AHSGE Chapter 7 1 Expansion and IndustrializationThe Railroads • Promontory Point, Utah – town where the Union ____________and Central Pacific railroads met completing the ____________________railroad. • How important were the railroads for expansion in the U.S.? Railroads became the chief means of national ________________during the second half of the ______________century.Conflicts with Native Americans • Reservations – see previous notes • What was the significance of the buffalo to the Native Americans? _________________were the main source of food for Native Americans. White ________________killed many buffalo for their hides and left the meat to rot taking away the ________________of the Native Americans.Important Indian Battles and Congressional Action • Battle of the Little Bighorn – Sioux _____________surrounded U.S. Army General George ___________and killed every soldier under his command. • Dawes Act (General Allotment Act) – In an attempt to _____________Native Americans into the mainstream of society, Congress dissolved ______________and gave each Native American gamily 160 acres to farm. Any excess land had to be sold to the government at low prices plunging the Native Americans deeper into_______________.Wounded KneeWovoka – Sioux ____________who developed a religious ritual called the GhostDance (Sioux believed this dance would bring back the ____________and returnthe Native American tribes to their land.) This ______________white settlers. • Sitting Bull – Sioux leader whom the U.S. Army believed was using the ____________Dance to start a Native American_______________. • Wounded Knee – After trying to ___________Sitting Bull a fight broke out and he was __________by the U.S. Army. They then pursued the Sioux men, women and _____________to their camp at Wounded Knee Creek. The Sioux were ________________by the U.S. army (around 350 killed). This marked the ____________of U.S. Army battles with Native Americans.
2CHUNK #1 The Bessemer Process Turn to page 92. Read The Bessemer Process, and answer the following questionsSetting When? –Characters Who? -Plot What is it? –Outcome What could now be done? –Important Development used in Continental Expansion • The Bessemer Process – process by which ___________could be made faster and more____________. Bessemer, Alabama (important __________center) is named after man who invented process. • Revolver – type of ____________which had a cylinder containing several _______________ allowing for more rapid firing. Became a standard for personal ________________in the West. • Steel Plow – Invented by John__________. The plow was strong enough to cut thorough the though ___________sod of the Midwest and the____________. • Windmill – Farmers in the Plains used the wind’s power to ____________water (which was 100 feet underground) to the_____________. • Barbed Wire – Wire with barbed __________that gave farmers a ___________and efficient way to _____________in their land. • Railroad – Provided the easiest way to move people and products to the major___________. Towns developed along the ____________which lead to the _____________of the west.Farming in the 1870s and 1880s • Grange –______________formed by local farmers to protect their interests from ________________cutting into their farming ____________(profits). • Populists Party – formed to address the _____________of farmers and other______________.Alabama Agriculture and Industry
3 • Boll Weevil – insect that _____________the cotton crops of Alabama. Forced farmers to ________________their crops. • Birmingham, Alabama – known for ______________making. • Mobile, Alabama – known for its important _______________center for industry. • Many investors came to Alabama and started large ______________industries due to the states’ ready supply of_______________.Important Industrial Inventions • Industrial Revolution – During the 1880s the U.S. used its _____________resources and spirit of ______________ to begin the process of____________________. • Transatlantic Cable – first _______________cable beneath the Atlantic Ocean. It allowed the U.S. to hear of _________________in Europe immediately through telegraph messages. • Alexander Graham Bell – first _______________transmission.Move to the Cities • Many people left their ____________and moved to the city for higher ______________as the industrialization continued in the U.S. • Waves of _____________from Europe also came in search of______________. • A population _______________created many opportunities and caused many __________________in the cities. • Henry Ford – In 1913, the first moving automobile ______________line was introduced improving the way items were ____________in America.CHUNK #2 Robber Barons Turn to page 96. Read Famous Robber Barons and Their Monopolies, and answer the following questions.John D. Rockefeller - Owned . - Monopoly in the oil industry because he was the only supplier of oil from .
4Andrew Carnegie - Owned a that controlled the _________ and owned the railroads and steam ships. - Monopoly in the production of steel and ___ competition.Cornelius Vanderbilt - Owned the ______ _____ railroad.Negative Aspects of Urbanization • Monopoly – only one _______________for a particular industry. • Robber Barons – the name for some 19th century _______________because they became wealthy by _________________and ruthlessness. • John D. Rockefeller – owned the _______________Oil Company. • Andrew Carnegie – owned a steel company that _________________the iron and _____________mines and owned railroads and steam ships. • Gospel of Wealth – belief by Andrew ____________that the wealthy had a responsibility to use it for the betterment of the____________. • Cornelius Vanderbilt – owned the Central_________________. • Social Darwinism – Only the strongest _______________will survive.Labor Unions • Labor Unions – organizations of workers who put ____________on industries to improve ________________conditions. • Strike – the ____________to work until certain conditions are met. • American Federation of Labor (AFL) – worked to organize ______________in entire ______________(car manufacturing).Immigrants • Racism – ______________ • Nativism – favoring one’s _____________or region. • 1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act – prohibited _____________from immigrating to the U.S. • 1921 – The Emergency Quota Act – Law limiting the _______________of legal immigrants to 3% of the total ________________of each nationality from ____________and Eastern Europe.
5 • 1924 – National Origins Act of 1924 – Changed quota of ________________from Southern and Eastern Europe to 2% and ________________all immigration from Asia.The Progressive Movement • Progressivism – developed in response to the growing ________________in big business. It championed the causes of whoever was being _________________by society. • Muckrakers – journalists who wrote ______________about the _______________of big business on workers and consumers. • The Jungle by Upton Sinclair – exposed the _________________working conditions and dangerous _____________quality in __________processing plants in Chicago.CHUNK #3 Important Amendments to the ConstitutionGist – Turn to page 98. Read Important Amendments to the Constitution,and described the four amendments in the space provided that gives the“gist” or summary of the selection.16th Amendment - ______________________________________17th Amendment - ______________________________________18th Amendment - _________ _______________________19th Amendment - _____________________________________ • The History of the Standard Oil Company by Ida Tarbell – exposed the ruthless ______________of the Standard Oil Company it its quest to gain a _________________in the oil company.
• Horace Mann – pushed for the public ______________of men and women in the early 19th_________________. 6Important Amendments to the Constitution • The Progressive Movement gained a lot of ____________in the early 1900s and lead to the _________________of new amendments. • 16th – Congress now had the power to collect _______________on business and_______________. • 17th – The election of ______________by states instead of the state legislatures. • 18th – Prohibited the making, selling or ______________of alcoholic beverages. • 19th – Gave women the right to_____________.President Theodore Roosevelt • Theodore Roosevelt was a ________________president who initiated several reforms while in office. • National Parks System – protected huge amounts of ______________from development. • Sherman Antitrust Act – Act passed by Congress that declared the _________________of trusts in order to monopolize _______________was illegal • Northern Securities Trust – a group of smaller ______________companies formed to set prices and _______________smaller competitors. Prosecuted by Roosevelt for violating the ________________Antitrust Act. • Square Deal – a verbal contract with the American people to maintain ______________for individuals and for businesses. • Food and Drug Act – passed after Roosevelt read The Jungle. ________________the health of U.S. consumersElection of 1912 • Woodrow Wilson – established a reform program called New ________________. His goal was to ensure that there was ________________in the marketplace. • Federal Trade Commission (FTC) – A ____________________that had the power to investigate companies for ______________business practices. • Clayton Antitrust Act - Act passed by Congress that banned tying_________________, which required
_________________who bought from one company to stop selling a competitor’s __________________. 7 • This act made sure that _______________could not use antitrust laws to ______________ up labor unions.Race Relations After Reconstruction • Ku Klux Klan – increased their _______________of blacks. Lynchings were _______________and schools were burned. Because of this many blacks left the South and moved to the ____________in what is known as the Black Exodus. • Booker T. Washington – founded the ______________Institute in Alabama. He believed in the _________________of races. • Tuskegee Institute – school which provided training in the industrial and ____________fields. Became an important center for _______________education in the South • George Washington Carver – student at Tuskegee Institute. He became famous for his _______________experimentation with peanuts, soybeans and cottons. His contributions enabled _______________in the South to grow different kinds of _____________for profit besides cotton. • W.E.B. Dubois – First black PH.D. ______________from Harvard University. He ________________with Booker T. Washington’s philosophy. He believed blacks should pursue white collar jobs not settle low _______________jobs. • Niagara Movements – organized by W.E.B. Dubois. Meeting of black _____________that outlined an agenda for black progress in the United States. • NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) – organization of black and white intellectuals who adopted the goals of the ____________movement as their own. Powerful organization that helped _____________the minds of many people about race_______________. • Plessy v Ferguson – Supreme Court decision that stated ______________(separation of races) was legal as long as _______________and services were equal. (Separate but equal).