11 Peripheral Nervous System

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11 Peripheral Nervous System

  1. 1. Chapter 11 Peripheral Nervous System
  2. 2. Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>Cranial nerves arising from the brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect to the skin and skeletal muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect to viscera(organs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spinal nerves arising from the spinal cord </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect to the skin and skeletal muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting to viscera(organs) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Structure of a Peripheral Nerve
  4. 4. Nerve Fiber Classification <ul><li>Sensory Nerves – conduct impulses into CNS </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Nerves – conduct impulses to muscles or glands </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed Nerves – contain both sensory nerve fibers and motor nerve fibers; most nerves </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cranial Nerves
  6. 6. Cranial Nerves I and II <ul><li>Olfactory (I) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sensory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>smell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optic (II) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sensory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vision </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Cranial Nerves III and IV <ul><li>Trochlear (IV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>primarily motor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motor impulses to muscles that move the eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oculomotor (III) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>primarily motor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motor impulses to muscles that </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>raise eyelids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>move the eyes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>focus lens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adjust light entering eye </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Cranial Nerve V <ul><li>Trigeminal (V) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mixed (both) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>opthalmic division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sensory from surface of eyes, tear glands, scalp, forehead, and upper eyelids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maxillary division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sensory from upper teeth, upper gum, upper lip, palate, and skin of face </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mandibular division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sensory from scalp, skin of jaw, lower teeth, lower gum, and lower lip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>motor to muscles of mastication and muscles in floor of mouth </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Muscles of Mastication
  10. 10. Cranial Nerves VI and VII <ul><li>Abducens (VI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>primarily motor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motor impulses to muscles that move the eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facial (VII) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mixed (both) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sensory from taste receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motor to muscles of facial expression, tear glands, and salivary glands </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Muscles of Facial Expression
  12. 12. Cranial Nerves VIII and IX <ul><li>Vestibulocochlear (VIII) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aka Auditory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sensory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sensory from equilibrium receptors of ear (balance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sensory from hearing receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glossopharyngeal (IX) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mixed (both) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sensory from pharynx, tonsils, tongue, and carotid arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motor to salivary glands and muscles of pharynx </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Cranial Nerve X <ul><li>Vagus (X) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mixed (both) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motor to muscles of speech and swallowing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motor to viscera of thorax and abdomen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sensory from pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and viscera of thorax and abdomen </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Cranial Nerves XI and XII <ul><li>Accessory (XI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aka Spinal Accessory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>primarily motor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motor to muscles of soft palate, pharynx, larynx, neck (sternocleidomastoid), and back (trapezius) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypoglossal (XII) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>primarily motor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motor to muscles of the tongue </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Spinal Nerves <ul><li>mixed nerves </li></ul><ul><li>31 pairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 cervical (C1 to C8) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 thoracic (T1 to T12) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 lumbar (L1 to L5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 sacral (S1 to S5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 coccygeal (Co) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Dermatome <ul><li>an area of skin that the sensory nerve fibers of a particular spinal nerve innervate </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cervical Plexus Nerve plexus – complex networks formed by anterior branches of spinal nerves; fibers of various spinal nerves are sorted and recombined <ul><li>Cervical Plexus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C1-C4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lies deep in the neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supply muscles and skin of the neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contribute to phrenic nerve </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Brachial Plexus <ul><li>C5-T1 </li></ul><ul><li>lies deep within shoulders </li></ul><ul><li>musculocutaneous nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>biceps brachii; brachialis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ulnar nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ funny bone” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>flexor carpi ulnaris </li></ul></ul><ul><li>median nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>flexor carpi radialis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>radial nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>posterior muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>triceps brachii </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extensors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>axillary nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deltoid </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Muscles That Move the Forearm
  20. 20. Muscles That Move the Hand
  21. 21. Lumbosacral Plexus <ul><li>T12 – S5 </li></ul><ul><li>obturator nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supply adductors of thighs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>femoral nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supply muscles and skin of quads and sartorius </li></ul></ul><ul><li>tibial nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supply posterior leg muscles; hams, calves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>sciatic nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>longest and largest nerve of the body </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Muscles That Move the Thigh
  23. 23. Muscles That Move the Leg
  24. 24. Muscles That Move the Foot
  25. 25. Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>functions without conscious effort </li></ul><ul><li>controls visceral activities </li></ul><ul><li>regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands </li></ul><ul><li>Two Divisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sympathetic – prepares body for fight or flight situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parasympathetic – prepares body for resting and digesting activities </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Sympathetic Division
  27. 27. Parasympathetic Division
  28. 28. Control of Autonomic Activity <ul><li>Controlled largely by CNS </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla oblongata regulates cardiac, vasomotor and respiratory activities </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus regulates visceral functions </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral cortex control emotional responses </li></ul>

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