Chapter 5 Tissues Four major tissue types <ul><li>Epithelial </li></ul><ul><li>Connective </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle </li></...
Epithelial Tissues General characteristics - <ul><li>cover organs and the body </li></ul><ul><li>forms the inner lining of...
Classified according to cell shape and number of cell layers <ul><li>Squamous- squashed </li></ul><ul><li>Cuboidal- cube/c...
Epithelial Tissues <ul><li>Simple squamous  – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>single layer of flat cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Epithelial Tissues <ul><li>Simple columnar  – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>single layer of elongated cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Epithelial Tissues <ul><li>Stratified squamous  –  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many cell layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>top c...
Epithelial Tissues <ul><li>Stratified columnar  – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>top layer of elongated cells </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Connective Tissues General characteristics - <ul><li>most abundant tissue type </li></ul><ul><li>many functions  </li></ul...
Connective Tissue  Major Cell Types <ul><li>Fibroblasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fixed cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most c...
Connective Tissue Fibers <ul><li>Collagenous fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>composed of col...
Connective Tissues <ul><li>Loose connective tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bind skin to structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Connective Tissues <ul><li>Dense connective tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bind body parts together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Connective Tissues <ul><li>Cartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chondrocytes-  cartilage cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poor ...
Connective Tissues <ul><li>Blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fluid matrix called plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>red blood cel...
Muscle Tissues <ul><li>General characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>muscle cells called muscle fibers </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Nervous Tissues <ul><li>found in brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves </li></ul><ul><li>nerve cells are  called neuro...
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05 Tissue Notes

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05 Tissue Notes

  1. 2. Chapter 5 Tissues Four major tissue types <ul><li>Epithelial </li></ul><ul><li>Connective </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul>
  2. 3. Epithelial Tissues General characteristics - <ul><li>cover organs and the body </li></ul><ul><li>forms the inner lining of body cavities </li></ul><ul><li>line hollow organs </li></ul><ul><li>has a free surface </li></ul><ul><li>have a basement membrane- anchored to this </li></ul><ul><li>lack blood vessels- avascular </li></ul><ul><li>cells readily divide (Mitosis  ) </li></ul><ul><li>cells tightly packed </li></ul>
  3. 4. Classified according to cell shape and number of cell layers <ul><li>Squamous- squashed </li></ul><ul><li>Cuboidal- cube/circle </li></ul><ul><li>Columnar- columns </li></ul><ul><li>Simple- one layer </li></ul><ul><li>Stratified- 2 or more </li></ul>
  4. 5. Epithelial Tissues <ul><li>Simple squamous – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>single layer of flat cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>substances pass easily through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>line air sacs (alveoli) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>form walls of capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple cuboidal – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>single layer of cube-shaped cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>line kidney tubules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cover ovaries </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Epithelial Tissues <ul><li>Simple columnar – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>single layer of elongated cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sometimes possess cilia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>line uterus, stomach, small </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and large intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sometimes possess microvilli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often have goblet cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pseudostratified columnar – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>single layer of elongated cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>appear striated or layered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often have cilia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often have goblet cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>line respiratory passageways </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Epithelial Tissues <ul><li>Stratified squamous – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many cell layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>top cells are flat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can accumulate keratin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>outer layer of skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>line oral cavity, throat, vagina, and anal canal (unkeratinized) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stratified cuboidal – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-3 layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cube-shaped cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>line ducts of mammary glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, and the pancreas </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Epithelial Tissues <ul><li>Stratified columnar – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>top layer of elongated cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cube-shaped cells in deeper layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>line vas deferens, male urethra </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transitional – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many cell layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cube-shaped and elongated cells, change due to tension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>line urinary bladder, ureters, and part of urethra </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Connective Tissues General characteristics - <ul><li>most abundant tissue type </li></ul><ul><li>many functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bind structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide support and protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>serve as frameworks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fill spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>store fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produce blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protect against infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help repair tissue damage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>have a matrix </li></ul><ul><li>have varying degrees of vascularity </li></ul><ul><li>have cells that usually divide </li></ul>
  9. 10. Connective Tissue Major Cell Types <ul><li>Fibroblasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fixed cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most common cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>large, star-shaped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produce fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Macrophages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wandering cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phagocytic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>important in defense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mast cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fixed cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>release heparin - prevents blood clotting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>release histamine - promotes some of the reactions associated with inflammation and allergies </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Connective Tissue Fibers <ul><li>Collagenous fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>composed of collagen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>great tensile strength </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elastic fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vocal cords, air passages </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Connective Tissues <ul><li>Loose connective tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bind skin to structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beneath most epithelia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adipose tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cushions, insulates & store fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beneath skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>around kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>behind the eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on the surface of the heart </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Connective Tissues <ul><li>Dense connective tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bind body parts together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tendons, ligaments, dermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poor blood supply </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Connective Tissues <ul><li>Cartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chondrocytes- cartilage cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poor blood supply </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hyaline cartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most abundant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ends of bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nose, respiratory passages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>embryonic skeleton </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elastic cartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>external ear, larynx </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fibrocartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very tough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shock absorber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intervertebral discs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pads of knee and pelvic girdle </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Connective Tissues <ul><li>Blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fluid matrix called plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>red blood cells –transport O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>white blood cells - defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>platelets - clotting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>osteocytes- bone cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supports & protects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forms blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attachment for muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skeleton </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Muscle Tissues <ul><li>General characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>muscle cells called muscle fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contractile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>three types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>skeletal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>smooth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cardiac </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attached to bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>striated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>walls of organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>walls of blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>involuntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not striated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>heart wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>involuntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>striated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intercalated discs </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Nervous Tissues <ul><li>found in brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves </li></ul><ul><li>nerve cells are called neurons </li></ul><ul><li>neuroglial cells are supporting cells </li></ul><ul><li>sensory reception </li></ul><ul><li>conduction of nerve impulses </li></ul>

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