AHSGE Social Studies Ch.3 The United States Government
Thursday, September 15, 2009Agree Disagree 1. The town Agree Disagree____ ____ was the center ____ ____ of society in New England towns.____ ____ 2. Many Africans ____ _____ Immigration in the 1700’s caused the demand for wheat to decrease.
Friday, January, 15, 2010Agree Disagree 1. Locke, Agree Disagree Rousseau, and Montesquieu were important to the creation of the U.S. government.
AHSGE Chapter 3 The United States GovernmentMagna Carta – document written in1215 that stated a king’s power was notabsolute. John Locke – English philosopher who believed the government should get it’s power from the people.
Jacques Rousseau – French philosopher who believed the right to rule should come from the people and not a king. Wrote the Social Contract Theory (thereshould be an agreement between the peopleand the government that limits the rights andduties of each.) Thomas Jefferson used thisphilosophy in the Declaration ofIndependence.
Baron de Montesquieu – believed that government shouldpossess a legislative, executive and judicial branch.Locke, Rousseau and Montesquieu are all partof the Enlightenment Movement.Great Awakening – revival of Christianity in the American Colonies. Contributed to a sense of American nationality andemphasized the importance of theindividual before the Revolution.
House of Burgesses – first democraticassembly in the American colonies.Firstand Second Continental Congresses –models for forming the United Statesgovernment.Declaration of Independence –A formal declaration of colonial independence.Established general principles of humanrights.
Articles of Confederation-first constitution of the United StatesCongress can: -declare war and make peace -coin and borrow money -establish a post office -raise an army and navy -make foreign treaties and alliances -pass laws by 9 of 13 states.
Congress cannot: -levy taxes -regulate foreign or domestic trade -enforce any of its powersStrengths – States retained rights, Centralgovernment established a post office.Weaknesses – loose bonds developed betweenindependent states, one vote per state, no executiveor judicial power, unanimous vote required foramendments.Lack of a strong National government.
The Constitutional ConventionMeeting held to revise the Articles ofConfederationVirginiaPlan – representation in Congress would be based on population.New Jersey Plan – representation inCongress would be based on equalrepresentation.
Great Compromise –Congress would be divided into two houses.Senate- upper house would have equal representation (two senators).House of Representatives - Lower housewould be based on population.3/5 Compromise – decisions on how to countslavery in the south. For every 5 slaves, 3would count as a person.
United States Government Under the ConstitutionThe Constitution - Supreme lawof the land. The Constitution outlines the federalgovernments system of separation of powers.Federalism – the dividing of powerbetween the national and stategovernments. This power is sharedbetween the national and state governments.Constitutionalism – government where power isdivided among various groups but all obey asystem of laws.
Three Branches of GovernmentLegislative – Congress makes the laws.Executive – the President carries out thelaws.Judicial- Supreme Court interprets orexplains the laws.Checks and Balances – system to keep onebranch of government from becoming toopowerful.Veto - reject or refuse.
Checks and BalancesLegislative Branch – May override the presidential veto. (Congress) May remove the president from office. May reject Supreme Court appointments.Executive Branch – May veto bills passed by Congress. (President) Appoint Supreme Court Justices. May pardon federal offenders.Judicial Branch - May rule that laws are unconstitutional.(Supreme CourtAnd lower courts)
The ConstitutionPreamble – states the purpose of establishing a new government under the Constitution.ArticleI – establishes the Legislative Branch with atwo house Congress (Senate and House ofRepresentatives)ArticleII – Outlines the Executive BranchArticleIII – Explains the Judicial Branch
Ratifying the ConstitutionRatify – to approve.Federalists – Supporters of the Constitution. Believed the U.S. needed to have a strong national government.Anti-Federalists – opponents of theConstitution. Believed the new nationalgovernment would be too powerful andthat states should retain more power.
Amending the ConstitutionWhat must be done to amend theConstitution? Changes can only be madethrough amendments.The Bill of Rights:First ten amendments to the Constitution toinsure basic rights and freedoms forAmerican citizens. The first amendmentsecured the freedom of speech, religion,press and the right to assembly.
Other Important Amendments to the Constitution13th – abolished slavery14th – civil rights of all people born or naturalized in the UnitedStates are guaranteed (allowed citizenship of African Americans).15th – All male citizens have the right to vote regardless of race or color. Ratified during Reconstruction. Most associated with suffragists (women’s right to vote)These three amendments increased the rights ofAfrican Americans.19th – Women are guaranteed the right to vote.
The First Government Under the ConstitutionElectoral College – a group of peoplerepresenting each state.George Washington – First president.Alexander Hamilton – Secretary ofTreasury. Federalist
Politics and Policies in the New GovernmentElastic Clause – gives Congress the power to passlegislation which is considers “necessary andproper”. It stretches the power of the Constitution.Loose Interpretation – The belief by AlexanderHamilton that the government had more powers thanwere actuality listed in the Constitution.Strict Interpretation – The belief by ThomasJefferson that the government had only the powersspecifically listed in the Constitution.
Washington’s Farewell AddressWashington said the U.S. should stay neutraland avoid permanent alliances with othernations.He advised against forming political parties.He believed good government is based on religion and morality.Every citizen should obey the Constitution.
Formation of PartiesFederalists – Alexander Hamilton, favored astrong central government and a looseinterpretation of the Constitution. Powershould be with well educated people.Democratic-Republicans – ThomasJefferson, favored states retaining authorityand a strict interpretation of theConstitution. Wanted power in the hands ofthe everyday people.
Important CasesJohn Marshall – Chief Justice of theSupreme Court. Established supremacy of thenational government over the states.Marbury v Madison – established the rightof judicial review. The Supreme Court coulddeclare a law unconstitutional.Gibbons v Ogden – Congress had the powerto regular interstate and foreign commerce.