07 Skeletal

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07 Skeletal

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Skeletal System
  2. 2. Bone Classification <ul><li>Long Bones </li></ul><ul><li>Short Bones </li></ul><ul><li>Flat Bones </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular Bones </li></ul><ul><li>Sesamoid Bones </li></ul>
  3. 3. Parts of a Long Bone <ul><li>epiphysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>distal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proximal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>articular cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>diaphysis </li></ul><ul><li>periosteum </li></ul><ul><li>compact bone </li></ul><ul><li>spongy bone </li></ul><ul><li>medullary cavity </li></ul><ul><li>endosteum </li></ul><ul><li>marrow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>yellow </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Compact and Spongy Bone
  5. 5. Microscopic Structure of Compact Bone <ul><li>osteocyte </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bone cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>osteon </li></ul><ul><li>central canal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>w/ blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>w/ nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>perforating canal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>w/ blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>w/ nerves </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Skeletal Organization <ul><li>Axial Skeleton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trunk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appendicular Skeleton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>upper limbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lower limbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pectoral girdle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pelvic girdle </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The only ‘floating’ bone
  8. 8. Vertebral Column <ul><li>cervical vertebrae (7) </li></ul><ul><li>thoracic vertebrae (12) </li></ul><ul><li>lumbar vertebrae (5) </li></ul><ul><li>sacrum (5 fused) </li></ul><ul><li>coccyx (tailbone) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cervical Vertebrae <ul><li>Atlas – 1 st ; supports head </li></ul><ul><li>Axis – 2 nd ; dens pivots to turn head </li></ul>
  10. 10. Thoracic Vertebrae <ul><li>long spinous processes </li></ul><ul><li>rib facets </li></ul>
  11. 11. Lumbar Vertebrae <ul><li>large bodies </li></ul><ul><li>thick, short spinous processes </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sacrum <ul><li>five fused vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>posterior wall of pelvic cavity </li></ul>
  13. 13. Coccyx <ul><li>tailbone </li></ul><ul><li>four fused vertebrae </li></ul>
  14. 14. Thoracic Cage <ul><li>Protects viscera </li></ul><ul><li>Role in breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>True ribs (7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>False ribs (5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>floating (2) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Costal cartilages </li></ul><ul><li>Sternum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manubrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xiphoid process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thoracic vertebrae </li></ul>
  15. 15. Facial Skeleton Frontal (1) Parietal (2) Temporal (2) Occipital (1) Maxillary (2) Mandible (1) Zygomatic (2) Lacrimal (2) Nasal (2) Sphenoid (1) Ethmoid (1)
  16. 16. Facial Skeleton Frontal (1) Parietal (2) Temporal (2) Occipital (1) Maxillary (2) Mandible (1) Zygomatic (2) Lacrimal (2) Nasal (2) Sphenoid (1) Ethmoid (1) Vomer (1)
  17. 17. Skull Sphenoid (1) Ethmoid (1)
  18. 18. Infantile Skull Fontanels – fibrous membranes; “soft spots”
  19. 19. Pectoral Girdle <ul><li>shoulder girdle </li></ul><ul><li>clavicles </li></ul><ul><li>scapulae </li></ul><ul><li>supports upper limbs </li></ul>
  20. 20. Upper Limb <ul><li>Humerus </li></ul><ul><li>Radius </li></ul><ul><li>Ulna </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olecranon process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ulnar nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carpals </li></ul><ul><li>Metacarpals </li></ul><ul><li>Phalanges </li></ul>
  21. 21. Wrist and Hand <ul><li>Carpals (16) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>trapezium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trapezoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capitate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scaphoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pisiform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>triquetrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hamate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lunate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metacarpals (10) </li></ul><ul><li>Phalanges (28) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proximal phalanx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>middle phalanx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distal phalanx </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Pelvic Girdle <ul><li>Coxae (2) </li></ul><ul><li>supports trunk of body </li></ul><ul><li>protects viscera </li></ul>
  23. 23. Coxae <ul><li>hip bones </li></ul><ul><li>acetabulum </li></ul><ul><li>ilium </li></ul><ul><li>ischium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ischial tuberosity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>pubis </li></ul>
  24. 24. Male and Female Pelvis <ul><li>Female </li></ul><ul><ul><li>iliac bones more flared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>broader hips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pubic arch angle greater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sacral curvature shorter and flatter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lighter bones </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Lower Limb <ul><li>Femur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longest bone of body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patella </li></ul><ul><li>Tibia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial malleolus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fibula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bears no weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral malleolus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tarsals </li></ul><ul><li>Metatarsals </li></ul><ul><li>Phalanges </li></ul>
  26. 26. Ankle and Foot <ul><li>Tarsals (14) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>calcaneus* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>talus* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>navicular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cuboid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lateral cuneiform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intermediate cuneiform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>medial cuneiform </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metatarsals (10) </li></ul><ul><li>Phalanges (28) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proximal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>middle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distal </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Ankle and Foot
  28. 28. Bone Development <ul><li>Intramembranous Ossification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bones originate within sheetlike layers of connective tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>broad, flat bones  skull bones (except mandible) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endochondral Ossification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bones begin as hyaline cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most bones of the skeleton </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Endochondral Ossification
  30. 30. Homeostasis of Bone Tissue <ul><li>Bone Resorption – action of osteoclasts </li></ul><ul><li>Bone Deposition – action of osteo b lasts; “bone b uilders” </li></ul>
  31. 31. Bone Function <ul><li>Support and Protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gives shape to head, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supports body’s weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protects lungs, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interacts with muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bones act as rigid bar of a lever </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood Cell Formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hematopoiesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>red marrow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inorganic Salt Storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>calcium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phosphate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>magnesium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sodium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>potassium </li></ul></ul>

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