Bernd_Augustin_Prague_June_2011

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Bernd_Augustin_Prague_June_2011

  1. 1. Impact of conservation tillage on nematode infestations B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 1
  2. 2. Topics• sugarbeet cystnematode• monitoring of fields• measures against BCN• conclusions• future aspects Monsanto Weed Workshop 14.-15 June 2011
  3. 3. nematodes affecting sugar beetsfree livingroot nematodes Monsanto Weed Workshop 14.-15 June 2011
  4. 4. nematodes affecting sugar beetsfree living rootgall nematodesroot nematodes photoshelter Monsanto Weed Workshop 14.-15 June 2011
  5. 5. nematodes affecting sugar beetsfree living rootgall nematodesroot nematodes stem nematode MLR BW Monsanto Weed Workshop 14.-15 June 2011
  6. 6. nematodes affecting sugar beetsfree living rootgall nematodesroot nematodes stem nematode sugarbeet cystnematode Heterodera schachtii a problem for the past 150 years Monsanto Weed Workshop 14.-15 June 2011
  7. 7. spread of H. schachtii in Europe (KWS) Monsanto Weed Workshop 14.-15 June 2011
  8. 8. nematode spot in sugar beetsB. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 8
  9. 9. sugar beets: with without BCN B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 9
  10. 10. BCN causing abnormal root growthB. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 10
  11. 11. cysts of BCN feeding on beet rootsB. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 11
  12. 12. Lifecycle of BCN temperature sum: 465°(>8°C) in Rhineland- Palatinate: ….2-3/yearB. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 12
  13. 13. mature premature cysts of BCNB. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 13
  14. 14. fields monitored for BCN every year since 2004B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 14
  15. 15. problem: irregular distribution of BCN in the fieldB. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 15
  16. 16. monitoring: GPS-labeling of sampling plotsB. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 16
  17. 17. monitoring: soil sampling procecure GPS 10 mB. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 17
  18. 18. monitoring: soil sampling precision r = 10 m GPS signal plot identity difference ±4m 78 % ±5m 71 % ±6m 65 %B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 18
  19. 19. laboratory methode: hatch test and ….B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 19
  20. 20. laboratory methode: …. counting of larvae (L2)B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 20
  21. 21. weather datas 06/07Mainz-Marienborn: 153 m NN; 586 mm NS; Ø 10,0°C differences from longterm averages 2007: °C mm Chenopodium album Sep 06 + 4,0 - 31,7 a widespread problem Okt 06 + 3,9 + 29,3 Nov 06 + 3,1 - 34,4 esp. in barley and beets Dez 06 + 2,4 - 29,5 Jan 07 + 5,1 - 5,5 Feb 07 + 3,5 + 15,9 Mrz 07 + 2,1 + 7,5 Apr 07 + 5,3 - 39,6 Mai 07 + 2,1 + 21,5 Jun 07 + 1,3 + 26,6 Jul 07 - 0,4 + 18,7 Aug 07 + 0,1 -21,5 Sep 07 - 0,8 + 11,8B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 21
  22. 22. B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 22
  23. 23. B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 23
  24. 24. B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 24
  25. 25. Capsella bursa pastoris Pf/Pi = 1,5B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 25
  26. 26. B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 26
  27. 27. B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 27
  28. 28. B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 28
  29. 29. B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 29
  30. 30. B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 30
  31. 31. Conclusions based on long-term field monitoringB. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 32
  32. 32. conclusions: beet varietiessusceptible varieties: severe multiplication of BCNtolerant varieties: moderate multiplication of BCNresistant varieties: no multiplication of BCN B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 33
  33. 33. conclusions: crop rotation general aspects:• a low proportion of sugar beets decreases nematode problems• nematode-resistant oilradish and white mustard on set-aside fields reduced nematode population significantly special aspect: under local conditions on some fields even ≥ 4 years of crop rotation could not bring nematode population beneath damage threshold the only explanation: multiplication on weedhosts, post-harvest of cover crops B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 34
  34. 34. Weed hostplants of BCN volunteer rape!Decker 1969 B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 35
  35. 35. in the future:need for selective pre- / post harvest weed control conservation tillage favours perennial weeds like Cirsium arvense and Convolvulus arvensis – because of no or postponed mechanical stubble processing increasing glyphosate treatments: later in the year causing: increasing post-harvest appearance of weedhosts of BCN solutions: - pre-harvest glyphosate treatment of perennial weeds - selective control of weedhosts according to a preventive temperature sum of 250°C (since weed emergence) B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 36
  36. 36. Example: Calculation of the safety valueDaily soil temperatures between 20.07.2010 and 25.07.2010 weather stationMainz-Marienborn Soil temperature 20 cm day [°C] > 8°C 20.07.10 23,5 15,5 21.07.10 24,6 16,6 22.07.10 24,1 16,1 23.07.10 22,3 14,3 24.07.10 21,3 13,3 25.07.10 20,2 12,2 cumulative 88,0 temperature sum °C safety value: 250° C B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 37
  37. 37. Conclusions: management of BCN beet variety: • sensitive • tolerant • resistantB. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 38
  38. 38. farmers first choice:• max. yield modern beet varieties• less nematode muliplication future effects: ??? tolerant varieties: resistant varieties: • Adriana • Paulina • Theresa • Sanetta • Belladonna • Paulettaproportion (area) 2011*: 26,3% 0,0 % 73,7% single tolerance (Rhizomania) *ZF Offstein Vorbestellung B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 39
  39. 39. management: BCN beet variety: nematode-resistant ….crops: • tolerant • oil radish • resistant • white mustardB. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 40
  40. 40. management: BCN beet variety: nematode-resistant post-harvest weed ….crops: control • tolerant • oil radish • according to • resistent temperature sum • white mustardB. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 41
  41. 41. post-harvest control of weed hosts• Chenopodium album• Capsella bursa pastoris• volunteer winterrape/-mustard/-oilradish soil cultivation/ herbicide use before a temperture sum of 250° C (daily mean > 8° C) [ in our area.: Ø not later than 14-16 days post harvest] control of perennial weeds • earlier (pre-harvest) • later (following crop) B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 42
  42. 42. future aspects:integration of w. rape in a beet crop rotation? B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 43
  43. 43. future aspects:integration of w. rape in a sugar beet crop rotation? knowing that BCN multiplies only on volunteer w.rape : extension of the beet crop rotation means agronomical advantage simultaneous suppression of BCN the only requirement: no multiplication on weedhosts and volunteer rape post-harvest until end of August B. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 44
  44. 44. Thank You for Your AttentionB. Augustin, DLR R-N-H, Abt. Landwirtschaft 14.-15 June 2011 Folie 45

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