. Tran Thai Son
. Pham Hung Thai Son
. Pham Ngoc Minh Khoa
. Tran Thai Dan Thanh
. Nguyen Cong Duy
. Le Thi Thanh Tam
International Training & Education Center
Morality: Vice and Virtue
The Lord Of The Rings
• The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel.
• Written by English philosopher and University of Oxford professor
J. R. R. Tolkien.
• It is the second best-selling novel ever written, with over 150 million
• Won 13 Oscar Awards
• Gandalf represents as positive force in Middle-earth who has the
purpose of keeping a balance between Good and Evil. In other
word, he ensures the safety of virtuous people and their world in
the role of an adviser.
• Sauron embodies Evil in Middle-earth. He forged the Ring of
Power and promoted dark force for his absolute power.
Plato – Aristotle – Immanuel Kant
• There are 3 distinct elements of a person’s inner life
The Appetites : All desires for pleasures, satisfaction, comfort.
The Spirited : The part of soul that loves challenge, winning, honor.
The Mind : Conscious awareness.
• Virtue includes 4 important parts:
Gandalf and Sauron under Platonic
• “Being Virtuous is a matter of keeping the three parts of soul or self
in the proper relationship with each other”
The Nature of Virtue
• It is called “ the doctrine of virtue” - Golden Mean
• Moral virtues lie on the balance of two extremes
• Moral virtues depend on the individual, especially depend on how individual reasons.
• According to Aristotle, a virtuous person holds himself in the equilibrium state of
• Virtue is as human beings use right reasons to choose among their actions and
• Virtuous one knows his desires are bad and does not allow himself to follow those
because of virtuous reasons.
TABLE OF VIRTUES AND VICES
GANDALF VS SAURON
SPHERE OF ACTION
EXCESS MEAN DEFICIENCY
Fear and Confidence Rashness Courage Cowardice
Honour and Dishonour
Vanity Magnanimity Pusillanimity
Honor and Dishonor
Ambition/empty vanity Proper ambition/pride
Anger Irascibility Patience/Good temper Lack of spirit/unirascibility
Self-expression Boastfulness Truthfulness Understatement/mock modesty
Conversation Buffoonery Wittiness Boorishness
Social Conduct Obsequiousness Friendliness Cantankerousness
Shame Shyness Modesty Shamelessness
Indignation Envy Righteous indignation