There are three types of selves people try to give off using self-presentation techniques Authentic self- an image of ourselves that is consistent with the way we view ourselves (our real self) Ideal self- a public image of ourselves that is consistent with the way that we wish we were (our ideal self) Tactical self- a public image that is positive and favorable-- whether it is authentic or ideal-- usually we do this by claiming to have attributes consistent with what others want us to be.
Self-disclosure- where you disclose information about yourself as a means to claim an authentic identity Managing Appearances- where you manage your appearance to be perceived a given way. This is more tactical, to present a somewhat false, exaggerated, or leading image. There are many ways this can take place ◦ Physical Appearance and Props - ◦ Emotional Expression - ◦ Associates - ◦ Regions
3-Ingratiation ◦ Opinion Conformity- ◦ Other enhancement- saying good things about other person ◦ Selective self-presentation- selectively showing part of the reality to give a certain impression Self-enhancement- Giving the story a positive spin- ◦ Playing Dumb - intentionally acting less intelligent to lift up the ego of the other person in interaction
4-Aligning Actions- attempts to define apparently questionable conduct as actually in line with cultural norms ◦ Disclaimers- made in anticipation of future actions ◦ Accounts- made to mitigate responsibility after they have performed acts that threaten their social identities, made after the act took place5-Alter-Casting- imposing roles or identities ("casting") on another ("alter")
Prejudice is a baseless and usually negative attitude toward members of a group. Common features of prejudice include negative feelings, stereotyped beliefs, and a tendency to discriminate against members of the group. While specific definitions of prejudice given by social scientists often differ, most agree that it involves prejudgments (usually negative) about members of a group.
Prejudice can be based upon a number of factors including sex, race, age, sexual orientations, nationality, socioeconomic status and religion. Some of the most well-known types of prejudice include: Racism Classicism Homophobia Nationalism Religious prejudice Agism
it is important to sort information into mental categories. "The human mind must think with the aid of categories," Allport explained. "Once formed, categories are the basis for normal prejudgment
become more empathetic Passing laws and regulations that require fair and equal treatment for all groups of people. Gaining public support and awareness for anti- prejudice social norms. Making people aware of the inconsistencies in their own beliefs. Increased contact with members of other social groups.