• Define health-care waste.
• Recognize advantages of good HCWM.
• Articulating types of medical waste.
• Classified a hazardous of health-care
• Identifying factors that affect the rate of
• Apply the improvement measures of
waste management system.
• Articulate the types of hazards for
• Implementing HCW handling and
Health care waste management
(HCWM) is a process to help ensure
proper hospital hygiene and safety
of health care workers and
It includes planning and
procurement, construction, staff
training and behavior, proper use of
tools, machines and
pharmaceuticals, proper disposal
methods inside and outside the
hospital, and evaluation.
Definition of health-
• The management, storage, collection,
transportation, treatment, utilization,
processing, and final disposal of health-
care wastes, including the recovery and
recycling of materials from wastes.
• WHO defines medical waste as waste
generated by health care activities,
ranging from used needles and syringes
to soiled dressings, body parts, diagnostic
samples, blood, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals, medical devices and
radioactive materials. Waste management
is an essential part of health care
• The need for proper HCWM has
been gaining recognition slowly. It
• Help control nosocomial diseases
(hospital acquired infections),
complementing the protective
effect of proper hand washing;
• Reduce community exposure to
multi-drug resistant bacteria;
• Dramatically reduce HIV/AIDS,
sepsis, and Hepatitis transmission
from dirty needles and other
• Control zoonoses (diseases passed to
humans through insects, birds, rats
and other animals).
• Cut cycles of infection.
• Easily and cost-effectively address
health care worker safety issues,
including reducing risk of needle
• Erevan illegal repackaging and resale
of contaminated needles.
• Avoid negative long-term health
effects; eg, cancer, from the
environmental release of toxic
substances such as dioxin, mercury
Includes all the waste generated within
• Research centers and
• laboratories related to medical
• Waste originating from minor and
• Waste produced in the course of health
care undertaken in the home (e.g. home
dialysis, self-administration of insulin,
general health-care waste
- Between 75% and 90% of the waste produced by health-
care providers is comparable to domestic waste. It comes
1- The administrative
2- kitchen and housekeeping functions at health-care
3- Packaging waste and waste generated during
maintenance of health-care buildings.
- The remaining 10–25% of health-care waste is regarded
as “hazardous” and may pose a variety of environmental
and health risks
Sharps are items that could cause cuts or puncture
• hypodermic needles
• scalpels and other blades
• Infusion sets
• broken glass and pipettes.
Whether or not they are infected, such items are
usually considered highly hazardous health-care
waste and should be treated as if they were
Material suspected to contain pathogens
(bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi) in
sufficient concentration or quantity to cause
disease in susceptible hosts.
This category includes:
• • waste contaminated with blood or other
• • cultures and stocks of infectious agents
from laboratory work.
• • waste from infected patients in isolation
• Pathological waste consists of tissues,
organs, body parts, blood, body fluids and
other waste from surgery and autopsies on
patients with infectious diseases.
• It also includes human fetuses and infected
• Recognizable human or animal body parts
are sometimes called anatomical waste.
• Pathological waste may include healthy
body parts that have been removed during
a medical procedure or produced during
including genotoxic waste
Pharmaceutical waste includes:-
• Contaminated pharmaceutical products
• Prescribed and proprietary drugs
• The category also includes discarded items heavily
contaminated during the handling
Chemical waste consists of discarded solid, liquid and gaseous
for example, from diagnostic and experimental work and from
cleaning and disinfecting procedures.
• Chemical waste from health care is considered to be hazardous
if it has at least one of the following properties:-
• • Toxic (harmful)
• • Corrosive (e.g. acids of pH 12)
• • Flammable
• • Reactive (explosive, water reactive, shock sensitive)
• • Oxidizing.
Non-hazardous or general waste
is waste that has not been in
contact with infectious agents,
hazardous chemicals or
radioactive substances and does
not pose a sharps hazard
More than half of all non-
hazardous waste from hospitals is
paper, cardboard and plastics,
while the rest comprises
discarded food, metal, glass,
textiles, plastics and wood.
• Level of activity (often measured in terms of the number of occupied
beds, number of patients per day, and/or number of staff).
• Type of department (e.g. general ward, surgical theatre, office).
• Type or level of facility (e.g. clinic, provincial hospital).
• Location (rural or urban).
• Regulations or policies on waste classification.
• Segregation practices.
• Temporal variations (e.g. weekday versus weekend, seasonal).
• Level of infrastructure development of the country.
Systematic assessment, one could:
• Identify locations in the health-care
facility where good waste segregation is
undertaken and where segregation
practices need to be improved
• Determine the potential for recycling and
other waste-minimization measures
• Estimate the quantities of hazardous
health-care waste that require special
• Obtain data to specify and size waste
collection and transport equipment,
storage areas, treatment technology and
disposal arrangements to be used.
presence of infectious
A genotoxic or
presence of toxic or
hazardous chemicals or
presence of used
Ensure worker safety, it is normally necessary to procure
plastic bags, trash bins, ‘sharps’ containers, and sometimes
even special trucks.
ensure access to disposable gloves and other protective
equipment for staff (eg boots, aprons, thick rubber gloves),
needles and syringes, laboratory equipment, cleansing
agents, and tubes/hoses/other items associated with
diagnostic and intensive care machines.
Availability and costs of associated utility systems such as
hot and/or cold water, electricity, sources of heating, etc,
must be considered.
Training all health
• Techniques associated with newly procured items
and medical equipment is crucial to proper
• All workers in the facility need some training on
the importance of proper HCWM, and their roles
• Information about cleaning techniques and
protocols should be prominently displayed.
• Appropriate vaccinations and barrier mechanisms
such as gloves and masks should be made
available to all staff coming in contact with HCW,
including cleaning staff and engineers.
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