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Major Types of Research


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major types and subtypes of research,studies in research methodology

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Major Types of Research

  1. 1. Major Types of Research
  2. 2. Types on the Basis of Use and Audience of Research • Social Research has two wings or orientations. There is somewhat detached “academic” orientation and a more activist, practical, and action-oriented orientation. This is not a rigid separation. Researchers work in both. We have two types here. 1. Basic Research 2. Applied Research
  3. 3. Basic Research: • Also called academic or pure research. • Research designed to advance fundamental knowledge about how the world works and build/test theoretical explanations by focusing on the “why” question. • Its primary audience is the scientific community.
  4. 4. Basic Research: • Much basic research lacks practical application in the short term but it builds a foundation for knowledge and broad understanding that has an impact on many issues and policy areas. • Its practical impact may only appear after diverse basic knowledge advances have accumulated over a long time. • It is also the main source of tools – methods, theories, and ideas that all researchers use.
  5. 5. Basic Research: • Almost all of the basic breakthroughs and significant advances in knowledge originated in basic research. • It lays the foundation for core understandings and may have understandings and may have implications for issues that do not even exist when a study is conducted.
  6. 6. Applied Research: • Research done to address a specific concern. • It is designed to offer practical solutions to a concrete problem or address the immediate and specific needs of practitioners. • It is conducted to offer solutions to a question raised by an employer, a local community, or a social cause. • Building, testing, or making connection to theory is rarely done here.
  7. 7. Applied Research: • It offers practical result that we can use in short term. • Businesses, government offices, health care facilities, social service agencies, political organizations, and educational institutions conduct applied studies and make decisions based on findings. • Active practitioners (doctors, teachers, judges, police, politicians etc.) are the audience.
  8. 8. Applied Research: • A researcher might conduct an applied research study for a decision maker who is uninterested in details of how it was conducted and who wants only a brief summary of key findings. Nonetheless, the researcher should also prepare a complete, detailed research report. Others who have the time and ability to evaluate the quality of the research may be interested, or disputes might arise later.
  9. 9. Types of Applied Research 1. Evaluation Research 2. Action Oriented Research 3. Social Impact Assessment Research
  10. 10. Evaluation Research: • Applied research in which one tries to determine how well a program or policy is working or reaching its goals and objectives. • Many organizations e.g. government agencies and businesses have made evaluation research part of their ongoing operations.
  11. 11. Evaluation Research: • It attracts researchers with impassioned views on issues like environmental degradation and egalitarianism etc. • It emphasizes revealing injustices, highlighting social inequalities and conflicts etc.
  12. 12. Social Impact Research: • It estimates the likely social consequences in advance of a planned change. • Applied research that documents the likely consequences for various areas of social life if a major new change is introduced into a community. • Often social impact assessment research is part of a larger environmental impact statement required by government agencies.
  13. 13. Types Based on the Purpose of Research There can be three major types of research based on the purpose of the study. 1. Exploratory Research 2. Descriptive Research 3. Explanatory Research The research however can also be mult-purpose.
  14. 14. Exploratory Research: • Research whose primary purpose is to examine a little understood issue or phenomenon and to develop preliminary ideas about it and move toward refined research questions. • It is used when the subject is very new, we know little or nothing about it and no one has yet explored it.
  15. 15. Explanatory Research: • Our goal with it is to formulate more precise questions that we can address in future research. • To become familiar with the basic facts, setting, and concerns. • Create general mental picture of conditions. • Generate new ideas, conjectures, or hypotheses.
  16. 16. Descriptive Research: • It presents picture of the specific details of a situation, social setting, or relationship. • Its primary purpose is to “paint a picture” using words or numbers, and to present a profile, a classification of types, or an outline of steps to answer questions such as who, when, where, and how. • It documents a causal process or mechanism and reports on the background or context of a situation.
  17. 17. Explanatory Research: • When encountering an issue that is known and with a description of it, we might wonder “why” things are the way they are. Addressing the “why” is the purpose of explanatory research. • Its primary purpose is to explain why events occur and to build, elaborate, extend, or test theory.
  18. 18. • It is done to test a theory’s predictions or principles. • Elaborate and enrich a theory’s explanation. • Extend a theory to new issues and topics. • Support or refute an explanation or prediction • Link issues or topics to a general principle. • Determine which of a several explanations is best.
  19. 19. Other Types • Case Study Research • Cross Sectional Research • Longitudinal Research 1. Time-series Research 2. The Panel Study 3. Cohort Study
  20. 20. Case Study Research • It examines many features of a few cases. The cases can be individuals, organizations, movements, events, or geographic units. • The data on the case are detailed, varied, and extensive. • Most case study research is qualitative. By contrast, almost all cross-case (or non-case research) is quantitative.
  21. 21. Cross-Sectional Research • Any research that examines information on many cases at one point in time. Longitudinal Research • Any research that examines information from many units or cases across more than one point in time.
  22. 22. Types of Longitudinal Research Time-series Research • LR in which information can be about different cases or people in each of several time periods. Panel Study • LR in which information is about the identical cases or people in each of several time periods.
  23. 23. Cohort Study • It is similar to the panel study, but rather than observing the exact same people, it studies a category of people who share a similar life experience in specified period. • LR that traces information about a category of cases or people who shared a common experience at one time period across subsequent time periods.