Ch. 22 Reproductive Systems
Specialized jobs of the Male Reproductive system: - produce and maintain the male sex cells - to transport these cells to ...
Male Reproductive Organs
Male Reproductive Organs posterior view
Descent of Testes Usually a month or two before birth, these organs descend to the lower abdominal cavity and pass through...
Structure of the Testis
Spermatogenesis
Meiosis <ul><li>Includes two successive divisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First meiotic division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
Meiosis I <ul><li>Prophase I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chromosomes thicken, nulcear membrane disappears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Crossing Over <ul><li>mixes up traits </li></ul><ul><li>red is from Mom </li></ul><ul><li>green is from Dad </li></ul>
Meiosis II <ul><li>Very similar to a mitotic division </li></ul><ul><li>Prophase II </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase II </li></...
Oogenesis
Crossing Over <ul><li>the genetic information in sperm cells and egg cells varies from cell to cell </li></ul>
Structure of a Sperm Cell
Male Internal  Accessory Organs <ul><li>epididymis </li></ul><ul><li>vas deferens </li></ul><ul><li>seminal vesicle </li><...
Epididymis <ul><li>Promotes maturation of sperm cells </li></ul><ul><li>Stores sperm until ready to exit the body </li></ul>
Vas Deferens <ul><li>muscular tube </li></ul><ul><li>about 45 cm </li></ul><ul><li>dilates into the  ampulla  near termina...
Seminal Vesicle <ul><li>secretes fructose (energy for sperm) </li></ul><ul><li>secretes prostaglandins (for female contrac...
Prostate Gland <ul><li>surrounds beginning of urethra, just inferior to the urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>secretes an ...
Bulbourethral Gland <ul><li>AKA Cowper’s gland  </li></ul><ul><li>inferior to the prostate gland </li></ul><ul><li>secrete...
Semen <ul><li>sperm cells </li></ul><ul><li>secretions of seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands </li>...
Male External  Reproductive Organs <ul><li>scrotum </li></ul><ul><li>penis </li></ul>
Scrotum <ul><li>pouch of skin and subcutaneous tissue </li></ul><ul><li>dartos muscle   – smooth muscle in subcutaneous ti...
Penis <ul><li>3 columns of erectile tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pair of corpora cavernosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sing...
Hormonal Control of Male Reproductive Functions <ul><li>Figure 22.17 hypothalamus controls maturation of sperm cells and d...
 
Hormonal Control of Male Reproductive Functions <ul><li>hypothalamus controls maturation of sperm cells and development of...
Actions of Testosterone <ul><li>increased growth of body hair </li></ul><ul><li>sometimes decreased growth of scalp hair <...
Organs of the Female Reproductive System <ul><li>specialized to produce and maintain female sex cells </li></ul><ul><li>tr...
 
Transverse Section of Female Pelvic Cavity
Ovaries <ul><li>Several ligaments help hold each ovary in position </li></ul><ul><li>Descend like the male testes do </li>...
Ovary Attachments
Oogenesis
Oogenesis <ul><li>Distribution of the cytoplasm is unequal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary oocyte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Ovulation <ul><li>Release of an egg cell </li></ul><ul><li>Usually propelled to the opening of a nearby uterine tube </li>...
Female Internal  Accessory Organs <ul><li>uterine (fallopian) tubes </li></ul><ul><li>uterus </li></ul><ul><li>vagina </li...
 
Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes <ul><li>Place egg should be fertilized! </li></ul><ul><li>Near each ovary, a uterine tube expand...
Uterus <ul><li>Receives the embryo that develops from an egg cell that has been fertilized and sustains its development </...
 
Uterine Wall
Vagina <ul><li>Fibromuscular tube about 9 cm long that extends from the uterus to the outside </li></ul><ul><li>Open chann...
Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Functions <ul><li>Figure 22.31 estrogens inhibit LH and FSH during most of the rep...
Effects of Estrogens <ul><li>development of breasts and ductile system of the mammary glands </li></ul><ul><li>increased a...
Mammary Glands
Surgical Methods of  Birth Control
Sexually Transmitted Diseases <ul><li>silent infections </li></ul><ul><li>most are bacterial and can be cured </li></ul><u...
Terms to Know on Page 868 <ul><li>Amenorrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Endometritis (endometriosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Epididymitis...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

22 Reproductive

659 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
659
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

22 Reproductive

  1. 1. Ch. 22 Reproductive Systems
  2. 2. Specialized jobs of the Male Reproductive system: - produce and maintain the male sex cells - to transport these cells to the female - to secrete male sex hormones Primary sex organs (gonads) are the 2 testes - sperm cells are formed here - male sex hormones are formed Accessory sex organs - are the other structures of the male repro. system - internal reproductive organs - external reproductive organs
  3. 3. Male Reproductive Organs
  4. 4. Male Reproductive Organs posterior view
  5. 5. Descent of Testes Usually a month or two before birth, these organs descend to the lower abdominal cavity and pass through the abdominal wall into the scrotum. Gubernaculum
  6. 6. Structure of the Testis
  7. 7. Spermatogenesis
  8. 8. Meiosis <ul><li>Includes two successive divisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First meiotic division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separates homologous chromosomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second meiotic division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each cell emerges with one member of each homologous pair (haploid) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Meiosis I <ul><li>Prophase I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chromosomes thicken, nulcear membrane disappears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homologous chromosomes pair up side by side and intertwine ( synapsis ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metaphase I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosome pairs line up midway </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anaphase I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homologous chromosome pairs separate (apart) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telophase I </li></ul>
  10. 10. Crossing Over <ul><li>mixes up traits </li></ul><ul><li>red is from Mom </li></ul><ul><li>green is from Dad </li></ul>
  11. 11. Meiosis II <ul><li>Very similar to a mitotic division </li></ul><ul><li>Prophase II </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase II </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase II </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential to produce 4 gametes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Males  4 sperm cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Females  1 large cell; 3 polar bodies cast away (849) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Oogenesis
  13. 13. Crossing Over <ul><li>the genetic information in sperm cells and egg cells varies from cell to cell </li></ul>
  14. 14. Structure of a Sperm Cell
  15. 15. Male Internal Accessory Organs <ul><li>epididymis </li></ul><ul><li>vas deferens </li></ul><ul><li>seminal vesicle </li></ul><ul><li>prostate gland </li></ul><ul><li>bulbourethral glands </li></ul>
  16. 16. Epididymis <ul><li>Promotes maturation of sperm cells </li></ul><ul><li>Stores sperm until ready to exit the body </li></ul>
  17. 17. Vas Deferens <ul><li>muscular tube </li></ul><ul><li>about 45 cm </li></ul><ul><li>dilates into the ampulla near termination </li></ul><ul><li>extends from epididymis to ejaculatory duct </li></ul>
  18. 18. Seminal Vesicle <ul><li>secretes fructose (energy for sperm) </li></ul><ul><li>secretes prostaglandins (for female contractions) </li></ul><ul><li>contents empty into ejaculatory duct </li></ul>
  19. 19. Prostate Gland <ul><li>surrounds beginning of urethra, just inferior to the urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>secretes an alkaline fluid that neutralizes the sperm-cell containing fluid </li></ul><ul><li>secretion enhances motility of sperm cells </li></ul><ul><li>neutralizes the acidic secretions of the vagina </li></ul><ul><li>If swollen puts pressure on urethra, making it hard for urine or sperm to exit </li></ul>
  20. 20. Bulbourethral Gland <ul><li>AKA Cowper’s gland </li></ul><ul><li>inferior to the prostate gland </li></ul><ul><li>secrete mucouslike fluid </li></ul><ul><li>lubricates the end of the penis </li></ul><ul><li>View Human Atlas (Prostate Cancer) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Semen <ul><li>sperm cells </li></ul><ul><li>secretions of seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands </li></ul><ul><li>slightly alkaline (7.5) </li></ul><ul><li>prostaglandins </li></ul><ul><li>nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>120 million sperm cells per milliliter (release 2-5 mL) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Male External Reproductive Organs <ul><li>scrotum </li></ul><ul><li>penis </li></ul>
  23. 23. Scrotum <ul><li>pouch of skin and subcutaneous tissue </li></ul><ul><li>dartos muscle – smooth muscle in subcutaneous tissue; contracts to cause wrinkling of the scrotum; relaxes to move away from the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>**Sperm are housed away from the body because they must be 5 ºF cooler in order to survive** </li></ul></ul><ul><li>medial septum divides scrotum into two chambers </li></ul><ul><li>each chamber houses a testis and epididymis </li></ul>
  24. 24. Penis <ul><li>3 columns of erectile tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pair of corpora cavernosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single corpus spongiosum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urethra passes through this tissue </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Hormonal Control of Male Reproductive Functions <ul><li>Figure 22.17 hypothalamus controls maturation of sperm cells and development of male secondary sex characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>negative feedback controls concentration of testosterone </li></ul>
  26. 27. Hormonal Control of Male Reproductive Functions <ul><li>hypothalamus controls maturation of sperm cells and development of male secondary sex characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>negative feedback controls concentration of testosterone </li></ul>
  27. 28. Actions of Testosterone <ul><li>increased growth of body hair </li></ul><ul><li>sometimes decreased growth of scalp hair </li></ul><ul><li>enlargement of larynx and thickening of vocal cords </li></ul><ul><li>thickening of skin </li></ul><ul><li>increased muscular growth </li></ul><ul><li>thickening and strengthening of the bones </li></ul>
  28. 29. Organs of the Female Reproductive System <ul><li>specialized to produce and maintain female sex cells </li></ul><ul><li>transport these cells to the site of fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>to provide a favorable environment for a developing offspring </li></ul><ul><li>to move the offspring to the outside </li></ul><ul><li>to produce female sex hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Primary sex organs (ovaries) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce eggs and sex hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accessory sex organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal and external reproductive organs </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Transverse Section of Female Pelvic Cavity
  30. 32. Ovaries <ul><li>Several ligaments help hold each ovary in position </li></ul><ul><li>Descend like the male testes do </li></ul><ul><li>Of the several million oocytes formed, only a million or so remain at birth and around 400,000 at puberty </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer than 400-500 will be released </li></ul>
  31. 33. Ovary Attachments
  32. 34. Oogenesis
  33. 35. Oogenesis <ul><li>Distribution of the cytoplasm is unequal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary oocyte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First polar body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If fertilized, the oocyte divides unequally to produce a tiny second polar body and a large fertilized egg cell or zygote </li></ul><ul><li>Will develop into an embryo (2 nd – 8 th weeks) </li></ul><ul><li>Polar bodies allow for production of an egg cell that has a massive amount of cytoplasm and organelles required to get through first few cell divisions </li></ul>
  34. 36. Ovulation <ul><li>Release of an egg cell </li></ul><ul><li>Usually propelled to the opening of a nearby uterine tube </li></ul><ul><li>If it is not fertilized it degenerates </li></ul><ul><li>Watch Human Atlas Ectopic Pregnancy </li></ul>
  35. 37. Female Internal Accessory Organs <ul><li>uterine (fallopian) tubes </li></ul><ul><li>uterus </li></ul><ul><li>vagina </li></ul>
  36. 39. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes <ul><li>Place egg should be fertilized! </li></ul><ul><li>Near each ovary, a uterine tube expands to form a funnel-shaped infundibulum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partially encircles the ovary medially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infundibulum bears a number of irregular, branched extension called fimbriae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally does not touch the ovary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One of the larger ovarian fimbria connects directly </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 40. Uterus <ul><li>Receives the embryo that develops from an egg cell that has been fertilized and sustains its development </li></ul><ul><li>Hollow muscular organ, like an inverted pear </li></ul><ul><li>Usually bent forward over the urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Upper 2/3 is the body </li></ul><ul><li>Lower 1/3 is the cervix </li></ul><ul><li>Layers of the uterine wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endometrium - inner lining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myometrium - muscular layer; smooth muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perimetrium - outer layer </li></ul></ul>
  38. 42. Uterine Wall
  39. 43. Vagina <ul><li>Fibromuscular tube about 9 cm long that extends from the uterus to the outside </li></ul><ul><li>Open channel for offspring during birth </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior to the urinary bladder and urethra & anterior to the rectum </li></ul>
  40. 44. Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Functions <ul><li>Figure 22.31 estrogens inhibit LH and FSH during most of the reproductive cycle </li></ul>
  41. 45. Effects of Estrogens <ul><li>development of breasts and ductile system of the mammary glands </li></ul><ul><li>increased adipose tissue in breasts, thighs, and buttocks </li></ul><ul><li>increases vascularization of skin </li></ul>
  42. 46. Mammary Glands
  43. 47. Surgical Methods of Birth Control
  44. 48. Sexually Transmitted Diseases <ul><li>silent infections </li></ul><ul><li>most are bacterial and can be cured </li></ul><ul><li>herpes, warts, and AIDS are viral and cannot be cured </li></ul><ul><li>many cause infertility </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS causes death </li></ul><ul><li>symptoms of STDs include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>burning sensation during urination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pain in lower abdomen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fever or swollen glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discharge from vagina or penis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pain, itch, or inflammation in genital or anal area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sores, blisters, bumps or rashes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>itchy runny eyes </li></ul></ul>
  45. 49. Terms to Know on Page 868 <ul><li>Amenorrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Endometritis (endometriosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Epididymitis </li></ul><ul><li>Hysterectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Mastitis </li></ul><ul><li>Ovariectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Orchiectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Prostatectomy </li></ul><ul><li>itis - means inflamed </li></ul><ul><li>ectomy - removal of an organ surgically </li></ul>

×