AHSGE (History) Ch.9 The Great Depression and World War 2
Tuesday, January 16, 2010Agree Disagree 1. The Dust Bowl Agree Disagree____ ____ was caused by the ____ ____ lack of Swiffer Dusters in houses in the Midwest.____ ____ 2. The three R’s ____ _____ in FDR’s reform program were relief, recovery, and reform.
Wednesday, January 17, 2010Agree Disagree 1. Benito Agree Disagree____ ____ Mussolini was ____ ____ was the leader of Italy____ ____ 2. Joseph Stalin ____ _____ began the Nazi party.
Thursday, January 18, 2010Agree Disagree 1. The bombing Agree Disagree____ ____ of Pearl Harbor ____ ____ is the incident that caused the United States to become involved in World War II.____ ____ 2. Midway is the ____ _____ turning point of the war in Russia.
Friday, January 19, 2010Agree Disagree 1. The Dust Bowl Agree Disagree____ ____ was caused by the ____ ____ lack of Swiffer Dusters in houses in the Midwest.____ ____ 2. The rationing ____ _____ system limited the use of certain critical foods and materials during WWII.
AHSGE Chapter 9The Great Depression and World War II Causes of the Great DepressionOctober 29, 1929 – stock market crashed, millions ofdollars were lost, banks closed, workers lost their jobsand unemployment skyrocketed.Thisled to a long period of high unemployment and increased poverty called the Great Depression.
Collapse of the Farm EconomyDuring the 1920s and 1930sfarmers produced more foodthan consumers need.Food prices fell and manyfarmers declared bankruptcy.A drought developed between 1933 and 1936.The soil became very dry. Huge winds blew thetop soil away. Farmers called this experienceand these lands the Dust Bowl. Thousandsmoved from the farmland and moved to thePacific Coast looking for work.
President Hoover’s Administration People who were out ofwork set up shantytownsof tents and shacks calledHoovervilles after thenRepublican PresidentHerbert Hoover. A group of WWI veterans wanting their war bonuses early marched on Washington demanding payment. They set up shacks near the White House until they were paid. Hoover sent in troops to break up the camp. Soldiers killed four people and the public blamed Hoover. Democrats won next election.
Roosevelt’s New DealFranklin D. Roosevelt became the newpresident and instituted a series of federalpolicies and programs to boost the economyand put unemployed people to work. Thislegislation is known as The New Deal.Itwas based onthree R’s:Relief, Recoveryand Reform.
CHUNK #1 The New Deal Turn to page 124. Graphic Organizer – Pick three programs from the New Deal, and answer the following questions for each.Name of program Explanation of program Who did the program helped1.2.3.
Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New DealAgricultural Adjustment Act – gaveloans to farmers and government paid farmers notto grow crops so foodprices would go up.Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) – TVA builthydroelectric dams tobring affordable (cheap) electric power to the South including Alabama.Social Security Act (SSA) – guaranteed pensionplan (retirement income) for all workersat age 65.
Fair Labor Standards Act – raised the minimumwage, set max for work hours and ended child laborunder age 16.Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) – providedemployment for unmarriedmen between the ages of 17 and 23.They worked in the national parks system.Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) –insured depositors up to $100,000 in case of bankfailure. This increased public confidence in banks.Works Progress Administration – providedgovernment funded projects to hire the unemployed.
TotalitarianismTotalitarian governments have onepolitical party or group which maintainscomplete control under a dictatorship andbans all others. ItalyBenito Mussolini – leader ofItaly whose political ideas were known as fascism.
JapanHirohito- Emperor of JapanIn 1931, the Japanese army withoutany authority from the Japanesegovernment invaded the province ofManchuria. Military leaders thenestablished their own national cabinetand dispensed with democracy.
GermanyAdolfHitler – Nazi party’s Fuhrer (leader).Claimed Aryan race (Caucasian people of non-Jewish descent) were superior and deserved toconquer others.Blamed all of Germany’s problems on the Jewsand those nations that imposed the warreparations at the Treaty of Versailles.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)Joseph Stalin – leader whobelieved in Socialism (politicalidea where the state was incharge of everything andpeasant farmers worked on collective farms).Purged Communist Party and military of anyonehe considered disloyal to him. Between 1.5 millionand 7 million Soviet citizens were arrested andexecuted in this purge.
Rejection of PeaceKellogg-Briand Peace Pact –agreement of 63 countries to promise touse negotiations rather than war toresolve political differences except forcases of self-defense.Even though Italy, Germany and Japansigned the Peace Pact they continued toexert their influence beyond theirborders through war.
Japanese AggressionInvasion of Manchuria andcontrol of major cities along theChinese coast. Italian AggressionMussolini attacked Ethiopia in 1935.Signed an anti-communist pact withGermany and Japan thus forming theRome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis.
German AggressionHitler moved German troops into theRhineland violating the Treaty of Versailles.France and Britain did nothing because theydid not want another war with Germany.Hitler then annexed (added) Austria toGermany and met no resistance.Next he annexed the Sudetenland.
BritishPrime Minister NevilleChamberlain and French premier Daladierhoped to avoid were through a policy ofappeasement (giving into Hitler’sdemands).Munich Conference – Chamberlain and DaladieracceptedHitler’s captureof Sudetenland inexchange for hispromise not to claimany further land in Czechoslovakia.
The Invasion of Poland – World War II BeginsAbout 6 months afterthe Munich Conference,Hitler invaded the restof Czechoslovakia.August 1939 – Hitler signs a non-aggression pact with the U.S.S.R. agreeingto split Poland when they invaded.
GreatBritain agreed to aid Poland ifGermany attacked.September 1, 1939 – Germany invadedan unsuspecting and unprepared Poland.Blitzkrieg– (lightening war) used againstPoland. Constant bombardment usingarmored tanks and bombers.
September 3, 1939 – Great Britainand France declared war on Germany.September 17, 1939 – USSR invadesPoland. Poland surrenders three weekslater.
United States Involvement Neutrality Act – gave the President the authority to ban arms sales to warring nations. Ludlow Amendment – required a national vote before the United States could declare war. It failed in Congress by a narrow margin.
Cash and Carry – U.S. allowed the Allies to buy munitions with payment up front and required them to provide their own transportation. U.S. hoped to maintain neutrality while helping to defeat Germany.
Lend-Lease Act – gave the President the authority to lend, sell, or lease war supplies to countries whose survival was vital to U.S. defense. June 1941 – Hitler betrayed Stalin and invaded the USSR. United States sent large amounts of supplies to Stalin to prevent German victory.
Problems in Southeast Asia French Indochina – Japan established military bases here in September 1940, despite strong opposition from the U.S. September 26, 1940 – U.S. declared an embargo on scrap metal, oil and aviation fuel to Japan. September 27, 1940 – Japan announced a military alliance with Italy and Germany.
CHUNK #2 Pearl HarborTurn to page 129. Read Pearl Harbor. History Frame – Answer the following questions from the passage you have read.Setting Where and When? –Characters Who were the key players? –Plot What happened? –Outcome What were the results? –
Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 – Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. 8 battleships and 13 other Naval vessels were seriously damaged or destroyed. 200 warplanes destroyed.Over 3000 militarypersonnel woundedor killed.
President Roosevelt called December 7th “a date which will live in infamy.” Congress declared war on Japan. Germany and Italy fulfilled their pledges to Japan and declared war on the U.S. U.S. now involved in World War II.
On the Home frontWomen’s Participation Women made great economic gains because there was a shortage of labor workers in the workplace. Women left their homes and went to work at factory jobs vacated by the men who were fighting the war. Rosie the Riveter becamea symbol for all workingwomen during World War II.
RationingRationing System – limited the use of certain critical foods and materials. People cold not purchase certain items without a government-issued coupon. This was done in order to focus all resources on the war. Japanese Internment Executive Order 9066 – ordered all Japanese Americans away from military facilities out of fear they were conspiring with the enemy.
Stemming the Tide Midway – In June 1942, the U.S. Naval and air forces inflicted heavy blows on the Japanese fleet, forcing them to flee.The Japanese lost fourof their prized aircraftcarriers and 252 planes.Considered the turningpoint in the Pacific.
Stalingrad Stalingrad – Russian forces held off a German attack for several months. Russians were able tocircle the Germans andforce their surrender. Without access to the oil reserves near Stalingrad, the other German forces retreated for the Russian interior. Considered the turning point in the war for the USSR.
North Africa Operation Torch – name given to the fighting between Britain and the U.S. against the German army in North Africa. First major victoryof the war for theAllies.
Turning the TideItaly Due to a successfulinvasion of Italy,Mussolini was overthrown. The new Italiangovernment joinedthe Allies in fighting Germany.
Normandy Operation Overlord – the larges amphibious (water) assault ever undertaken. Allied troops landed on the coast of France. D-Day – A fleet of 6000 Allied ships launched the great invasion of the beaches of Normandy. Allied losses were very high.After invasion, Allies wereable to liberate Paris fromfour years of German occupation.
Germany’s defeat Allied forces moved in. Hitler committedsuicide onApril 30, 1945. Germany surrendered unconditionally one week later. V-E Day - Victory in Europe Day. Allied countries celebrated the victory.
The HolocaustHolocaust – term given to Hitler’s systematic extermination of over 6 million Jewish people. Concentration Camps – Hitler’s camps that held Jews, Gypsies, and socially undesirables. These people were starved and worked to death. Gas chambers, huge ovens and mass graves were discovered at these camps.
The Holocaust Auschwitz – One of the worst of all the concentration camps. Nuremberg Trials – Trials held after the war to prosecute individuals responsible for the concentration camps and other various war crimes.
Japan’s Defeat General Douglas MacArthur – commander of troops in the Pacific, who wanted to concentrate all the United States attack on Japan. Kamikaze – Japanese for divine wind. Pilots who would willingly crash their planes into Allied naval ships.
The Atomic Bomb Manhattan Project – Special project that involved over 120,000 people in 37 factories and laboratories spread across 19 states and Canada. Purpose was to build an atomic bomb.Enola Gay – Name of the B-29bomber that carried the firstatomic bomb to Japan. Hiroshima – first Japanesecity to be destroyed by theatomic bomb on Aug. 6, 1945.
Nagasaki – the 2nd Japanesecity destroyed by theatomic bomb three dayslater on August 9, 1945. In the wake of these disasters and the Soviet Unions declaration of war, Japan surrendered to General Douglas MacArthur on August 14, 1945. World War II was over!