Chapter 11 Central Nervous System
Central Nervous System <ul><li>Meninges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>membranes surrounding CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protect...
Meninges of the Spinal Cord
Ventricles <ul><li>interconnected cavities </li></ul><ul><li>within cerebral hemispheres and brain stem </li></ul><ul><li>...
Cerebrospinal Fluid <ul><li>circulates in ventricles, central canal of spinal cord, and  subarachnoid space </li></ul><ul>...
Spinal Cord Structure <ul><li>extends foramen magnum to 2 nd  lumbar vertebra </li></ul>
Cross Section of Spinal Cord
Spinal Cord Functions <ul><li>center for spinal reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>conduit for nerve impulses to and from the brai...
Reflex Arcs Reflexes  – automatic, subconscious responses to stimuli
Knee-jerk Reflex
Withdrawal Reflex
Crossed-Extensor Reflex <ul><li>flexor muscles contract </li></ul><ul><li>flexor muscles on opposite side inhibited </li><...
Brain <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interprets sensations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>determines perception </li>...
Structure of Cerebrum <ul><li>corpus callosum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>connects hemispheres </li></ul></ul><ul><li>convolutio...
Lobes of Cerebrum <ul><li>Frontal </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital </li><...
Functional Regions of  Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex  – thin layer of gray matter that constitutes the outermost portion...
Functions of Cerebrum <ul><li>interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>initiating voluntary movements </li></ul><ul><li>storing me...
Motor Areas <ul><li>Primary Motor Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>frontal lobes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control voluntary m...
Motor Areas
Sensory Areas <ul><li>Sensory Area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>parietal lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interprets sensations on...
Sensory Areas
Association Areas <ul><li>Frontal Lobe Association Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concentrating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pl...
Hemisphere Dominance Left Hemisphere- analytical, reasoning, math/science Right Hemisphere- artsy, musical, creative <ul><...
Memory <ul><li>Short Term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>working memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>closed circuit </li></ul></ul><u...
Diencephalon <ul><li>between cerebral hemispheres and above the brainstem </li></ul><ul><li>surrounds third ventricle </li...
Diencephalon <ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gateway for sensory impulses heading to cerebral cortex </li></ul></ul...
Limbic System <ul><li>Consists of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>portions of frontal lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>portions of te...
Brain Stem <ul><li>Three Parts </li></ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla Oblongata </li>...
Midbrain <ul><li>between diencephalon and pons </li></ul><ul><li>contains bundles of fibers that join lower parts of brain...
Pons <ul><li>rounded bulge on underside of brainstem </li></ul><ul><li>looks like a booty  </li></ul><ul><li>between midb...
Medulla Oblongata <ul><li>enlarged continuation of spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>contains cardiac, vasomotor (blood pressu...
Reticular Formation <ul><li>complex network of nerve fibers scattered throughout the brain stem </li></ul><ul><li>extends ...
Types of Sleep <ul><li>Slow Wave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>person is tired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decreasing activity of r...
Cerebellum <ul><li>inferior to occipital lobes </li></ul><ul><li>posterior to pons and medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><li...
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11 Central Nervous System

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11 Central Nervous System

  1. 1. Chapter 11 Central Nervous System
  2. 2. Central Nervous System <ul><li>Meninges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>membranes surrounding CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protect CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>three layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dura mater – outer, tough </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>arachnoid mater - weblike </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pia mater – inner, delicate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Meninges of the Spinal Cord
  4. 4. Ventricles <ul><li>interconnected cavities </li></ul><ul><li>within cerebral hemispheres and brain stem </li></ul><ul><li>continuous with central canal of spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>filled with cerebrospinal fluid (csf) </li></ul><ul><li>lateral ventricles- most CSF made here </li></ul><ul><li>third ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>fourth ventricle </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cerebrospinal Fluid <ul><li>circulates in ventricles, central canal of spinal cord, and subarachnoid space </li></ul><ul><li>completely surrounds brain and spinal cord; “float” </li></ul><ul><li>clear liquid </li></ul><ul><li>nutritive and protective </li></ul>
  6. 6. Spinal Cord Structure <ul><li>extends foramen magnum to 2 nd lumbar vertebra </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cross Section of Spinal Cord
  8. 8. Spinal Cord Functions <ul><li>center for spinal reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>conduit for nerve impulses to and from the brain </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reflex Arcs Reflexes – automatic, subconscious responses to stimuli
  10. 10. Knee-jerk Reflex
  11. 11. Withdrawal Reflex
  12. 12. Crossed-Extensor Reflex <ul><li>flexor muscles contract </li></ul><ul><li>flexor muscles on opposite side inhibited </li></ul><ul><li>extensor muscles on opposite side contract for balance </li></ul>
  13. 13. Brain <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interprets sensations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>determines perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stores memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>makes decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coordinates muscular movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulates visceral activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>determines personality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major Parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cerebrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>two cerebellar hemispheres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diencephalon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brain stem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>midbrain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>medulla oblongata </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cerebellum </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Structure of Cerebrum <ul><li>corpus callosum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>connects hemispheres </li></ul></ul><ul><li>convolutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bumps or gyri </li></ul></ul><ul><li>s ulci </li></ul><ul><ul><li>s hallow grooves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>longitudinal fissure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deep groove </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>separates hemispheres </li></ul></ul><ul><li>transverse fissure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deep groove </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>separates cerebrum from cerebellum </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Lobes of Cerebrum <ul><li>Frontal </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital </li></ul>
  16. 16. Functional Regions of Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex – thin layer of gray matter that constitutes the outermost portion of cerebrum; contains 75% of all neurons in nervous system
  17. 17. Functions of Cerebrum <ul><li>interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>initiating voluntary movements </li></ul><ul><li>storing memory </li></ul><ul><li>retrieving memory </li></ul><ul><li>reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>center for intelligence and personality </li></ul>
  18. 18. Motor Areas <ul><li>Primary Motor Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>frontal lobes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control voluntary muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broca’s Area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anterior to primary motor cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually in one hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>controls muscles needed for speech </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Motor Areas
  20. 20. Sensory Areas <ul><li>Sensory Area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>parietal lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interprets sensations on skin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual Area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occipital lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interprets vision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Auditory Area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>temporal lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interprets hearing </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Sensory Areas
  22. 22. Association Areas <ul><li>Frontal Lobe Association Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concentrating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>judging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parietal Lobe Association Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>understanding speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>using words to express thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sensory  touch, temperature and pain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temporal Lobe Association Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hearing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occipital Lobe Association Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>combine visual images with other sensory experiences </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Hemisphere Dominance Left Hemisphere- analytical, reasoning, math/science Right Hemisphere- artsy, musical, creative <ul><li>Dominant hemisphere controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>verbal skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analytical skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>computational skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nondominant hemisphere controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nonverbal tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motor tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understanding and interpreting musical and visual patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides emotional and intuitive thought processes </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Memory <ul><li>Short Term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>working memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>closed circuit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>circuit is stimulated over and over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when impulse flow stops, memory disappears </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long Term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>changes structure and function of neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enhanced synaptic transmission </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Diencephalon <ul><li>between cerebral hemispheres and above the brainstem </li></ul><ul><li>surrounds third ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>thalamus* </li></ul><ul><li>hypothalamus* </li></ul><ul><li>optic tracts </li></ul><ul><li>optic chiasm </li></ul><ul><li>infundibulum </li></ul><ul><li>posterior pituitary </li></ul><ul><li>mammillary </li></ul>
  26. 26. Diencephalon <ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gateway for sensory impulses heading to cerebral cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>receives all sensory impulses (except smell) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>channels impulses to appropriate part of cerebral cortex for interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maintains homeostasis by regulating visceral activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HR, BP, temp., water balance, hunger… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>links nervous and endocrine systems </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Limbic System <ul><li>Consists of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>portions of frontal lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>portions of temporal lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>controls emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produces feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interpret sensory impulses </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Brain Stem <ul><li>Three Parts </li></ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla Oblongata </li></ul>
  29. 29. Midbrain <ul><li>between diencephalon and pons </li></ul><ul><li>contains bundles of fibers that join lower parts of brainstem and spinal cord with higher part of brain </li></ul>
  30. 30. Pons <ul><li>rounded bulge on underside of brainstem </li></ul><ul><li>looks like a booty  </li></ul><ul><li>between midbrain and medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><li>relays nerve impulses to and from medulla oblongata and cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>helps regulate rate and depth of breathing </li></ul>
  31. 31. Medulla Oblongata <ul><li>enlarged continuation of spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>contains cardiac, vasomotor (blood pressure), and respiratory control centers </li></ul><ul><li>contains various nonvital reflex control centers (coughing, sneezing, vomiting) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Reticular Formation <ul><li>complex network of nerve fibers scattered throughout the brain stem </li></ul><ul><li>extends into the diencephalon </li></ul><ul><li>filters incoming sensory information </li></ul><ul><li>arouses cerebral cortex into state of wakefulness </li></ul><ul><li>Injury can lead to a coma </li></ul>
  33. 33. Types of Sleep <ul><li>Slow Wave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>person is tired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decreasing activity of reticular system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>restful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dreamless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduced blood pressure and respiratory rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ranges from light to heavy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>alternates with REM sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rapid Eye Movement (REM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some areas of brain active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heart and respiratory rates irregular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dreaming occurs </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Cerebellum <ul><li>inferior to occipital lobes </li></ul><ul><li>posterior to pons and medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><li>two hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>cerebellar cortex – gray matter </li></ul><ul><li>integrates sensory information concerning position of body parts </li></ul><ul><li>coordinates skeletal muscle activity </li></ul><ul><li>maintains posture </li></ul>

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