Outline Introduction Pandemic swine influenza virus. Vaccination of pandemic H1N1 Swine influenza virus. Limitation of the vaccine. Side-effects of the vaccine. Conclusion References2
Introduction Over the years, people have been suffering from many sorts of epidemic respiratory disease. History of swine influenza virus : - In 1976, a new flu virus emerged and caused the Swine Flu outbreak. - Then in 2009, the same virus reappeared and was called 2009 H1N1 swine influenza virus .3
Introduction History of swine influenza vaccination.- a new vaccine has been well-received and accepted by public health institutions…- The vaccine was given to ...- in 1976 the swine flu vaccine caused…25 death & 500 cases of GBS.- the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine had …
pandemic (2009) H1N1 swineinfluenza virus Different &Similar.- Structure of H1N1swine influenza virus.
The mechanism of H1N1 influenza virus 1) Transmission of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus. - spread through human to human contacts during sneezing, coughing…. - The swine flu virus first infected a pig and was transferred only among pigs. - However, … - Antigenic shift often occurs..
The mechanism of H1N1 influenza virus 2) Infection of H1N1 influenza virus Antigenic drift.
Vaccination of pandemic H1N1 Swineinfluenza virus: -The 2009 swine flu vaccine can be divided into two types of vaccines either inactivated H1N1 virus or attenuated H1N1 virus. Table 1: the difference between attenuated and inactivated H1N1 influenza vaccine from several agents. The agents Attenuated vaccine Inactivated vaccine (Or (LAIV vaccine Type of does Is sprayed into nose. Is given as a short. Sort of the H1N1 virus in the vaccine Is weakened virus. Is killed virus. 1. Pregnant or breastfeeding Groups recommended Healthy people from (2-49) years of age women. .receiving vaccine 2. Anyone with certain chronic conditions. 3. Weakened immune system. 4. From (6 months- 64 years) of age. 1. Has allergy of eggs (life- threatening). H1N1 should not 2009 2. Children under 2years and adults up •A life threatening allergic :be given to human 50 year. reaction. 3. Pregnant women. •Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS). 4. Weakened immune system. 5. Long-term health problems. 6. Certain muscle or nerve disorder. Taking H1N1 flu Not be given with seasonal flu attenuated It can be given with seasonal flu vaccine with other vaccine. attenuated vaccine. vaccination
Vaccination of pandemic H1N1 Swineinfluenza virus: • The action of swine flu vaccination to induce immune response.9
Vaccination of pandemic H1N1Swine influenza virus: Immune memory. The use of adjuvant.
Limitation of H1N1 influenza vaccination Limitation of efficacy: Limitation of Usage:- Little evidence to - Use the eggs to produce indicate the efficacy of the vaccine. the vaccine. - the process around 6-12 months to produce- No sufficient data and vaccine . observation. - Cannot use “passive immunization” - Old swine flu vaccine has old H1N1 strain.
Side-effects of H1N1 influenza vaccination Severe reaction in 1976 H1N1 Mild reaction of 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccination: influenza vaccination:- cases of Guillain-Barré - Causes Syndrome (GBS) 3) a severe allergic reaction- (GBS) leading to immune 4) side-effective problem such as mediated attack on the nervous redness, muscle aches, system and respiratory headache and fever. breakdown and death. 5) but no serious harm or death because “the virus in inactivated or attunuated”.
Conclusion The H1N1 pandemic influenza virus. Things should be considered to avoid the limitation of H1N1 influenza vaccine:1- finding other method to grow the virus.2- obtaining sufficient amount of vaccines in short time.3- further research about...Also, further studies to evaluate the effectiveness of H1N1 swine flu vaccination with development diagnostic tests.
References Rosenthal, K and Tan, J (2007), ‘Practical structure’ in Rapid Review: Microbiology and Immunology, Mosy Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 126-152. Sean, V, Anthony, P, Nancy, A, Fitzgerald, C, Ung, H, Adrian, T, John, K, Lawrence, B and Robert, T (2008) ,‘Anti-Ganglioside Antibody Induction by Swine (A/NJ/1976/H1N1) and Other Influenza Vaccines: Insights into Vaccine-Associated Guillain-Barré Syndrome Irving Nachamkin’, influenza vaccination, vol.198 (9), 226-243. Subbarao, K, Brian, R, Murphy, S and Anthony, S (2006), ‘Development of Effective Vaccines Commentary against Pandemic Influenza’, Immunity, vol.22(1), 5-9 Webster, R.G., Bean, W.J., Gorman, O.T., Chambers, T.M. & Kawaoka, Y., (1992), ‘Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses’ Microbiol, vol.56(3), 152–179. Wonga, L.P & Samb, I.C (2010), ‘Factors influencing the uptake of 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine in a multiethnic Asian population’, Vaccine, vol.28(5), 4499–4505.14
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