Data AnalysisandLanguage ComparisonSpanish ~ English Tammi Giglio ESL 502 Wilkes University
The Initial Meeting• Giselle Mae is an eleven year old sixth grade student.• She moved to the United States from Puerto Rico, six months ago.• The primary language spoken in her home is Puerto Rican Spanish; however, she also understands English.• In Puerto Rico, she received average grades in Reading, Writing, Mathematics, History and Civics, Science, and English; which is taught as a foreign language.
In Giselle Mae’s own words…• "It is hard for me to learn in English that I can’t understand the hard words."• "The difference from my language and English because I was born their. We are not speaking English in school all the time.”• "I learn English seens I was second grade but I just speak a little English.”• Giselle Mae smiled broadly as she said, “It was easy to learn English because our second language is English!”
Frequent Errors in L2• Omission of subject pronoun when the subject was given in the previous sentence Mia hates the beach. Gets burnt.• Using “no” before a verb Mummies no rattle chains.• Adjective – Noun Placement House beautiful was for sale.
Additional Frequent ErrorsIncorrect use of Quotation Omission of Past tense "ed"marks• “Esta freezing out • She ask us if we want to take here, Rebecca said to her lessons. brother.” • I walk to school yesterday.• Donna ask, “Have you problems sleeping”. • I talk to my teacher about the• “Dont forget to not wear your report. coat, Mom said this morning as I left for school.”Margie told • He laugh when I fell.• Clint, You cant listen to that CD new while you work.
Spanish vs. English Spanish English• Five vowels • Five vowels• Vowels are pronounced one • Vowels pronounced 12 way different ways• 5 diphthongs • 8 diphthongs• Three double-letter • Fifteen double-letter combinations cc, ll, rr combinations• Plural “s” may be omitted • Plural includes “s”
Spanish Phonological Influences• Letter J does not exist• voiceless th (thump) doesnt exist• voiced th (that) does not exist• V is pronounced with the /b/ sound
Spanish Grammatical Influences• “no” before the verb is common• Comparative adjectives are often marked with more instead of “er”• Regular past tense “ed” may be omitted• Subject pronouns may be omitted• Future tense may omit the helping verb
Implication for L2 Instruction• Consider ELLs’cultural backgrounds, beliefs and values• Include cultural context instruction• Communicate and set high, but realistic, expectations• Student-centered instruction
Instructional Strategies for teachingEnglish when L1 is Spanish• Dialogue Journals ~ to communicate with a teacher• Learning Logs ~ to determine key concepts and to synthesize• Literature Circle ~ to develop academic language skills• Making text-to-self, text-to-world, and text-to- text Connections. (http://www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/nclr/edells_impinstprct.pdf)
… more Instructional Strategies forteaching English when Spanish is the L1• Pattern Books and Repetitive Songs• Cloze Procedure : Using Prior Knowledge• Graphic Organizers• Cooperative Learning• Draw Then Write (http://www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/nclr/edells_impinstprct.pdf)
Modifications and SpecializedInstructional Strategies• testing in small group• test direction read aloud/clarified• access to study guides• ESL instruction four hours per week
Don’t forget to use….• TPR Storytelling (Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling or TPRS)• Pictures• Graphic Organizers• Hand Gestures• Role play• Animation• Easy Readers• Universal games• Hands on activities
References• The Education Alliance at Brown University – http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl