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EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF USER INTERFACES
FOR VISUAL INDOOR NAVIGATION
Andreas Möller ✽
, Matthias Kranz ❖
,
Stefan Diewald ✽
, Luis Roalter ✽
, Robert Huitl ✽
,
Tobias Stockinger ❖
, Marion Koelle ❖
, Patrick Lindemann ❖
!
✽
Technische Universität München, Germany
❖
Universität Passau, Germany
VISION-BASED NAVIGATION
Send query image
to server
Database of images
with known position
Return position
and orientation of most similar
reference image
■ Advantages
□ No infrastructure
□ Centimeter-level accuracy (Schroth et al. 2011)
■ But: query images impact localization quality
□ Image distinctiveness
□ Motion blur
□ Pose
MOTIVATION
✘✔✘✘
■ Advantages
□ No infrastructure
□ Centimeter-level accuracy (Schroth et al. 2011)
■ But: query images impact localization quality
□ Image distinctiveness
□ Motion blur
□ Pose
MOTIVATION
✘✔✘✘□ Traditional user interfaces usually require a high
degree of accuracy, e.g. maps (Kray et al. 2003)

or Augmented Reality (Liu et al. 2008)
■ User interface concept for visual localization that
copes with inaccuracy,

and UI elements

to improve query images
■ First experimental evaluation
MAIN CONTRIBUTION
Augmented Reality
(AR)
Virtual Reality

(VR)
USER STUDY
3 Experiments
Navigation Time
Distraction
AR/VR
METHOD
!
12 Participants
!
Wizard of Oz
Accuracy
Perception
Preferences
Effectiveness
UI
ELEMENTS
RESEARCH
QUESTIONS
EXPERIMENT 1: VR/AR COMPARISON
■ Task: Navigate in building with AR and VR mode
■ Simulation of varying localization accuracy
■ Hypotheses: VR is faster, seems more accurate
and is more popular
AR VR
Live video Panorama
EXPERIMENT 1: VR/AR COMPARISON
■ Task: Navigate in building with AR and VR mode
■ Simulation of varying localization accuracy
■ Hypotheses: VR is faster, seems more accurate
and is more popular
AR VR
Live video Panorama
■ AR: users were slower in error conditions
■ VR: no differences between conditions
m:ss

until destination

(average)
EXPERIMENT 1: VR/AR COMPARISON
2:39
3:04 AR
VR
Navigation time
EXPERIMENT 1: VR/AR COMPARISON
Guidance quality
3
VR
1
AR -3 = worst
3 = best
position error
2
VR
1
AR
orientation error
VR
2.5
AR
2
no errors
EXPERIMENT 1: VR/AR COMPARISON
User preferences
VR
50%
AR
33%
Undecided
17%
„Carrying the phone
was convenient“
2
VR
0
AR -3 = strongly disagree
3 = strongly agree
■ Hypothesis: indicator increases average number of
features visible in the image
■ 3 random appearances of indicator during
navigation task
EXPERIMENT 2: FEATURE INDICATOR
EXPERIMENT 2: FEATURE INDICATOR
Features per frame

(average)
% of frames

with >150 features
42
8.1%
101
20.7%
Effectiveness
without FI
with FI
EXPERIMENT 3: OBJECT HIGHLIGHTING
■ Hypothesis: Soft border leads to less distraction
than Frame
■ Evaluation on Likert Scale
EXPERIMENT 3: OBJECT HIGHLIGHTING
Soft
Border
1
„Aroused
my attention“
„Distracted during
navigation task“
!
Frame
3
1
Frame
-1
Soft
Border
-3 = strongly disagree
3 = strongly agree
AR
FI
DISCUSSION
■ VR as primary visualization
■ AR and indicators improve localization
■ Automatic switching between VR and AR
■ Future Work: live system, env. transformations
AR VR
+
accurate inaccurate
after
(re-)localization
navigation
location estimate
too unreliable
Location Estimate
SUMMARY
■ Novel UI for visual localization
■ Faster & more popular than AR
■ Increases perceived and
system localization accuracy
Contact:
andreas.moeller@tum.de
www.eislab.net
Contact:
andreas.moeller@tum.de
www.eislab.net
REFERENCES
■ Slide 2: Measurement image: MS Office Clipart
■ Slide 4: Paper References:

Schroth, Georg, et al. "Mobile visual location recognition." Signal
Processing Magazine, IEEE 28.4 (2011): 77-89.

Kray, Chris, et al. "Presenting route instructions on mobile devices."
Proc. of the 8th Intl. Conf. on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI), ACM
(2003), 117–124.

Liu, A., et al. "Indoor wayfinding: Developing a functional interface for
individuals with cognitive impairments." Disability & Rehabilitation:
Assistive Technology 3, 1-2 (2008): 69–81.
!
!
■ All other photos and graphics: own material by Andreas Möller

or TU München or Universität Passau
■ Please cite this work as follows:
Andreas Möller, Matthias Kranz, Stefan Diewald, Luis Roalter, Robert Huitl, Tobias
Stockinger, Marion Koelle, and Patrick A. Lindemann. 2014. Experimental evaluation of
user interfaces for visual indoor navigation. In Proceedings of the 32nd annual ACM
conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI '14). ACM, New York, NY,
USA, 3607-3616.
!
■ If you use BibTex:
@inproceedings{Moller:2014:EEU:2611222.2557003,!
author = {M"{o}ller, Andreas and Kranz, Matthias

and Diewald, Stefan and Roalter, Luis and Huitl, Robert and

Stockinger, Tobias and Koelle, Marion and Lindemann, Patrick A.},!
title = {Experimental Evaluation of User Interfaces for

Visual Indoor Navigation},!
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 32Nd Annual ACM Conference on

Human Factors in Computing Systems},!
series = {CHI '14},!
year = {2014},!
isbn = {978-1-4503-2473-1},!
location = {Toronto, Ontario, Canada},!
pages = {3607--3616},!
numpages = {10},!
publisher = {ACM},!
address = {New York, NY, USA},!
}

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Experimental Evaluation of User Interfaces for Visual Indoor Navigation

  • 1. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF USER INTERFACES FOR VISUAL INDOOR NAVIGATION Andreas Möller ✽ , Matthias Kranz ❖ , Stefan Diewald ✽ , Luis Roalter ✽ , Robert Huitl ✽ , Tobias Stockinger ❖ , Marion Koelle ❖ , Patrick Lindemann ❖ ! ✽ Technische Universität München, Germany ❖ Universität Passau, Germany
  • 2. VISION-BASED NAVIGATION Send query image to server Database of images with known position Return position and orientation of most similar reference image
  • 3. ■ Advantages □ No infrastructure □ Centimeter-level accuracy (Schroth et al. 2011) ■ But: query images impact localization quality □ Image distinctiveness □ Motion blur □ Pose MOTIVATION ✘✔✘✘
  • 4. ■ Advantages □ No infrastructure □ Centimeter-level accuracy (Schroth et al. 2011) ■ But: query images impact localization quality □ Image distinctiveness □ Motion blur □ Pose MOTIVATION ✘✔✘✘□ Traditional user interfaces usually require a high degree of accuracy, e.g. maps (Kray et al. 2003)
 or Augmented Reality (Liu et al. 2008)
  • 5. ■ User interface concept for visual localization that copes with inaccuracy,
 and UI elements
 to improve query images ■ First experimental evaluation MAIN CONTRIBUTION Augmented Reality (AR) Virtual Reality
 (VR)
  • 6. USER STUDY 3 Experiments Navigation Time Distraction AR/VR METHOD ! 12 Participants ! Wizard of Oz Accuracy Perception Preferences Effectiveness UI ELEMENTS RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  • 7. EXPERIMENT 1: VR/AR COMPARISON ■ Task: Navigate in building with AR and VR mode ■ Simulation of varying localization accuracy ■ Hypotheses: VR is faster, seems more accurate and is more popular AR VR Live video Panorama
  • 8. EXPERIMENT 1: VR/AR COMPARISON ■ Task: Navigate in building with AR and VR mode ■ Simulation of varying localization accuracy ■ Hypotheses: VR is faster, seems more accurate and is more popular AR VR Live video Panorama
  • 9. ■ AR: users were slower in error conditions ■ VR: no differences between conditions m:ss
 until destination
 (average) EXPERIMENT 1: VR/AR COMPARISON 2:39 3:04 AR VR Navigation time
  • 10. EXPERIMENT 1: VR/AR COMPARISON Guidance quality 3 VR 1 AR -3 = worst 3 = best position error 2 VR 1 AR orientation error VR 2.5 AR 2 no errors
  • 11. EXPERIMENT 1: VR/AR COMPARISON User preferences VR 50% AR 33% Undecided 17% „Carrying the phone was convenient“ 2 VR 0 AR -3 = strongly disagree 3 = strongly agree
  • 12. ■ Hypothesis: indicator increases average number of features visible in the image ■ 3 random appearances of indicator during navigation task EXPERIMENT 2: FEATURE INDICATOR
  • 13. EXPERIMENT 2: FEATURE INDICATOR Features per frame
 (average) % of frames
 with >150 features 42 8.1% 101 20.7% Effectiveness without FI with FI
  • 14. EXPERIMENT 3: OBJECT HIGHLIGHTING ■ Hypothesis: Soft border leads to less distraction than Frame ■ Evaluation on Likert Scale
  • 15. EXPERIMENT 3: OBJECT HIGHLIGHTING Soft Border 1 „Aroused my attention“ „Distracted during navigation task“ ! Frame 3 1 Frame -1 Soft Border -3 = strongly disagree 3 = strongly agree
  • 16. AR FI DISCUSSION ■ VR as primary visualization ■ AR and indicators improve localization ■ Automatic switching between VR and AR ■ Future Work: live system, env. transformations AR VR + accurate inaccurate after (re-)localization navigation location estimate too unreliable Location Estimate
  • 17. SUMMARY ■ Novel UI for visual localization ■ Faster & more popular than AR ■ Increases perceived and system localization accuracy
  • 20. REFERENCES ■ Slide 2: Measurement image: MS Office Clipart ■ Slide 4: Paper References:
 Schroth, Georg, et al. "Mobile visual location recognition." Signal Processing Magazine, IEEE 28.4 (2011): 77-89.
 Kray, Chris, et al. "Presenting route instructions on mobile devices." Proc. of the 8th Intl. Conf. on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI), ACM (2003), 117–124.
 Liu, A., et al. "Indoor wayfinding: Developing a functional interface for individuals with cognitive impairments." Disability & Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology 3, 1-2 (2008): 69–81. ! ! ■ All other photos and graphics: own material by Andreas Möller
 or TU München or Universität Passau
  • 21. ■ Please cite this work as follows: Andreas Möller, Matthias Kranz, Stefan Diewald, Luis Roalter, Robert Huitl, Tobias Stockinger, Marion Koelle, and Patrick A. Lindemann. 2014. Experimental evaluation of user interfaces for visual indoor navigation. In Proceedings of the 32nd annual ACM conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI '14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 3607-3616. ! ■ If you use BibTex: @inproceedings{Moller:2014:EEU:2611222.2557003,! author = {M"{o}ller, Andreas and Kranz, Matthias
 and Diewald, Stefan and Roalter, Luis and Huitl, Robert and
 Stockinger, Tobias and Koelle, Marion and Lindemann, Patrick A.},! title = {Experimental Evaluation of User Interfaces for
 Visual Indoor Navigation},! booktitle = {Proceedings of the 32Nd Annual ACM Conference on
 Human Factors in Computing Systems},! series = {CHI '14},! year = {2014},! isbn = {978-1-4503-2473-1},! location = {Toronto, Ontario, Canada},! pages = {3607--3616},! numpages = {10},! publisher = {ACM},! address = {New York, NY, USA},! }