn ʿAbbas and ʿAbdallah Ibn 'Ayyash Ibn Abi Rabi'ah al-Makhzumi and the last three reported from Ubayy Ibn Kaʿb from the Prophet. From Nafiʿ, two major readings came to us: Warsh and Qalun.  Qiraʾa from Makkah: The reading of Ibn Kathir (ʿAbdullah Ibn Kathir ad-Dari): Ibn Kathir died in 120 H. He reported from ʿAbdillah Ibn Assa'ib al-Makhzumi who reported from Ubayy Ibn Kaʿb (The companion of the Prophet). Ibn Kathir has also reported from Mujahid Ibn Jabr who reported from his teacher Ibn ʿAbbas who reported from Ubayy Ibn Kaʿb and Zayd Ibn Thabit and both reported from the Prophet.  Qiraʾa from Damascus: From ash-Sham (Damascus), the reading is called after ʿAbdallah Ibn ʿAamir. He died in 118 H. He reported from Abu ad-Darda' and al-Mughirah Ibn Abi Shihab al-Makhzumi from ʿUthman.  Qiraʾa from Basrah: The reading of Abu ʿAmr from Basrah: (According to al-Sabcah, the book of Ibn Mujahid page 79, Abu ʿAmr is called Zayyan Abu ʿAmr Ibn al-ʿAlaʾ. He was born in Makkah in the year 68 and grew up at Kufah.) He died at 154 H. He reported from Mujahid and Saʿid Ibn Jubayr and ʿIkrimah Ibn Khalid al-Makhzumi and ʿAtaʾ Ibn Abi Rabah and Muhammad Ibn ʿAbd ar-Rahman Ibn al- Muhaysin and Humayd Ibn Qays al-ʿA'raj and all are from Makkah. He also reported from Yazid Ibn al- Qaʿqaʿ and Yazid Ibn Ruman and Shaybah Ibn Nisa' and all are from Madinah. He also reported from al-'Assan and Yahya Ibn Yaʿmur and others from Basrah. All these people took from the companions of the Prophet. From him came two readings called as-Susi and ad-Duri.  Qiraʾa from Basrah: From Basrah, the reading known as Yaʿqub Ibn Ishaq al-Hadrami the companion of Shuʿbah (again). He reported from Abu ʿAmr and others.  Qira'a from Kufah: The reading of ʿAsim Ibn Abi an-Najud (ʿAasim Ibn Bahdalah Ibn Abi an-Najud): He died in 127 or 128 H. He reported from Abu ʿAbd ar-Raḥman as-Solammi and Zirr Ibn Hubaysh. Abu ʿAbd ar-Rahman reported from ʿUthman and ʿAli Ibn Abi Talib and 'Ubayy (Ibn Kacb) and Zayd (Ibn Thabit). And Zirr reported from Ibn Masʿud. Two readings were reported from Aasim: The famous one is Hafs, the other one is Shucbah.  Qiraʾa from Kufah: o The reading of Hamzah Ibn Habib (from Kufah as well) Hamzah was born in the year 80 H and died in 156 H. He reported from Muhammad Ibn cAbd ar-Rahman Ibn Abi Layla (who reads the reading of ʿAli Ibn Abi Talib, according to the book of Ibn Mujahid called al-Sabcah - The Seven - page 74) and Humran Ibn A'yan and Abi Ishaq as-Sabi'y and Mansur Ibn al-Mu'tamir and al-Mughirah Ibn Miqsam and Jafar Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Abi Talib from the Prophet. o Qiraʾa from Kufah: The reading of al-'Amash from Kufah as well: He reported from Yahya Ibn Waththab from 'Alqamah and al-'Aswad and 'Ubayd Ibn Nadlah al-Khuza'y and Abu ʿAbd ar- Raḥman as-Sulami and Zirr ibn Hubaysh and all reported from Ibn Mascud. o Qiraaa from Kufah: The reading of Ali Ibn Hamzah al-Kisa'i known as al-Kisa'i from Kufah. He died in 189 H. He reported from Hamzah (the previous one) and cIesa Ibn Umar and Muhammad Ibn ʿAbd ar-Raḥman Ibn Abi Layla and others.
  12. 12. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 11 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com Examples of readings from Hafs and Warsh ‫نافع‬‫عن‬‫ورش‬ ‫روايۃ‬ ‫عاصم‬‫عن‬‫حفص‬ ‫روايۃ‬ Hafs Warsh Surah: Verse َ‫ن‬‫و‬ ُ ‫ل‬ َ‫م‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ي‬ َ‫ن‬‫و‬ ُ ‫ل‬ َ‫م‬ْ‫ع‬ َ ‫ت‬ you do they do Al-Baqara 2:85 ُ‫ل‬ِّ ِ‫ز‬ َ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ َ‫م‬ ُ‫ل‬ِّ ِ‫ز‬ َ ‫ن‬ ُ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ َ‫م‬ we did not send down you did not send down Al-Ḥijr 15:8 ‫ل‬ ُ ‫ق‬ َ‫ال‬ َ ‫ق‬ he said say! Al-Anbiya' 21:4 ‫ا‬ً‫یر‬ِ‫ث‬ َ ‫ك‬ ‫ا‬ً‫یر‬ِ‫ب‬ َ ‫ك‬ Mighty multitudinous Al-Aḥzab 33:68 ‫ا‬ َ‫م‬ِ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ َ‫م‬ِ‫ب‬ َ ‫ف‬ then it is what it is what Al-Shura 42:30 ُ‫ه‬ ْ ‫ل‬ ِ‫خ‬ ْ‫د‬ ُ ‫ن‬ ُ‫ه‬ ْ ‫ل‬ ِ‫خ‬ ْ‫د‬ُ‫ي‬ he makes him enter we make him enter Al-Fatḥ 48:17
  13. 13. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 12 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com INTRODUCTION TO TAJWEED What is Tajweed? (‫التجوید‬ ‫ھو‬ ‫)ما‬ The word “Tajweed” means to make well, make better or improve.” It refers to the rules governing pronunciation during recitation of the Qur’an. The word “Tajweed” is derived from the Arabic trilateral root ‘ja-wa-da’, meaning to make well, make better or improve. Definition: “Tajweed (‫تجويد‬) means to pronounce every letter correctly from its proper origin coupled with its stipulated attributes ( ‫صفات‬‫الحروف‬ ).” Types of Tajweed (‫التجوید‬ ‫)انواع‬ 1. Tajweed ilmi ‫علمی‬ ‫(تجوید‬) 2. Tajweed amali )‫عملی‬ ‫(تجوید‬ Tajweed ilmi ِ‫ح‬ْ‫ی‬ ِ‫ح‬ ْ‫ص‬ َ ‫ت‬ ِ‫ق‬ُ‫ر‬ ُ ‫ط‬ ْ‫ن‬َ‫ع‬َ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ َ‫ھ‬ِ‫ت‬‫ا‬ َ‫ف‬ ِ‫ص‬َ‫و‬ ِ‫ف‬ ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ ُ‫ح‬ ْ ‫ال‬ ِ‫ج‬ِ‫ار‬ َ ‫خ‬َّ‫م‬ ْ‫ن‬َ‫ع‬ ِ‫ہ‬ْ‫ی‬ِ‫ف‬ ُ ‫ث‬ َ‫ح‬ْ‫ب‬ُ‫ی‬ ٌ‫م‬ ْ ‫ل‬ِ‫ع‬ َ‫و‬ ُ‫ھ‬ِ‫ف‬ ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ ُ‫ح‬ ْ ‫ال‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬ َ‫ھ‬ِ‫ن‬ْ‫ی‬ ِ‫س‬ ْ‫ح‬ َ ‫ت‬ “Tajweed ilmi is such a science in which the emission points of the Quranic letters and their attributes and the rules to recite them correctly as well as beautifully, are discussed.” Tajweed amali ْ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ِ‫ف‬ ْ‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ ُ‫ح‬ ْ ‫ال‬ ُ‫آء‬َ‫د‬ َ ‫ا‬ َ‫و‬ ُ‫ھ‬‫ا‬َ‫ع‬ ْ ‫ال‬َ‫و‬ ِ‫ۃ‬َ‫م‬ِ‫ز‬ َّ ‫اال‬‫ا‬ َ‫ھ‬ِ‫ت‬‫ا‬ َ‫ف‬ ِ‫ص‬ ِ‫ع‬ْ‫ی‬ِ‫م‬ َ‫ج‬ َ‫ع‬ َ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ َ‫ھ‬ َ ‫ل‬ ِ‫ۃ‬َّ‫آص‬ َ ‫الخ‬ ‫ا‬ َ‫ھ‬ ِ‫ج‬ِ‫ار‬ َ ‫خ‬َّ‫م‬ٍ‫ۃ‬ َ‫ف‬ ْ ‫ل‬ ُ ‫ک‬ ِ‫ر‬ْ‫ی‬ َ ‫غ‬َ‫ب‬َ‫و‬ ٍ‫ۃ‬ َ ‫ل‬ْ‫و‬ ُ‫ھ‬ ُ‫س‬ِ‫ب‬ ِ‫ۃ‬َ‫ض‬ِ‫ر‬ “To pronounce the letters from their fixed outlets with all of the attributes (compulsory and optional) easily and without difficulty, is called Tajweed amali.” Purpose of learning Tajweed )‫التجوید‬ ‫(الغرض‬ To prevent our tongue from making mistakes while reciting the Holy Quran and to recite the Holy Quran with the feeling with which it was revealed and to create beauty in the recitation. Topic of Tajweed ‫(م‬‫وضوع‬)‫التجوید‬ Topic of Tajweed are the 29 letters of Arabic alphabet. Benefit of learning Tajweed )‫التجوید‬ ‫(مصلحۃ‬ The benefits of learning Tajweed are many as reflected in some of the following Ahadeeth:  Obtain Allah’s pleasure Benefit of learning Tajweed is that we will obtain Allah’s pleasure in this world and the hereafter.
  14. 14. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 13 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com  The reciters of the Qur’an will be in the company of the noble and obedient angels ‘Aa’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, relates that the Prophet (SAW) said: “Verily the one who recites the Qur’an beautifully, smoothly, and precisely, he will be in the company of the noble and obedient angels. And as for the one who recites with difficulty, stammering or stumbling through its verses, then he will have twice that reward.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]  You will be from the best of people ‘Uthmaan, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Prophet (SAW) said: “The best of you are the ones who learn the Qur’an and teach it to others” [Al-Bukhari]  There are ten rewards for each letter you recite from the Quran “Whoever reads a letter from the Book of Allah, he will have a reward. And that reward will be multiplied by ten. I am not saying that “Alif, Laam, Meem” is a letter, rather I am saying that “Alif” is a letter, “laam” is a letter and “meem” is a letter.” [Tirmidhi states this is saheeh]  The Qur’an will lead you to Paradise! The Qur’an is an intercessor, something given permission to intercede, and it is rightfully believed in. Whoever puts it in front of him, it will lead him to Paradise; whoever puts it behind him, it will steer him to the Hellfire.” [An authentic hadith found in At Tabaraanee, on the authority of ‘Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood] Pillars of Tajweed )‫التجوید‬ ‫(ارکان‬ There are 4 pillars of Tajweed. 1. Makhaarij ul Huroof (emission points of the letters) 2. Siffaat ul Huroof (attributes of the letters) 3. Tarkeebi Ahkaam e.g. Idgham, Izhar, Ikhfa, Tas-heel, Madd etc 4. Riyadhat bil-Lisaan (practicing with tongue) Levels of Recitation ‫(الدرجات‬‫التالوۃ‬) There are three (3) levels of recitation. 1. Tarteel: means to recite in a very slow, pleasant tone like the Qurra recite in concerts usually. 2. Hadr: reciting so fast that the letters can be counted easily and also the Tajweed rules aren’t spoiled. 3. Tadweer: it’s a moderate speed in between of Tarteel and Hadr and is practiced in Salah/prayer. Virtue of Tajweed (‫التجوید‬ ‫)فضیلت‬ Science of Tajweed is one of the best and prominent sciences because it belongs to the word of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala which is excellent and superior to all of other sciences.
  15. 15. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 14 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com TAJWEED EXPLAINED Tajweed is one of the most prominent sciences of the Qur'an. It is a science governed by deep-rooted static rules derived from the oral recitation of the Qur'an by the Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam after hearing the revelation from the Angel Gabriel. This science preserves the meaning of the revealed words of Allah in sound and expression, protects it from any alteration and retains the unique method of recitation. It deals with the accent, phonetics, rhythm and temper of the Qur'anic recitation. The divine ordinance establishes the recitation of the Qur'an with Tajweed. The emergence of this science of recitation is from the Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam who taught this science practically and like other Islamic disciplines it is protected both in theory and practice by the zealous and dedicated faithful. Throughout the fourteen centuries since the Qur'an's revelation hardly a generation has passed which has not witnessed celebrated Qurra' - the undisputed authorities during their times in this science. The third century of Hijrah marks the beginning of the codification of Islamic sciences. Since that period, Muslim scholars have contributed hundreds of books on the science of Tajweed. The available literature is extremely rich and comprehensive and reflects not only the meticulous zeal of the scholars but also manifests the popularity of this science among the Muslim Ummah throughout the ages. One should know: There are ten schools of Recitation, the most prevalent of which is the recitation of Imam Asim as transmitted by Imam Hafs. HISTORY OF TAJWEED When Islam was being spread (and it was done so at a very quick pace and also into non-Arab speaking countries) not everyone’s tongue was accustomed to the Arabic letters and sounds. Thus, when reciting the Qur'an, much error and distortion occurred and the Muslim scholars feared (the perpetration of) that error and distortion. It was at this point that some of them recorded the rules and foundations that regulate the correct pronunciation of Qur'an and they named this the Science of Tajweed. The rules were not made up by these Scholars. In fact, all they did was closely observe the perfect readers who read as they were taught by the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallahu-Alayhi Wa-Sallam) and wrote down for later generations the rules of recitation of the earlier generations. At the time of the Prophet (SAW) there was no need for people to study Tajweed because they talked with what is now known as Tajweed so it was natural for them. When the Arabs started mixing with the non-Arabs as Islam spread, mistakes in Qur’an recitation started appearing, so the scholars had to record the rules. Now, because the everyday Arabic that Arabs speak has changed so much from the Classical Arabic with which the Qur’an was revealed, even Arabs have to study Tajweed. From the outset, Tajweed is a Science that cannot be learnt only from a book and will always retain this inherent quality. The most important part of Tajweed is learning about correct positions of the organs of speech and the manner of articulation.
  16. 16. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 15 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com IMPORTANCE OF TAJWEED The importance of Tajweed cannot be overemphasized. The recitation of Quran-e-Kareem in Salah is compulsory. Often, due to not reciting the Quran Shareef with Tajweed, the Salah is affected. It is therefore necessary to learn Tajweed so that the Quran Shareef may be recited correctly. Arabic is a very delicate language. A slight mispronunciation can completely change the meaning. E.g. The word “’Qalb’ (‫قلب‬) means heart. If the letter ‘qaaf’ in word ‘qalb’ isn’t pronounced correctly and instead, it is pronounced with ‘kaaf’ as ‘kalb’ (‫کلب‬) , the meaning changes to “dog”! it is thus obvious that the rules of Tajweed must be applied in the recitation of Holy Quran. An Arabic adage proclaims: “The speech of the kings is the king of all speech.” So, can the Excellency of the speech of the King of all kings – Allah Ta’ala – even be equated with man-made speech? One of the many miracles of the noble Qur’an is that regardless of the number of times it is recited, one never gets tired or bored with its recitation. Allah Ta’ala says in the noble Qur’an, “Indeed the believers are those who tremble with fear when Allah is remembered, and when the verses of the Qur’an are recited before them it increases their belief, and upon Allah they have complete trust.” (8:2) One of the salient points mentioned in this verse is that when a believer recites the noble Qur’an in the correct manner, it increases his faith and belief in Allah. Reciting the noble Qur’an in the correct manner means to recite it with Tajweed. Let’s take a look at some of the verses of Quran and Ahadith which show the importance of learning Tajweed.  Allah (Subha-nahu wa Ta’ala says in Surah # 73, verse No. 4, ً ‫ال‬ْ‫ی‬ِ‫ت‬ ْ‫ر‬ َ ‫ت‬ َ‫ن‬‫ا‬ْ‫ر‬ ُ‫ق‬ ْ ‫ال‬ ِ‫ل‬ِ ِّ ‫ت‬ َ‫ر‬ َ‫و‬ “And recite the Quran with Tarteel, i.e. in a slow pleasant tone and style.” Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA) said in the explanation of this aayah: “at-Tarteel is Tajweed of the letters and knowing where to stop (correctly)”. [An-Nashr of Ibn Al-Jazaree 209:1] The Arabic word tarteel literally means “slow measured rhythmic tone”. The translation of the above Ayah is reciting the Qur’an slowly, making the letters clear, for this is an assistance in understanding and pondering the meaning of the Holy Qur’an. This is how the Prophet (Sallalla-hu Alayhi Wa-Sallam) used to recite.
  17. 17. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 16 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com RECITING THE QUR’AN MELODIOUSLY  The Prophet (SAW) used to recite the Qur’an in slow, measured and rhythmic tones as Allah had instructed him, not hurriedly, but rather ‘he would recite a surah in such slow rhythmic tones that it would be longer than it would seem possible.’ [Muslim, Muwatta]  He (Prophet Muhammad ‫)ﷺ‬ would stop at the end of each aayah/verse. [Abu Dawud].  He commanded people to recite in a beautiful voice in a pleasant melodious tone. The prophet ‫ﷺ‬ said, “Beautify the Qur’an with your voices [for a fine voice increases the beauty of Qur’an].” [Sahih Al – Bukhari]  He (Prophet Muhammad ‫)ﷺ‬ said “He who does not recite the Qur’an in a pleasant tone is not of us.” [Abu Dawud] The reciter of the Qur'an should take caution against reading too quickly or making his goal completing (reading the complete Qur'an from the beginning to the end) quickly, or finishing a Surah quickly without pondering the meaning and without being affected by its lessons. Unfortunately, all too often we find people reciting the Qur’an quickly and without changing their tone and without any feeling. We should put all our efforts into reciting the Qur’an with as much feeling as we can! Have you ever prayed behind an Imam who read with feeling?  Well the Prophet (SAW) said, “Truly the one who has one of the finest voices among the people for reciting the Qur’an is the one whom you think fears Allah when you hear him recite.” [Tabaraani]  And once when the Prophet (SAW) complimented Abu Moosaa al-Ash’ari on the beauty of his recitation, Abu Moosaa said, “Had I known you were there, I would have made my voice more pleasant and emotional for you.’ [Bukhari, Muslim] Let us remember, that the Qur’an is the word of Allah. In it we find exhortations, warnings, glad-tidings, parables, stories of the past, commands and prohibitions. Aayaat to make us think, reflect, cry, fear, hope, love, fall down in prostration! How can we recite all of this without feeling? When we recite an aayah of Qur’an we should imagine that we are trying to feel and convey the full message behind that aayah. Perhaps some of us don’t feel confident. I believe that this lack of confidence comes partly from not knowing the rules of Tajweed correctly and so fearing that we will make mistakes and partly from not understanding the meaning of what we are reciting. So let us work hard to remove these two obstacles by learning Tajweed and working towards learning Arabic.  Abu Dharr (R.A) narrated, the Messenger of Allah ‫ﷺ‬ said to me: "O Abu Dharr! If you learn one verse from The Book of Allah (The Quran), it is better for you than to voluntarily pray one hundred rak'as (units of prayer), and if you learn a category of knowledge (religion), regardless if it is applied or not, it is better for you than to voluntarily pray one thousand rak'as." (Ibn e Majah, Sunan; Ibn Hajar Al-'Asqalani, Mukhtasar At-Targhib wa-t-Tarhib; Al-Ghazali, Ihya' 'Ulum Ad-Deen) From the Qur’anic verses and Hadith mentioned above, I can say that it is necessary for every Muslim / Muslimah to learn Tajweed.
  18. 18. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 17 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com CONSENSUS OF THE COMMUNITY ON THE OBLIGATION OF TAJWEED To keep it short only two of the sayings of Ummah’s scholars are mentioned. 1. Muhammad bin Al-Jazaree the great Qur’an and Hadeeth scholar of the 9th Century (Hijri) says in his famous poem, detailing the rules of Tajweed: َ ْ ‫ال‬َ‫و‬ ْ ‫ـ‬‫ي‬ِ‫ـو‬ ْ‫ـج‬َّ‫الت‬ِ‫ب‬ ُ ‫ـذ‬ ْ ‫خ‬‫م‬ِ‫ز‬ َّ ‫ال‬ ٌ‫ـم‬‫ـ‬ْ‫ـت‬ َ‫ح‬ ِ‫د‬َ‫ـر‬ ُ‫ـق‬ ْ ‫ال‬ ِ‫د‬ِ ِّ‫ـو‬ َ‫ـج‬ُ‫ي‬ ْ‫ـم‬ َّ ‫ل‬ ْ‫ـن‬‫ـ‬ َ‫م‬‫ـم‬ِ‫ث‬‫ا‬ َ‫ن‬‫ا‬ َ ‫ال‬َ‫ص‬َ‫و‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ن‬ْ‫ی‬ َ ‫ل‬ِ‫ا‬ ُ‫ہ‬ْ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ َ ‫ذ‬ َ ‫ک‬‫ھ‬َ‫و‬ َ ‫ال‬ َ‫ز‬ ْ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ا‬ ُ‫ہ‬‫ل‬ ِ‫اال‬ ِ‫ہ‬ِ‫ب‬ ٗ‫ہ‬َّ‫ن‬ َ ِ‫ال‬ “And applying Tajweed is an issue of absolute necessity, whoever doesn’t apply Tajweed to the Qur’an, then a sinner is he. Because Allah has revealed the Quran with Tajweed and similarly it has reached us (with Tajweed)” So he regarded it as an obligation and he regarded leaving it as a sin. And the majority of scholars agree that applying the Tajweed rules of Qur’an are an individual obligation (‫عین‬ ‫)فرض‬ upon every Muslim who has memorized or read part of or all of the Qur’an. That is because the Qur’an was revealed with the Tajweed rules applied to it and the Prophet (SAW) recited it back to Jibreel in that way and the Companions of the Prophet (SAW) read it in that way, so it is an established Sunnah. 2. Mulla Ali Qari says in his book “Al—Munkih ul Fikriyah” (‫الفکریۃ‬ ‫)املنکح‬ ُ‫م‬ ْ ‫ل‬ِ‫ع‬ ْ ‫ال‬‫ا‬ َ ‫ذ‬‫ھ‬ ُ ‫ک‬ ِ‫ب‬ ِ‫اح‬َ‫ص‬ ‫ی‬‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ ٌ‫ن‬ْ‫ی‬َ‫ع‬ ٌ‫ض‬ْ‫ر‬ َ ‫ف‬ ٖ‫ہ‬ِ‫ب‬ ُ‫ل‬ َ‫م‬َ‫ع‬ ْ ‫ال‬َّ‫و‬ ٌ ‫ۃ‬َ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ َ‫ف‬ ِ‫ک‬ ٌ‫ض‬ْ‫ر‬ َ ‫ف‬ ٗ‫ہ‬َّ‫ن‬ َ ‫ا‬ ْ‫ی‬ِ‫ف‬ َ ‫ف‬ َ ‫ال‬ ِ‫خ‬ َ ‫ال‬َّ‫ن‬ ُ‫س‬ ُ ‫ۃ‬َ‫اء‬َ‫ر‬ِ‫ق‬ ْ ‫ال‬ ِ‫ت‬ َ ‫ان‬ َ ‫ک‬ ْ‫و‬ َ ‫ل‬َ‫و‬ ٍ‫ۃ‬َ‫ای‬ َ‫و‬ِ‫ر‬ َّ‫و‬ ٍ‫ۃ‬َ‫اء‬َ‫ر‬ِ‫ق‬ ِ ِّ‫ل‬ ً ‫ۃ‬ “There is no difference of opinion that learning the science of Tajweed is Fardh kifayah (collective duty) whereas practicing the Tajweed rules while reciting is fardh aeen (individual duty) for everyone in every Qirat and Riwayah, although recitation itself is Sunnah.” All this shows that we should try our best to recite the Holy Qur’an with beautiful and melodious voice and try to observe all rules of Tajweed in our recitation. ONE THING YOU SHOULD KNOW It is a common misconception that a Qari must first become a Hafiz (Arabic: ‫.)حافظ‬ A Qari doesn’t necessarily have to memorize Qur’an, but to recite it with proper Tajweed rules, although it’s better and encouraged that a Qari become Hafiz before he becomes a Qari.
  19. 19. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 18 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com MANNERS OF STUDENTS OF THE QURAN Many Muslims know that seeking knowledge is encouraged in Islam, but a few know what is necessary as far as intention, deeds and manners when seeking knowledge. Abu Hurairah (R.A) said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah saying, the world is cursed, that which is in it is cursed, except zikr Allah (remembering Allah) and what follows it, or a learned person, or a student.” (Ibn e Majah) The Messenger of Allah also said, "Who takes the path hoping for knowledge, Allah makes easy for him the path to Paradise. Verily, the angels lower their wings for the seeker of knowledge out of pleasure of what he is doing. Verily all in the heavens and earth seek forgiveness for the knowledgeable, even the fish in the water. The excellence of the knowledgeable over the servant is like the excellence of the moon on the night of the full moon over all the planets. Verily, the learned are the heirs of the Prophets, the Prophets do not leave dinar or dirham, but they are inherited in knowledge, and he who takes it takes a great bounty." Abu Dawood, Ibn Maajah, and Ibn Habbaan. MANNERS WITH THE QUR’AN MANNERS OF THE HEART  Seeking refuge with Allah from the rejected Satan before reading the Qur’an, by saying: “‫الرجیم‬‫ن‬‫الشیط‬ ‫من‬ ‫باهلل‬ ‫”أعوذ‬ (I seek Allah’s protection from Satan, the accursed.) And thereafter recite: “‫الرحیم‬‫ن‬‫الرحم‬‫ہللا‬‫”بسم‬ (In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.)  Understanding origin (Makhraj) of the word.  One should understand that Qur’an is not the word of man.  The Reciter should throw away all other thoughts.  One should understand the meaning.  One should be humble.  One should feel that every message in the Noble Qur’an is meant personally for himself/herself. EXTERNAL MANNERS  One should be vigilant of the purity of body, clothes and place.  One is encouraged to face the Qiblah.  One should stop at a verse of warning and seek protection with Allah.  One should stop at a verse of Mercy and ask Allah for Mercy.  One should have wudu (ablution), i.e. the state of being pure.  One should read for the only sake of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala.  The voice shouldn’t be raised to such an extent where your recital will disturb others who are also engaged in some form of worship.
  20. 20. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 19 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com SIGNS OF PURITY OF INTENTION  Striving and firmness in obtaining knowledge with caution taken to understand, memorize, and not be deficient in the chosen curriculum.  If a student enrolls in a course of knowledge, absences and tardiness are not seen from him.  His worry is not just to be shown in front of his friends and to exceed them; instead he wishes for them what he wishes for himself. HOW TO LEARN AND MASTER A famous saying of scholars is "‫ل‬‫و‬ُ‫ص‬ُ‫الو‬ َ‫رم‬ ُ‫ح‬ ‫ل‬‫و‬ُ‫ص‬ ُ ‫ال‬‫قن‬ْ‫ت‬ُ‫ي‬ ‫م‬ َ ‫ل‬ ‫ن‬ َ‫”م‬ which means, "He who does not master the basics is forbidden from achieving." It is necessary then for establishment and foundation of every technique or knowledge sought that there be perfection its basics and its summary at the hands of a mastered sheikh, not by self-study alone, and knowledge should be taken in steps. Just as Allah, the Exalted, said: ً ‫ال‬ْ‫ی‬ِ‫ز‬ ْ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ت‬ ُ‫ہ‬‫ن‬ ْ ‫ل‬ َّ‫ز‬ َ ‫ن‬ َّ‫و‬ ٍ‫ث‬ ْ ‫ک‬ ُ‫م‬ ‫ی‬‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ ِ‫اس‬َّ‫الن‬ ‫ی‬ َ ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ ٗ‫ہ‬ َ ‫ا‬َ‫ر‬ ْ‫ق‬َ‫ت‬ِ‫ل‬ ُ‫ہ‬‫ن‬ ْ ‫ق‬َ‫ر‬ َ ‫ف‬‫ا‬ً‫ن‬‫ا‬ْ‫ر‬ ُ ‫ق‬َ‫و‬ "And [it is] the Qur'an, We divided that you may recite it unto mankind at intervals, and We revealed it by [successive] revelation." )Al-Israa' 106( MANNERS WITH THE TEACHER It is incumbent on the student of the Qur'an to respect and honor their teacher. In a hadeeth related by At- Tirmithi, the Messenger of Allahsaid, "He is not of us who does not respect our elderly, is merciful to our youth, and knows the rights of our those who teach us." Our righteous predecessors used to greatly emphasize respect and kindness to their shuyookh (plural of sheikh). A famous saying from many of the righteous predecessors is: "I am a slave to he who taught me a letter." The student of knowledge should have awe for his/her teacher and should respect him. Rabee' bin Sulaymaan was the companion and student of the famous scholar, Ash-Shaafee'i and he [Sulaymaan] said, "By Allah, I was not so bold as to drink water when Ash-Shaafee'i was looking at me, out of awe of him." Ash- Shaafee'i himself showed great awe of scholars and he said of himself, "I would turn the pages very gently in front of Imaam Maalik, out of awe of him, so that he would not hear it." [Aadaab al-Muta'aalimeen, Dr. Ahmed Abdullah Al-Baatilee, Dar Al-Qaasim, Riyadh, 1418]. The student of knowledge should not address his teacher or sheikh by their first name, calling them, ya sheikh, or teacher, instead they should call them by saying, my sheikh, my teacher, or our sheikh, our teacher. The teachers shouldn't be called from a distance except in a compelled situation. The teachers should not be addressed with the ta' al-khataab (you singular). Allah, the Exalted in the Qur'an, pointed out the manners with those teaching us khair when He said in surah An-Noor, aayah 63: ‫ا‬ً‫ض‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ب‬ ْ‫م‬ ُ ‫ک‬ ِ‫ض‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ب‬ ِ‫آء‬َ‫ع‬ ُ‫د‬ َ ‫ک‬ ْ‫م‬ ُ ‫ک‬َ‫ن‬ْ‫ی‬َ‫ب‬ ِ‫ل‬ْ‫و‬ ُ‫س‬َّ‫الر‬ َ‫آء‬َ‫ع‬ُ‫د‬ ْ‫و‬ ُ ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ ْ‫ج‬ َ ‫ت‬ َ ‫ال‬ “Do not make the calling of the messenger among you as your calling one of another.” It would not be proper to call your parents by their first names, and in the same respect teachers of good should not be addressed by their first names. The following is advice that Amir Al-Mu'mineen Ali bin Abee
  21. 21. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 20 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com Taalib, (May Allah be pleased with him), gave: "From the rights of the learned over you is that you do not ask too many questions, you do not divulge his secrets, you do not backbite about him to anyone, you do not look for error in him, if he made a mistake you accept his excuse. It is incumbent upon you to respect and magnify him as long as he keeps Allah's orders; you should not sit in front of him; if he has a need the people should race to serve him." Related by Ibn Abdul Barr, with the addition that "You should not point to him [teacher] with your hands; you should not say, 'So and so said something different than what you said'" May Allah make us the best of students and the best of teachers. May Allah purify our intentions and make all we do for Him alone. May Allah grant that we will be "ahl-ul-Qur'an" or the family of the Qur'an (those that read it, study and apply it) those who are Allah's people and special ones. Before stepping into the rules of Tajweed, take a look at Arabic terminologies on the coming page as most of the Tajweed rules are named with Arabic words. So it will help you understand the rules more easily.
  22. 22. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 21 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com TAJWEED TERMINOLOGY ( ‫ا‬‫ال‬‫صطالحات‬ ) ARABIC ENGLISH TRANSLITERATION ENGLISH MEANINGS ( ‫امل‬‫عانی‬ ) 1. ‫الت‬‫استعاذہ‬ / ‫عوذ‬ Ta’awwudh/Istiaadha (‫الرجيم‬ ‫ن‬‫الشيط‬ ‫من‬ ‫باهلل‬ ‫)أعوذ‬ I seek refuge in Allah from the rejected shaitaan. 2. ‫الت‬‫بسملہ‬/ ‫سمیہ‬ Tasmiyyah/Basmalah (‫الرحیم‬ ‫ن‬‫الرحم‬ ‫ہللا‬ ‫)بسم‬ In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. 3. ‫الت‬/ ‫حقیق‬‫مجود‬ Tahqeeq/Mujawwad Style of Qur’an Recitation. 4. ‫الت‬‫مرتل‬ / ‫رتیل‬ Tarteel/Murattal Style of Qur’an Recitation. 5. ‫الحکم‬ Hukum (plural: ahkaam) Ruling. 6. ‫ا‬‫ل‬‫ختالف‬ Ikhtilaaf Difference (of opinion). 7. ‫الحرف‬ Hurf A letter. 8. ‫الحروف‬ Huroof Letters. 9. ‫الحروف‬‫القمریہ‬ Al-Huroof Al- Qamariyyah The lunar letters. 10. ‫الشمسیہ‬ ‫الحروف‬ Al-Huroof Al- Shamsiah The solar letters. 11. ‫ال‬‫الجر‬ ‫حرف‬ Harf-Al-Jarr Preposition. 12. ‫قصیر‬ Qaseer Minimum. 13. ‫طویل‬ Taweel Maximum. 14. ‫الحلق‬ Al-Halq The throat. 15. ‫اللسان‬ Al-Lisaan The tongue. 16. ‫الجوف‬ Al-Jawf The empty space in the mouth or throat. 17. ‫الشفتان‬ Ash-Shafataan Two lips. 18. ‫الخیشوم‬ Al-Khyshoom Nasal passage 19. ‫ال‬‫ترقیق‬ Tarqeeq Light/thin (sound) 20. ‫ال‬‫تفخیم‬ Tafkheem Heavy/thick (sound) 21. ‫مفخم‬ Mufakham Also known as full mouth or thick letters. The elevation of the back of the tongue, resulting in a thick sound. 22. ‫مرقق‬ Muraqqaq The letter which is read with trilling/thin sound. The lowering of the back of the tongue, resulting in a flat sound. 23. ‫ال‬‫حروف‬‫امل‬‫قطعات‬ Muqatta’at letters Separate letters in the beginning of a few Surah. 24. ‫ال‬‫لحن‬ Lahn Mistake, i.e. The incorrect pronunciation of a letter. 25. ‫لحن‬‫ال‬‫جلی‬ Lahn e Jali Big Mistake which is Haraam. 26. ‫لحن‬‫ال‬‫خفی‬ Lahn e Khafi Hidden mistake. 27. ‫ال‬‫حرکۃ‬ Harakah Short vowel (literally: movement)
  23. 23. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 22 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com 28. ‫ال‬‫حرکات‬ Harakaat/Moments Short vowels (Zabar, Zair and Paish). 29. ‫متحرک‬ Mutaharrik Letter that carries vowel. 30. ‫فتحہ‬ Fat’ha Zabar (Short vowel marked by a small line written above the letter pronounced “a”). (symbol: َ) 31. ‫مفتوح‬ Maftooh A letter carrying Fat’ha. 32. ‫کسرہ‬ Kasra Zair (A short diagonal stroke written below a letter. It represents a short vowel 'i'.). (symbol: َ) 33. ‫مکسور‬ Maksoor A letter carrying Kasra. 34. ‫ضمہ‬ Dhamma Paish, A small apostrophe-like shape written above a letter. It represents a short vowel 'o' (like the 'u' sound in 'who' but only stretched for 1 count). (symbol: َ) 35. ‫مضموم‬ Madhmoom A letter carrying Dhamma. 36. ‫تنوین‬ Tanween Vowels that produce a "nn" sound immediately after it. In other words, it is Nunnation, duplication sound of letter “Noon”. 37. ‫فتحتان‬ Fat’hatan The two Fat’ha / Zabar. (symbol: َ) 38. ‫کسرتان‬ Kasratan The two Kasra / Zair. (symbol: َ) 39. ‫ضمتان‬ Dhammatan The two Dhamma / Paish. (symbol: َ) 40. ‫ن‬‫سکو‬ Sukoon Vowellessness of a consonant/quiescent consonant. 41. ‫ساکن‬ Saakin The letter having Sukoon (Vowelless/Quiescent). 42. ‫تشدید‬/ ‫شدہ‬ Shaddah/Tashdeed A small sign (َ) written above a letter. This represents a letter that has been doubled, and therefore sounds stronger. 43. ‫مشدد‬ Mushaddad Doubled/hardened (a letter having Shaddah). 44. ‫مد‬ Madd The prolongation or stretch of the sound of a vowel. 45. ‫مخرج‬ Makhraj Place of origin/point of articulation of the letter sound 46. ‫ال‬‫الحروف‬ ‫صفات‬ Sifaat ul Huroof The manners of articulation (the characteristics of the letters and recitation). 47. ‫غنہ‬ Ghunnah The Nasalization. The sound that is produced from the nose and the tongue is not used. The duration of the ghunnah sound is for 2 counts. 48. ‫اظہار‬ Izhar To make apparent 49. ‫اقالب‬ Iqlaab The Alteration of the letter. 50. ‫ادغام‬ Idghaam The Assimilation of two letters. 51. ‫اخفا‬ Ikhfa The hiding or concealment of the sound of a letter. 52. ‫ال‬‫ترتیل‬ Tarteel The measured recitation of the Quran in rhythmic tones. 53. ‫ال‬‫وقف‬ Waqf To pause or to make a stop by breaking off the breath at the end of the word. 54. ‫وصل‬ Wasl The opposite of waqf. The joining of verses / sentences without stopping.
  24. 24. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 23 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com 55. ‫فصل‬ Fasl Separation of verses, i.e: by making a stop between two verses. 56. ‫کل‬ ‫وصل‬ Wasl e kul The joining of Ta’awwudh, Tasmiyyah and an upcoming verse 57. ‫کل‬ ‫فصل‬ Fasl e kul Separating each verse from another by making waqf 58. ‫ثانی‬‫فصل‬ ‫ل‬‫او‬ ‫وصل‬ Wasl e awwal Fasl e saani Joining the first verse with the second one and disconnecting the second verse from third one, i.e: making waqf between second and third verse. 59. ‫ثانی‬‫وصل‬ ‫ل‬‫او‬ ‫فصل‬ Fasl e awwal Wasl e saani To separate the first verse from second one and joining second verse with third one. 60. ‫ابدال‬ Ibdaal Changing a letter with another one 61. ‫اسکان‬ Iskaan Putting sukun on the last letter (Name of Waqf) 62. ‫اشمام‬ Ishmaam To shape your lips in the shape of a Dhamma (circular shape) without actually pronouncing the Dhamma. 63. ‫تام‬ Taam Complete 64. ‫ناقص‬ Naqis Incomplete 65. ‫مثلین‬ Mislain Two letters alike 66. ‫متجانسین‬ Mutajanisain Two letters of same Makhraj (Outlet) 67. ‫متقاربین‬ Mutaqaribain Two letters of nearby Makharij (Outlets) 68. ‫ل‬‫طو‬ Tool Long madd (Lengthening sound for 4 or 5 Alif) 69. ‫توسط‬ Tawassut Lengthening sound for 2 and half or 3 Alif 70. ‫ال‬‫ستعالء‬ Isti’laa The raising of the deepest part of the tongue 71. ‫ال‬:‫(جمع‬ ‫صفہ‬ ‫ال‬)‫صفات‬ Sifa (Plural: Siffaat) The manner of articulation (the characteristics of the letters and recitation). 72. ‫ال‬‫طباق‬ Itbaq Linguistic definition: Adhering Applied definition: The compression of the sound of the letter between the tongue and the roof of the mouth. 73. ‫ال‬‫نبر‬ Nabr Pressure/emphasis/accent on a part or specific letter of the word 74. ‫ال‬‫توکید‬ Taukeed Emphasis (on certain words e.g. inna) 75. ‫ال‬‫قلقلہ‬ Qalqalah Rebound/bounce 76. ‫الصفیر‬ Al-Safeer The Whistle - a sound which comes from the edge of tongue when it touches the bottom teeth, like hissing. Sharpness in the sound of the letter produced from it transversing through a tight passage. 77. ‫الھمس‬ Al-Hams The Whisper – a sound which signifies the release of breath
  25. 25. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 24 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com ARABIC ALPHABET (‫الھجا‬‫ف‬‫و‬‫)الحر‬ Letters (‫)الحروف‬ is the plural of letter (‫)الحرف‬ which is a character representing one or more of the sounds used in speech; any of the symbols of an alphabet. The “Arabic Alphabet” has 29 basic letters. Many letters look similar but are distinguished from one another by dots above or below the letter, called Rasm (Arabic: ‫.)رسم‬ Chart of Arabic Alphabet is given below.  In Arabic there is no letter equivalent to the letter "P" nor the letter "G" (as in "Game") in English.  The letters with the pronunciation marked in red, are the closest pronunciation possible in the English language. To really know how they are pronounced you should hear them by your teacher and try to get used to them.  In Arabic there is no such thing as a capital or small letter, you just write the letter down.  Arabic is written in the opposite direction of English (from your Right to Left). LETTER ARABIC PRONOUNCED AS IN LETTER ARABIC PRONOUNCED AS IN ‫ا‬ ALIF A Fat ‫ط‬ TAA T Tomb ‫ب‬ BAA B/P Bat/pot ‫ظ‬ ZAA Z Zebra ‫ت‬ TAA T Tree ‫ع‬ AEEN A Aid ‫ث‬ THAA TH Think ‫غ‬ GHAEEN GH Goal ‫ج‬ JEEM J Jam ‫ف‬ FAA F Far ‫ح‬ HAA H Hard ‫ق‬ QAAF Q Queen ‫خ‬ KHA KH Khan ‫ک‬ KAAF K King ‫د‬ DAAL D Dance ‫ل‬ LAAM L Lion ‫ذ‬ THAAL Z/TH That ‫م‬ MEEM M Moon ‫ر‬ RAA R Road ‫ن‬ NOON N Noon ‫ز‬ ZAA Z Zoo ‫و‬ WOOW W Wide ‫س‬ SEEN S Sing ‫ہ‬ HAA H Hide ‫ݭ‬ SHEEN SH Shadow ‫ء‬ HAMZAH U Under ‫ص‬ SAAD S Sun ‫ی‬ YAA Y Yoga ‫ض‬ DHAAD DH Dome The correct recitation of the Qur'an that is achieved by giving each letter its due (using the organs of speech) through: 1. The vowel movements – Harakaat 2. Prescribed point of exit (where the sound of each letter should come from) - Makhraj 3. The manner of articulation (the characteristics of the letters and recitation) – Siffaat
  26. 26. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 25 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com HARAKAAT AND TANWEEN (‫والتنوین‬‫)الحرکات‬ VOWELS ( ‫الحر‬‫کات‬ ) In English language we use letters for vowels, whereas in Arabic language we use symbols, or a combination of symbols and letters. Also, the Arabic language has short and long vowels, whereas the English language has just the one type. The vowel marks which are used for short vowels, are called "Tashkeel" in Arabic and they are explained in this lesson (They are also known as Harakat, just a different name by some references). SHORT VOWELS (1 COUNT) (‫)الحرکات‬ SYMBOL ARABIC NAME OTHER ALSO KNOWN AS SOUND EXAMPLE OF SOUND EXAMPLE OF ARABIC LETTERS 1. َ Fat-hah )‫(فتحہ‬ Nasab Zabar a Cat َ‫ب‬ َ‫د‬ 2. َ Kasrah )‫(کسرہ‬ Jar Zayr i / e Me ٰ‫ب‬ ٰ‫د‬ 3. َ Dhammah )‫(ضمہ‬ Rafa Paysh u Who ُ‫ب‬ ُ‫د‬ Let's take a look at how a "Tashkeel" is applied to letters:  The "Fat-ha" is an accent mark (a short slanting line over the letter). It is put over a letter when a short sound of "A" is supposed to be pronounced after the letter.  The "Kasra" is a short slanting line under the letter. It is put under a letter when a short sound of "i" is supposed to be pronounced after the letter.  The "Dhamma" is a small letter "Wow" over a letter. It is put over a letter when a short sound of "U" is supposed to be pronounced after the letter. In Arabic the words (Fat-ha, Kasra, Dhamma) originally have the following meanings:  Fat-ha means "an opening".  Kasrah means "a breaking".  Dhammah means "a closing". These meanings refer to the shape of the mouth. For example, you open your mouth wide when you say the sound of the Fat-ha (which is "A"), and you close your mouth when you say the sound of the "Dhamma" (which is "U"), and your mouth is static when you say a letter that have a "Sukoon" put on top of it. Vowel marks are very important in Arabic. The word's meaning may differ completely if a vowel mark applied to one letter is changed. LONG VOWELS [2 COUNTS] (‫الطویلۃ‬ ‫)الحرکات‬ SYMBOL/ LETTER OTHER NAME OTHER NAME SOUND QUANTITY EXTRACT FROM VERSE SURAH: VERSE ٰ ْ ‫ا‬ َ َ Fat-ha Taweela Khari zabar Aa An alif ِ‫ا‬‫ل‬ِ‫ہ‬ (114:3) َ ْ‫ی‬ َِ Kasra Taweela Khari zair ea/ee An alif ِ‫ب‬ َ‫ن‬ ْ ‫ط‬ َ‫س‬َ‫و‬ َ ‫ف‬ٖ‫ہ‬ (100:5) َ ْ‫و‬ َُ Dhamma Taweela Ulta paish Oo An alif َّ ‫ل‬ ْ‫ن‬ ُ ‫ک‬َ‫ی‬ ْ‫م‬ َ ‫ل‬َ‫و‬ٗ‫ہ‬ (112:4)
  27. 27. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 26 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com TANWEEN The "Tanween" is pronouncing the letter "Noon" at the end of a word (This is also grammar, so just have a general idea for now!!). It has three forms very similar to the "Tashkeel" but it is only put over or under the last letter of a word. The following table show the "Tanween" for the letters "Alef", "Ba' " and "Ta' ": TANWEEN (‫)التنوین‬ SYMBOL/ LETTER NAME OTHER NAME SOUND EXTRACT FROM VERSE SURAH: VERSE Fat-hatan )‫(فتحتان‬ Two zabar Ann ُ‫ف‬ ُ ‫ک‬ً‫و‬‫ا‬ (112:4) Kasrataan )‫(کسرتان‬ Two zair enn ِ‫اس‬ َ‫ح‬ٍ‫د‬ (113:5) Dhammatan )‫(ضمتان‬ Two paish Onn َ‫ح‬ َ ‫ا‬ٌ‫د‬ (112:1) MISCELLANEOUS SYMBOL/ LETTER NAME DESCRIPTION EXTRACT FROM VERSE SURAH: VERSE َ Sukoon / Jazam Indicates the absence of a vowel. Joins 2 letters together َ ‫ل‬ َ‫و‬ْ‫م‬ (112:4) َ Shaddah / Tashdeed Indicates a doubled letter (joins 2 letters and also tightens the pronunciation to illustrate 2 of the same letter), to the point that you pause on it for a fraction of a second e.g. َ ‫ش‬ ْ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ َ‫و‬ِ ِّ‫ر‬ (113:5) "Shaddah" represents the doubling of a letter and it is a small shape that looks like the letter "Seen" and is put over the letter. For example, the following is the word "Qissah" (which means "Story" by the way) notice the "Shaddah" over the letter "Saad" ‫ۃ‬َّ‫ص‬ِ‫ق‬ When a shadda is applied to a letter and the "Tashkeel" is also written, the tashkeel is put over the shaddah itself or under the letter. Notice the two dots over the last letter at the end of the word "Qissah" above. It looks like a "Ha' " but in fact it is not a "Ha' " but the other form of the letter "Ta' " (it is called "Ta' Marbootah" which means "Tied Ta' " from its tied shape. It looks like a "Ha' " because it is pronounced as one in general (The word above is pronounced "Qissah"), but when other letters (suffix) are added at the end of the word (for grammatical reasons) the letter "Ta' " is written in its ordinary form. let's look at the word "Qissatuna" (which means "Our Story") after adding the letters "NA" at the end of the word which is a pronoun: َّ‫ص‬ِ‫ق‬‫ا‬َ‫ن‬ ُ ‫ت‬
  28. 28. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 27 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com The letter on which the symbol of Shaddah appears is read by doubling it. (e.g R would become RR) So the first letter (R) is read as if there would be a sukoon (stop) on it and the second (R) with a harakah (vowel). E.g 'Tabba' () should be read as 'tab-ba' (2 ‫ب‬ 's), not as 'tab' ( ) (1 ‫ب‬) In its original form it can be dissected as Caution - when there are a couple or a few tashdeeds together in one, two or three words, then utmost care should be taken to ensure that all the tashdeeds are recited correctly. It is a common mistake to be neglectful of these collective tashdeeds. See the table EXTRACT FROM VERSE SURAH: VERSE ِ‫ت‬‫ث‬ ّٰ‫ف‬َّ‫الن‬ِ ِّ‫ر‬ َ ‫ش‬ (113:4) ْ‫ی‬ ِ‫ذ‬ َّ ‫ال‬ ِ ِّ‫ی‬ِ ِّ‫م‬ ُ ْ ‫اال‬ ِ ِّ‫ی‬ ِ‫ب‬َّ‫الن‬ (7:157)
  29. 29. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 28 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com METHOD OF RECITATION RULES OF TA’AWWUDH AND TASMIYYAH ‫ل‬‫(اصو‬‫ال‬‫و‬ ‫تعوذ‬‫ال‬)‫تسمیۃ‬ 1. Starting recitation from the beginning of Surah 2. Starting recitation from the mid of Surah 3. During recitation starting a Surah from beginning 1. STARTING RECITATION FROM THE BEGINNING OF SURAH ( ‫بد‬‫أ‬‫بدايۃ‬ ‫من‬ ‫التالوة‬‫ال‬‫سورة‬ ) Al-Hukm (Ruling) for Ta’awwudh and Tasmiyyah: Both, Ta’awwudh and Tasmiyyah are necessary to read here. 1. Fasl e Kul (‫کل‬ ‫:)فصل‬ The seperation of Ta’awwudh, Tasmiyyah and an upcoming verse. 2. Wasl e Kul (‫کل‬ ‫:)وصل‬ Reading Ta’awwudh, Tasmiyyah and Surah in one breath. 3. Fasl e awwal, wasl e thaani (‫ثانی‬ ‫وصل‬ ‫ل‬‫او‬ ‫:)فصل‬ To separate the first verse from second one and joining second verse with third one. 4. Wasl e awwal, fasl e thaani (‫ثانی‬ ‫فصل‬ ‫ل‬‫او‬ ‫:)وصل‬ Joining the first verse with the second one and disconnecting the second verse from third one, i.e: making waqf between second and third verse. Al-Hukm (Ruling): In this situation all of above four Wasl and Fasl cases are valid. 2. STARTING RECITATION FROM THE MID OF SURAH ( ‫بدأ‬‫ال‬‫السورة‬ ‫منتصف‬ ‫من‬ ‫تالوة‬ ) Al-Hukm (Ruling) for Ta’awwudh and Tasmiyyah: In this situation, Ta’awwudh is necessary and Tasmiyyah is optional. If a person reads Tasmiyyah, he’ll get reward and if he doesn’t, there is no harm in it. VALID FORMS: 1. Fasl e kul 2. Wasl e awwal fasl e thaani INVALID FORMS: 1. Wasl e kul 2. Fasl e awwal wasl e thaani 3. DURING RECITATION STARTING A SURAH FROM BEGINNING ( ‫بد‬‫أ‬‫فی‬‫ال‬‫التالوة‬ ‫أثناء‬ ‫ى‬‫أخر‬ ‫سورة‬ ) Al-Hukm (Ruling) for Ta’awwudh and Tasmiyyah: In this situation Ta’awwudh will not be read but Tasmiyyah is necessary except Surah al-Taubah(‫.)سورۃالتوبۃ‬ VALID FORMS: 1. Fasl e kul 2. Wasl e kul 3. Fasl e awwal wasl e thaani
  30. 30. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 29 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com INVALID FORMS: 1. Wasl e awwal fasl e thaani Tasmiyyah and Surah al-Taubah Upon starting recitation from the mid of Surah al-Taubah, reading Bismillah is valid but reading Bismillah upon starting Surah al-Taubah during recitation is invalid. Reasons for not reading Bismillah upon start of Surah al-Taubah 1. In this Surah there are commandments of fights and combat against unbelievers. 2. According to some scholars Surah al-Taubah is not a complete Surah but a part of Sural Anfaal. The following answer was given by Faqihul Ummah Hadhrat Mufti Mahmood Gangohi (rahmatullah alayhi) to the question why Surah Taubah has no Bismillah at the beginning. When Hadrat Uthman ‫عنه‬ ‫ہللا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫رض‬ was asked why there was no bismillah at the beginning of Surah al-Tawba like how there is bismillah at the beginning of other surahs, he replied that there was some doubt as to this surah being a separate surah, because Nabi ‫سلم‬ ‫و‬ ‫عليه‬ ‫ہللا‬ ‫صلى‬ passed away without explicitly mentioning anything regarding it. This is why Bismillah was not written at the beginning of Surah Taubah. However, since its subject-matter is similar to that of Surah Anfal, it was placed after it and a space for Bismillah has been kept because it is possible that this is a separate surah. (Tirmizi, Vol 2, Pg.139) In Bukhari Shareef (Vol 2, Pg 271) it is mentioned that this surah was revealed to cancel the peace treaty. In it appears the command of killing the mushrikeen (polytheists) and the expression of Allah Ta`ala’s anger over them. Therefore, Bismillah was not written at the beginning of the surah since Bismillah signifies peace and mercy. It appears in Shaatbi: ‫لت‬‫مبسمال‬ ‫لست‬ ‫بالسيف‬ ‫نزيلها‬ (Bismillah does not appear at the beginning of this surah, because it was revealed in connection to war.) This is not the actual reason though it is a point to consider. The actual reason is that which is narrated from Hadrat Uthman ‫عنه‬ ‫ہللا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫رض‬ (Bayanul Qur’an, Vol 4, Pg 95)
  31. 31. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 30 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com NAMES OF TOOTH (‫االسنان‬‫)اسماء‬ Before further describing the articulation points of the tongue, the names of the different teeth need to be defined, since some of the articulation points of the tongue use either the teeth themselves, or the gum area of certain teeth. The following picture of the teeth identifies the various teeth and their corresponding names. MAKHAARIJ UL HUROOF (‫ف‬‫و‬‫الحر‬‫)مخارج‬ Tajweed rules dictate the correct pronunciation of Arabic letters while reading the Holy Quran. These rules involve the precise application of Tajweed that should be considered while reciting. Tajweed gives a manner of articulation to the Quran. We are bound to abide by these principles so that during our recitation, the meaning of the Holy verses does not change. Arabic letters are unique and each one has its own characteristics. There are specific articulation points that are linked to every single letter of the alphabet. Articulation point refers to the particular place that is utilized in order to produce the sound of that letter. This is how we achieve a diversity of sounds for all 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet. Makhaarij is plural of "Makhraj", which refers to as the Emission points or outlets of the letters. Definition: The place from which the sound of a letter originates. NUMBER OF MAKHAARIJ / EMISSION POINTS  Imam Khalil (‫هللا‬ ‫رحمه‬ ‫خليل‬ ‫)اإلمام‬ said, "There are 17 Makhaarij ul Huroof."  Imam Sebwia said, "There are 16 Makhaarij ul Huroof."  Imam Furra said, "There are 14 Makhaarij ul Huroof."
  32. 32. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 31 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com The most prevalent of which is the way of Imam Khalil. MAIN ARTICULATION POINTS (‫ل‬‫اصو‬‫امل‬)‫خارج‬ There are five main articulation points, called “Usool-ul-Makhaarij”. Articulation area Arabic name No. of articulation points No. of letters 1. Jauf e Dahan (Mouth cavity as well as the chest area ‫دھن‬‫جوف‬ 1 3 lengthened (madd) letters 2. The throat ‫الحلق‬ 3 6 3. The tongue ‫اللسان‬ 10 18 4. The two lips ‫الشفتان‬ 2 4 5. The nasal passage ‫الخیشوم‬ 1 Ghunnah letters Only the throat, tongue and lips are used to pronounce the actual 28 letters. The nose and the empty space of mouth & throat is used to produce additional sounds (e.g. the ghunnah sound) Below is a diagram summarizing the main 5 points of articulation.
  33. 33. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 32 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com Being able to recite the letters correctly is the foundation of Tajweed, and this is achieved by knowing where the sound originates. This can then help in practicing the pronunciation of the letters correctly. The diagram below gives a snapshot of where each letter originates: However, Makhaarij must be used hand in hand with sifa (characteristics of the letter) in order to pronounce the letter completely and correctly, as the Makhraj provides the origin and the Sifa provides extra information required to pronounce the letter properly. TYPES OF MAKHAARIJ Makhaarij are of two types. 1. Muqaddar (Non-verified spot), i.e. Jawf (The chest area) & Khyshoom (The nasal passage) 2. Muhaqqaq (Verified spot), i.e. Shafatain (The lips), Lisaan (The tongue) & Halq (The throat). How is the Makhraj of a Letter Determined? The scholars of Tajweed explain that the makhraj of an Arabic letter is determined by: 1. Putting a sukoon or shaddah (shaddah is preferred) on the letter you are trying to determine the makhraj of. 2. Putting a hamzah with any vowel before the letter. Where the sound stops is the makhraj of the letter. 1. AL-JAWF (EMPTY SPACE IN MOUTH AND THROAT) The first makhraj that we will cover is Al-Jawf or empty space in the mouth and throat. What that means is that the tongue is relaxed on the bottom of the mouth, and the empty space between the top of the tongue and the roof of the mouth is known as the Al-Jawf.
  34. 34. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 33 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com So when you pronounce the letters of the Jawf, the tongue is not involved at all, and air simply flows from inside the body out of your mouth. The letters that come from the Jawf are: 1. Alif Maddah [Alif with a fatha before it ( ‫ب‬⁺‫ا‬₌‫ا‬‫ب‬ )] 2. Wow Maddah [Wow sakin with a dhammah before it ( ‫ب‬⁺‫و‬‫ﹾ‬=‫و‬‫ب‬‫ﹾ‬ )] 3. Yaa Maddah [Yaa sakin with a kasrah before it ( ‫ب‬⁺‫ی‬‫ﹾ‬=‫ی‬‫ب‬‫ﹾ‬ )] 2. AL HALQ (THE THROAT) The throat has three different makharij: 1. Aqsa al Halq: Lowest part of the throat (closest to chest). The letters from this makhraj are: ‫ء‬‫ہ‬ 2. Wast al Halq: - Middle part of the throat. The letters from this makhraj are: ‫ح‬ ‫ع‬ 3. Adna al Halq: - Highest part of the throat. When back of the tongue touches back of the soft palate. The letters from this makhraj are: ‫خ‬ ‫غ‬
  35. 35. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 34 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com 3. AL-LISAAN (THE TONGUE) There are ten Makharij that are found on the tongue which give the sound of 18 letters. These ten Makharij are mentioned below. 1. Aqsal Lisaan (Deepest Part of the Tongue) (‫)ق‬ The Makhraj of ‫ق‬ is from the extreme back of the tongue going up and hitting the top of the mouth (soft palate). 2. Aqsal Lisaan (Deepest Part of the Tongue) (‫)ک‬ The Makhraj of ‫ك‬ is from the back of the tongue, right in front of the ‫,ق‬ hitting the hard palate. 3. Wastul Lisaan (central part of the Tongue) The makhraj of ‫ی‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ج‬ is the middle of the tongue hitting the top of the mouth. Note: The ‫ي‬ here is different from ‫ي‬ that we covered in the Makhraj of Jawf. Also when you pronounce this ‫ي‬ the tongue curves up and the two sides (where the ‫ي‬ is in the picture) go up and touch the top of the mouth.
  36. 36. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 35 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com 4. Hafatul Lisaan (edge of the Tongue) The Makhraj of ‫ض‬ is pronounced with the sides of the tongue touching the gums close to the upper molars (white teeth in the picture). There are actually three ways to say the ‫:ض‬ a. Left side of the tongue touching the gums on the left a. Right side of the tongue touching the gums on the right b. Both sides of the tongue touching the gums on both sides 5. Tarful Lisaan (Front Tip of Tongue) The Makhraj of the ‫ل‬ is pronounced from the tip of tongue touching the gums premolars from one side to the premolars of the other (blue to blue on the picture) side of the top of the mouth. 6. Tarful Lisaan (Front Tip of Tongue) The Makhraj of the ‫ن‬ is the part of the tongue, slightly behind the ‫ل‬ hitting the palate right above it (the portion of the tongue). 7. Zahrul Lisaan (back of Tongue) The Makhraj of the ‫ر‬ is the part of the tongue, slightly behind the ‫ن‬ touching the palate right above it.
  37. 37. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 36 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com 8. Zahrul Lisaan (Front Tip of Tongue) The makhraj of ‫ت‬ ‫د‬ ‫ط‬ is the front tip of the tongue touching the gum line of the top front two teeth. 9. Rasul Lisaan (Front Tip of Tongue) The makhraj of ‫ث‬ ‫ظ‬ ‫ذ‬ is from the front tip of the tongue touching the tip of the top front two teeth. 10. Zahrul Lisaan (Front Tip of Tongue) The makhraj of ‫ص‬ ‫س‬ ‫ز‬ is with the font tip of the tongue touching the back of the bottom front two teeth. It is important to note that when pronouncing the letters of ‫ص‬ ‫س‬ ‫ز‬ there is a slight gap between the tip of the tongue and the teeth and not a hard/strong meeting of the two.
  38. 38. Tajweed for Everyone |2016 37 | By M. Tahir Bashir – info@theislamschool.com | www.theislamschool.com 4. ASH-SHAFATAAN (TWO LIPS) 1. The makhraj of ‫ف‬ is the touching of upper front teeth to the lower internal lip. 2. The makhraj of ‫و‬ is the incomplete touching of the lips (lips must also be rounded). 3. The makhraj of ‫ب‬ is the touching of the wet portions of the top and bottom lips. 4. The makhraj of ‫م‬ is the touching of the dry portions of the top and bottom lips. 5. AL-KHYSHOOM (NASAL PASSAGE) It produces the voice of Ghunnah. (Sound produced through nose for letter “noon”:‫)ن‬

×