Decision-PointPanorama-Based Indoor Navigation         Andreas Möller, Matthias Kranz,    Luis Roalter, Stefan Diewald, Kå...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology     Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technisch...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology         Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Techn...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology                      Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                   ...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                             Technisc...
Institute for Media Technology                 Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                        ...
Institute for Media Technology         Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                                ...
Institute for Media Technology      Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                                   ...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                             Technisc...
Institute for Media Technology    Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technische...
Institute for Media Technology     Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group                           Technisch...
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Decision-Point Panorama-Based Indoor Navigation

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We present a novel user interface concept for indoor navigation which uses directional arrows and panorama images at decision points. The interface supports the mental model of landmark-based navigation, can be used on- and offline and is highly tolerant to localization inaccuracy.

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Decision-Point Panorama-Based Indoor Navigation

  1. 1. Decision-PointPanorama-Based Indoor Navigation Andreas Möller, Matthias Kranz, Luis Roalter, Stefan Diewald, Kåre Synnes MCPT Workshop on Eurocast 2013, February 15, 2013
  2. 2. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenOverview Motivation: Vision-Based Localization UI Concept and First Evaluation Decision-Point Based Navigation User Study Discussion and Future Work15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  3. 3. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Background and Motivation§  Location information still the most important contextual information§  Indoor localization is a hot topic and useful for a lot of locations: □  Airports □  Hospitals □  Conference venues □  Large environments§  Various indoor localization methods possible: □  WLAN/cell-based localization □  Sensor-based localization □  Beacon-based localization □  Vision-based localization 15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  4. 4. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenVision-Based Localization Live features§  Principle □  Comparing of query images, taken with camera, to reference images based on visual features§  Advantages □  No infrastructure and augmentation of the environment needed □  Immune to disturbances (reflection/refraction…) □  Works with existing (modern) hardware15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  5. 5. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenOverview Motivation: Vision-Based Localization UI Concept and First Evaluation Decision-Point Based Navigation User Study Discussion and Future Work15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  6. 6. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenHCI Perspective: Interaction Concept§  Augmented Reality View for intuitiveness □  But: Consequence when location estimate is inaccurate: wrong overlays! ?§  Permanent re-localization during path required □  High computational effort □  Uncomfortable camera pose □  Not all scenes adequate for visual localization (sometimes insufficient features for algorithm)15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  7. 7. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenInteraction Concept (cont.)Instead:§  Re-localization from time to time (when possible) □  Estimation of intermediate position with odometry (device sensors) □  More comfortable usage§  “Virtual Reality” View □  Regularly show 360° panorama images of the environment with embedded navigation instructions (those panoramas are already available from reference images) □  More robust: user matches virtual and real world15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  8. 8. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Initial User Study §  Comparison of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality §  Simulation of different levels of accuracy §  Survey of user preferencesSee Full Paper:A. Möller, M. Kranz, R. Huitl, S. Diewald, L. RoalterA Mobile Indoor Navigation System InterfaceAdapted to Vision-Based LocalizationIn: 11th Intl. Conf. on Mobile andUbiquitous Multimedia (MUM 2012) 15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  9. 9. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenInitial User Study: Summary§  Panoramas provide better guidance when location estimate is inaccurate than Augmented Reality§  But: Subjects experienced frequent changes (~2m) as irritating, as □  Shown locations are not always correct □  Locations sometimes do not look like in reality □  Frequent changes in the UI are visually straining§  Subjects manage finding their goal, also when not looking at the screen all the time§  How to improve? □  Reduce frequent visual changes □  Simplify match between panoramas and real world (problem of misplaced panoramas?)15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  10. 10. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenOverview Motivation: Vision-Based Localization UI Concept and First Evaluation Decision-Point Based Navigation User Study Discussion and Future Work15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  11. 11. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenDecision-Point Based Navigation (DPBN)§  Show only panoramas of decision points§  Compliance with familiar mental model of self-orientation§  Users can always re-localize and retrieve the panorama of their current location§  High error tolerance§  Offline usage possible (by swiping through list of route instructions)15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  12. 12. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenDecision-Point Based Navigation (DPBN)§  Show only panoramas of decision points§  Compliance with familiar mental model of self-orientation§  Users can always re-localize and retrieve the panorama of their current location§  High error tolerance§  Offline usage possible15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  13. 13. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenDecision-Point Based Navigation (DPBN)§  Show only panoramas of decision points§  Compliance with familiar mental model of self-orientation§  Users can always re-localize and retrieve the panorama of their current location§  High error tolerance§  Offline usage possible15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  14. 14. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenDecision-Point Based Navigation (DPBN)§  Show only panoramas of decision points§  Compliance with familiar mental model of self-orientation§  Users can always re-localize and retrieve the panorama of their current location§  High error tolerance§  Offline usage possible15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  15. 15. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenDecision-Point Based Navigation (DPBN)§  Show only panoramas of decision points§  Compliance with familiar mental model of self-orientation§  Users can always re-localize and retrieve the panorama of their current location§  High error tolerance§  Offline usage possible15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  16. 16. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenDecision-Point Based Navigation (DPBN)§  Show only panoramas of decision points§  Compliance with familiar mental model of self-orientation§  Users can always re-localize and retrieve the panorama of their current location§  High error tolerance§  Offline usage possible15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  17. 17. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenDecision-Point Based Navigation (DPBN)§  Show only panoramas of decision points§  Compliance with familiar mental model of self-orientation§  Users can always re-localize and retrieve the panorama of their current location§  High error tolerance§  Offline usage possible15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  18. 18. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenOverview Motivation: Vision-Based Localization UI Concept and First Evaluation Decision-Point Based Navigation User Study Discussion and Future Work15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  19. 19. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenUser Study: Research Questions§  RQ1: Does DPBN have an effect on efficiency? Are users as fast as with continuous panoramas?§  RQ2: Is DPBN more convenient than continuous panoramas? What mode do users prefer? How well do they feel guided?§  RQ3: What usage patterns can be identified? What do we learn for designing an “ideal” route description?15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  20. 20. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenUser Study – Quick Facts 3 conditions -  Continuous panoramas (automatic *) * Wizard of Oz -  Decision points (automatic *) -  Decision points (manual navigation) 3 routes (avoidance of learning effects) Measured data: time, user behavior, questionnaires 12 Participants, 75% male, 25% female, average 25 years Within-subjects design 75% own a smartphone, only one has experience with indoor navigation Source: iconsdb.com15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  21. 21. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Results: RQ1 Average Time per Mode 350 300Time in seconds 250 200 Difference 150 not significant 263 100 196 208 50 0 Continuous Decision-Point Decision-Point (automatic) (automatic) (manual) 15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  22. 22. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenResults: RQ2 I found the method pleasing to use. 5: fully agree 1: fully disagree - Median + Mean Continuous Decision-Point Decision-Point (automatic) (automatic) (manual)15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  23. 23. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenResults: RQ2 I felt guided well to the goal. 5: fully agree 1: fully disagree - Median + Mean Continuous Decision-Point Decision-Point (automatic) (automatic) (manual)15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  24. 24. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenResults: RQ2 Panoramas of decision points are sufficient for Which system would you choose? orientating 8% Continuous 17% (automatic) Decision-Point (automatic) Decision-Point 75% (manual) 5: fully agree 1: fully disagree15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  25. 25. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenResults: RQ3 Participant 12 - Path 1 40 30 Distance (m) 20 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 Time (s) swipe relocalize Δd position15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  26. 26. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenResults: RQ3 Participant 2 - Path 2 60 50 40 30 20 10 Distance (m) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 Time (s) swipe relocalize Δd position15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  27. 27. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenResults: RQ3 Participant 5 - Path 3 30 20 Distance (m) 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 -10 -20 Time (s) swipe relocalize Δd position15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  28. 28. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenResults: RQ3 – Manual Mode§  Average numbers □  52.5 continuous locations (automatic, continuous mode) □  10.3 decision points (automatic, decision-point mode) □  15.3 manual swipes □  9.3 times relocalized§  Different usage patterns/strategies □  Showing “ahead” panoramas, no use of automatic re-localization □  Frequent use of re-localization, (sometimes only in parts of the route) – equivalent to continuous panorama mode □  “Memorizing” of the entire route not observed, subjects only looked at the “next” panorama location15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  29. 29. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenOverview Motivation: Vision-Based Localization UI Concept and First Evaluation Decision-Point Based Navigation User Study Discussion and Future Work15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  30. 30. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenDiscussion§  Subjects were equally fast with DPBN as with continuous panoramas (RQ1)§  Subjects felt guided better with continuous panoramas (RQ2) □  Due to more certainty whether they are on the right way □  Confirmed by frequent swipes and re-localizations in manual mode§  DPBN is desirable from a technical point of view (reliability…), but acceptance must be increased§  Requires stronger confirmation whether subjects are (still) on the right way15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  31. 31. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenHow could this be achieved?(Lessons learned)§  Compromise between continuous mode and DPBN as it is now§  Distance information§  Verification when decision point was passed§  Add intermediate landmarks in decision point mode □  Especially if decision point lies too far away (distance threshold)§  Simplify the mapping of picture content to real environment □  Highlight significant objects in panorama15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  32. 32. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenSummary and Outlook§  With Decision-Point Based Navigation, we have presented a novel interface for visual indoor navigation □  Very robust in case of localization inaccuracy □  Works even if localization fails (manual mode) □  Supports users’ mental model of navigation (landmarks)§  Real-world study results □  DPBN as efficient as full panorama navigation □  DPBN needs more information to reduce users’ uncertainty (landmarks, confirmations) to increase satisfaction§  Future work □  See previous slide ;-) □  Identification of good candidates for (additional) key points15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  33. 33. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität München Thank you for your attention! Questions? ? ? andreas.moeller@tum.de www.vmi.ei.tum.de/team/andreas-moeller.html This research project has been supported by the space agency of the German Aerospace Center with funds from the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology on the basis of a resolution of the German Bundestag under the reference 50NA1107.15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  34. 34. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenPaper Reference§  Please find the associated paper at: https://vmi.lmt.ei.tum.de/publications/2013/MCPT2013- IndoorNav_preprint.pdf§  Please cite this work as follows:§  A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, Kåre Synnes Decision-Point Panorama-Based Indoor Navigation In: 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Systems Theory (EUROCAST 2013), pp. 325-326, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, February 201315.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes
  35. 35. Institute for Media Technology Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group Technische Universität MünchenIf you use BibTex, please use the followingentry to cite this work:@INPROCEEDINGS{MCPT13IndoorNav, author = {Andreas M{"o}ller and Matthias Kranz and Luis Roalter and Stefan Diewald}, title = {{Decision-Point Panorama-Based Indoor Navigation}}, booktitle = {14th International Conference on Computer Aided Systems Theory (EUROCAST 2013)}, editor = {Alexis Quesada-Arencibia and Jos{e} Carlos Rodriguez and Roberto Moreno-Diaz jr. and Roberto Moreno-Diaz}, year = {2013}, month = feb, pages = {325--326}, ISBN = {978-84-695-6971-9}, location = {Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain},}15.2.2013 A. Möller, M. Kranz, L. Roalter, S. Diewald, K. Synnes

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