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Teaching Students to Interpret History

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Teaching Students to Interpret History

  1. 1. CHAPTER 5 AIDING OUR STUDENTS TOINTERPRET HISTORY
  2. 2. What Do You Think About History?
  3. 3. Making History Come Alive Think about your own experiences when you studied history: * Was it mostly memorizing people, events, and dates for recall on tests? * Do you remember any worthwhile experiences that helped you to understand the past? “Every great dream begins with a dreamer. Always remember, you have within you the strength, the patience, and the passion to reach for the stars to change the world.”~ Harriet Tubman (1820-1913)
  4. 4. The Central Place of History in the Social Studies Curriculum History plays a central role in the 4th-8th grade SSC 4th state history, geographic regions 5th U.S. history 6th World cultures, history, and geography 7th World cultures, history, and geography 8th U.S. history
  5. 5. The Nation’s History Report Card^A 2006 Survey by the NAEP compared the progress of 4th, 8th , and 12thgraders in history between 1994&2006^ Despite curriculums that focused primarily on math and language arts, everygrade, and nearly every demographic saw improvement in History Fourth Graders Eighth Graders- 66% understood the symbolism of - 64% identified an impact of thethe Statue of Liberty cotton gin-35% explained how two inventions - 43% explained goals of thechanged life in the U.S. marches led by Martin Luther King,- 24% explained why people settled Jr.on the western frontier -1 % explained how the fall of the Berlin Wall affected foreign policy
  6. 6. A Closer Look at the Statistics*Students are struggling with higher orderthinking skillsFourth Graders Eighth Graders- 66% understood the symbolism of the - 64% identified an impact of theStatue of Liberty cotton gin-35% explained how two inventions - 43% explained goals of thechanged life in the U.S. marches led by Martin Luther King,- 24% explained why people settled on the Jr.western frontier -1 % explained how the fall of the Berlin Wall affected foreign policy
  7. 7. High Quality InstructionAll students should be engaged in a variety of interesting classroomactivities to make history alive. • The arts and music of different time periods can increase understanding and empathy about different cultures. • Artifacts, field trips, and virtual field trips can help students visualize history. • Simulations about workers, peasants, and warlords can help students feel how it was to live at a different time period, especially in a crisis situation. • Media has always been popular for portraying the past; now more free video clips are available from the Internet.
  8. 8. Bringing Issues to the Present *Connect the past and the present from multiple perspectives when appropriate: Race, Gender, Political Affiliation, Sexual Orientation etc. *Create a supportive environment * NWHP.org
  9. 9. The History Wars: Deciding What is Taught in the Classroom* How do you decide the amount of time you spend on a topic and Whichperspectives do you share? ex. WWII, Vietnam, Civil rights past and present.*1994 National Center for History in the Schools sparked a Liberal versusConservative debate in the classroom*Teaching State Standards
  10. 10. INTERPRETATIONS OF HISTORYH I S T O R Y O N LY A C C O U N T S F O R A S M A L L S A M P L I N GO F T H E PA S TW H AT I S K N O W N A B O U T H I S T O R Y T O D AY I S N O T T H ES A M E A S I T WA S T W E N T Y Y E A R S A G OH I S T O R Y S H O U L D I N C L U D E N O T O N LY W H ATH A P P E N E D I N T H E PA S T B U T H O W H I S T O R Y I SCONSTRUCTED
  11. 11. HISTORY DEFINITIONS AND ISSUESHISTORICAL UNDERSTANDINGSENSE OF HISTORYPERSPECTIVE TAKING AND EMPATHYHISTORICAL THINKING SKILLS
  12. 12. Student’s Prior KnowledgeCHILDREN LEARN HISTORY OUTSIDE OFSCHOOLCHECK PRIOR KNOWLEDGE BY ASKINGCHILD TO WRITE ABOUT WHAT THEYALREADY KNOW ABOUT A SUBJECT (KWL)
  13. 13. Coverage versus DepthTYPICALLY, THE EARLY PRIMARY GRADESCOVER LITTLE HISTORYIN-DEPTH APPROACH INSTEAD OF BROADAPPROACH
  14. 14. Drama, Simulation and Historical NewscastDRAMATIC PLAY OR REENACTMENTSSIMULATIONREENACTMENTS OF HISTORYTELEVISION NEWSCAST
  15. 15. Using a Question or ProblemUSE FOCUS QUESTIONS TO GUIDESTUDENTS IN UNDERSTANDING HISTORYSTUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO THINK ANDREAD WITH A PURPOSESTUDENTS WILL GATHER EVIDENCE TOANSWER THESE TYPES OF QUESTIONS
  16. 16. The Holiday CurriculumDECORATE CLASSROOM DURING THE TRADITIONALUNITED STATES CELEBRATED HOLIDAYSWEB QUESTS ON HOW CERTAIN HOLIDAYS ARECELEBRATED IN OTHER COUNTRIESHISTORICAL, RELIGIOUS, CULTURAL AND OTHERCATEGORIES OF HOLIDAYSCOMMEMORATE WITH A THOUGHTFUL ACTIVITYTEACHER TO GO BEYOND SIMPLE EXPLANATIONFOR STUDENT TO ESTABLISH VALUES BEHIND ASPECIFIC HOLIDAY
  17. 17. Primary History StandardsSTATE STANDARDS – CONTENT IN THEPRIMARY GRADES TO BE ALIVE ANDCENTERED ON PEOPLE NOT EVENTS ORDATESARIZONA GOES FURTHER INDICATING THEIMPORTANCE OF TIME LINES, HISTORICALRESEARCH SKILLS AND USE OF PRIMARYSOURCE MATERIALS WITH EMPHASIS ONINDIVIDUAL ACTION, CHARACTER ANDVALUES
  18. 18. ThemesSTATE THEMESYEARLY SOCIAL STUDIES WORKTHEME QUESTIONS
  19. 19. DOING HISTORY OR BEING A HISTORIAN•H A N D S - O N E X P E R I E N C E•D E A L W I T H A H I S T O R I C A L P R O B L E M•G A T H E R D A T A•R E F L E C T•T E A C H E S V A L U A B L E S K I L L S•T E S T D A T A F O R C R E D I B I L I T Y A N D A U T H E N T I C I T Y•L E A R N T O D I F F E R E N T I A T E B E T W E E N P R I M A R YAND SECONDARY SOURCES•L E A R N T O P O S E R E L E V A N T Q U E S T I O N S
  20. 20. BEING A HISTORIAN National History Day  www.nhd.org  Enter competitions  Historical analysis and interpretation “Save our History”  History Channel  Emphasis on local history  Lesson plans: http://nps.gov/learn  www.cr.nps.gov & www.saveourhistory.com
  21. 21. ORAL HISTORIES A Living Person’s recollections about his or her past about events they have personally experienced. A Historical Inquiry Helpful with groups that may not leave traditional records Firsthand accounts can fascinate children http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amhome.html
  22. 22. The Promise of the Internet: Primary & Secondary Sources PRIMARY SOURCES:• Written documents• Created by those who participated in or witnessed events of the past• Films• Photographs• Drawings• Artifacts
  23. 23. When should PRIMARY SOURCES be used? Research Topics Dramatic Performances Exhibits Documentaries Research Papers When students participate in History Day CRITERION: HAVE A HIGH IMMEDIATE INTEREST FOR STUDENTS
  24. 24. Online Resources for Primary Sources National Archives – over 100 milestone documents from U.S. History: www.ourdocuments.gov Library of Congress: www.loc.gov  American Memory: http://memory.loc.gov  Exhibitions: www.loc.gov/exhibits  Global Gateways: http://international.loc.gov/intdlhome.html  The Learning Page: www.loc.gov/learnUSE COMPUTERS: To ease the reading hurdle Bring history to life Allow the use of primary sources
  25. 25. Learning about Time & Chronology STATE STANDARD: HELP CHILDREN DEVELOP A SENSE OF TIME AND CHRONOLOGYTIME: Events fall into patterns Use of language and experience Typically, there is a time to eat, a time to play, a time to sleep Distinguish between present, past and futureCHRONOLOGY: Move away from personal experience Extend our understanding of time backward and forward Dates become orientation points Events fall into chronological order Begin to understand the concepts of cause and effect & continuity
  26. 26. ASTRONOMICAL CALENDARSCalendar for Naghaid, 4th month of the Celtic lunar year.
  27. 27. WHEN TIME & CHRONOLOGY ARE USUALLY TAUGHT Learn meaning of day, week,  K – 3rd Grade month, year Use calendar to find dates  K – 3rd Grade Understand today, yesterday,  K – 3rd Grade tomorrow Distinguish between A.M. and  K – 3rd Grade P.M.  K – 3rd Grade Learn to tell time by the clock Understand time lines  1st – 6th Grades Learn to translate dates into  Middle School Grades centuries Comprehend the Christian  Middle School Grades system of chronology- A.D. and B.C.
  28. 28. ORAL HISTORIES 1) Tell me a story you remember about your family when you were young. Any story,with any type of family member. Examples: A family holiday, birth of a sibling, getting in trouble for the first time, etc. 2) Tell me what you remember about your favorite teacher in grade school. What was s/he like, and what made him/her your favorite? Please go into detail. What is the What do the stories significance of the tell you about the story you are hearing? person telling them? As you listen, think: Do these stories tell What can you learn you anything about about the people / the time period they place in the story? take place in?
  29. 29. ResourcesCHAPIN JR (2008). ELEMENTARY SOCIAL STUDIES: AP R A C T I C A L G U I D E , 7 TH E D . B O S T O N : A L L Y N A N D B A C O N(PEARSON)2006-2012 ROY ROZENZWEIG CENTER FOR HISTORY ANDNEW MEDIA. AUTHOR: KIM BUEHLMAIER, BELMONTSTATION ELEMENTARYLIBRARY OF CONGRESS. “ANALYZING ORAL HISTORIES.”HTTP://WWW.LOC.GOV/TEACHERS/USINGPRIMARYSOURCES/RESOURCES/ANALYZING_ORAL_HISTORIES.PDF

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