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NCHRP 20-102 (01)
Policy and Planning Actions to
Internalize Societal Impacts of
CV and AV Systems into Market
Decisions
S...
Research Team
TTI
• Ginger Goodin,
Johanna Zmud – Co-PIs
• Trey Baker
• Jason Wagner
• Tina Geiselbrecht
• Laura Higgins
•...
Objective of this research
“To identify and assess policy and planning actions that state,
regional, and local agencies co...
Key Points
• Definition of AVs and CVs
– AVs: SAE Levels 3-5
– CVs: V2V, V2I
• The team did not create operating scenarios...
Progress to Date
Task 2
CV & AV
externalities
Task 3
Policy
instruments
and
planning
actions
Task 4
Interim
Report
Task 5
...
Background
• AV and CV have the potential to profoundly change
travel
– As producers make and sell vehicles, and as consum...
Externalities of Interest
• Traffic crashes
• Congestion
• Air/noise pollution
• Land development
• Mobility for aging adu...
Synthesis of Enabling Actions for AVs
• Producers need to…
– Develop and sell safe and efficient AVs
– Act upon communicat...
Synthesis of Enabling Actions for CVs
• Producers need to…
– Implement effective safety, mobility and environmental CV
app...
Example: Policy Instruments to
Address Traffic Crashes Externality
Actions of
Producers
and
Consumers
Economic Instruments...
Aligning Activities and Instruments
with Consumer / Producer Actions
• Research team evaluated the entire data set based
o...
Policy Instruments Recommended for
Further Study: Direct-base Pricing
• Taxes
– Apply road pricing to reduce growth in tra...
Planning and Regulatory Activities
Recommended for Further Study
• Mandates for Operator Behavior
– Establish, codify and ...
Planning and Regulatory Activities
Recommended for Further Study
• Service Provision
– Invest in CV infrastructure
– Grant...
Viability Assessments
Potential Policy and Planning Activity Assessment Criteria
•Effectiveness: What evidence is availabl...
Deliverables
• Final report, communication products
• Outcomes – How will state, regional and local
agencies use the resul...
TTI Policy Research Center
• Challenges and Benefits of Making
AV’s a Reality (primer)
• Policy Considerations for AV Test...
NCHRP 20-102 (01)
Thank you!
Ginger Goodin
g-goodin@tamu.edu
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Policy & Planning Actions to Internalize Societal Impacts of CV & AV Systems into Market Decisions

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Ginger Goodin, director of TTI's Transportation Policy Research Center, gave this presentation at the 2016 Smart Transport Symposium in Austin, Texas. The presentation is a status report on the active NCHRP research project. For more details on the project visit: http://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=3934

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Policy & Planning Actions to Internalize Societal Impacts of CV & AV Systems into Market Decisions

  1. 1. NCHRP 20-102 (01) Policy and Planning Actions to Internalize Societal Impacts of CV and AV Systems into Market Decisions Smart Transport Symposium Center for Transportation Research August 5, 2016
  2. 2. Research Team TTI • Ginger Goodin, Johanna Zmud – Co-PIs • Trey Baker • Jason Wagner • Tina Geiselbrecht • Laura Higgins • Maarit Moran • Mark Burris RAND • Nidhi Kalra • James Anderson • Liisa Ecola • Paul Avery SwRI University of Utah • Dan Fagnant Shelley Row Andre Weimerskirch (UMTRI)
  3. 3. Objective of this research “To identify and assess policy and planning actions that state, regional, and local agencies could take to help the externalities of automated vehicle (AV) and connected vehicle (CV) technologies be internalized in market decisions made by individuals and organizations engaged in producing and consuming these technologies” http://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=3934
  4. 4. Key Points • Definition of AVs and CVs – AVs: SAE Levels 3-5 – CVs: V2V, V2I • The team did not create operating scenarios or use cases • “Scales of implementation” important to oversight panel – Level of government, geography, timeframe, technology driver, ownership model
  5. 5. Progress to Date Task 2 CV & AV externalities Task 3 Policy instruments and planning actions Task 4 Interim Report Task 5 In-depth evaluation of policy instruments and planning actions Task 6 Final deliverables Task 1: Project Management -------------------------------------------------------------- Current Activity
  6. 6. Background • AV and CV have the potential to profoundly change travel – As producers make and sell vehicles, and as consumers purchase them, negative externalities could diminish – They may also create risks or drawbacks, new negative externalities • Society would benefit if governments were to implement actions to internalize externalities into decisions made by consumers or producers
  7. 7. Externalities of Interest • Traffic crashes • Congestion • Air/noise pollution • Land development • Mobility for aging adults, those with disabilities • Economic disruption
  8. 8. Synthesis of Enabling Actions for AVs • Producers need to… – Develop and sell safe and efficient AVs – Act upon communications with road operators to ensure infrastructure to support safe and efficient operation • Consumers need to … – Purchase safe AVs and use them appropriately – Not increase their appetite for travel or vehicle size – Use shared AVs or use vehicles in coordination with transit
  9. 9. Synthesis of Enabling Actions for CVs • Producers need to… – Implement effective safety, mobility and environmental CV applications • Consumers need to … – Use safety, mobility and environmental CV applications widely and appropriately
  10. 10. Example: Policy Instruments to Address Traffic Crashes Externality Actions of Producers and Consumers Economic Instruments Regulatory and Planning Instruments Taxes Subsidies and Grants Quotas or Targets Mandates on Vehicle Equipment Mandates on Operator Behavior Structure of Private Rights Service Provision Information Provision Financing and Contracting Producers develop and sell safe AVs On AVs that do not meet the desired safety specifications, standards, guidelines, etc. To purchasers of AVs that meet the desired safety specifications, standards and guidelines To AV producers in order to stimulate the production of AVs that meet the desired safety specifications, standards and guidelines Establishment of production targets (with associated financial incentives) for vehicles with the desired safety specifications, standards and guidelines Establish basic safety requirements as prerequisite to government registration and/or licensing of vehicles Restructuring of liability for vehicle producers in the event of safety failures Restructuring of liability and insurance requirements for the drivers of vehicles with the desired safety specifications, standards and guidelines Expedited and/or privileged access to existing services for vehicles with the desired safety specifications, standards and guidelines Public private partnerships for the development of infrastructure that will support AV safety applications
  11. 11. Aligning Activities and Instruments with Consumer / Producer Actions • Research team evaluated the entire data set based on basic criteria: – Which policy, regulatory and planning instruments fall within the general purview of state, regional and local governments? – Which policy, regulatory and planning instruments have the greatest near-term applicability? • Produced table of strategies for in-depth review
  12. 12. Policy Instruments Recommended for Further Study: Direct-base Pricing • Taxes – Apply road pricing to reduce growth in travel demand • Subsidies – Accelerate CV market penetration by subsidizing equipped vehicles – Subsidize shared vehicle services to reduce growth in travel demand and support transit services – Create incentives to support market penetration of shared AVs near transit nodes
  13. 13. Planning and Regulatory Activities Recommended for Further Study • Mandates for Operator Behavior – Establish, codify and enforce CV and AV operator requirements • Structure of Private Rights – Restructure liability regimes – Implement land use regulations and parking requirements to increase density in support of market penetration of shared AVs at transit nodes – Enact legislations to stimulate CV or AV testing
  14. 14. Planning and Regulatory Activities Recommended for Further Study • Service Provision – Invest in CV infrastructure – Grant AV and CV-equipped vehicles privileged access or services • Information – Increase public awareness to stimulate consumer action and supportive public investment • Financing/Contracting – Implement new contractual mechanisms with private service providers, including shared data arrangements
  15. 15. Viability Assessments Potential Policy and Planning Activity Assessment Criteria •Effectiveness: What evidence is available to evaluate the effectiveness of the strategy? What are the gaps in information? What are possible unintended consequences? •Political: How well will the strategy likely be accepted by decision makers and the general public? •Institutional: What are the laws and formal provisions that define roles and responsibilities of all the organizations involved in implementing the strategy? •Operational: If the strategy is developed, will it be used? Operational issues include internal issues, such as labor objections, manager resistance, organizational conflicts, and policies. •Geographic: At what geographic scale(s) can the strategy be implemented? Are their urban and rural differences? •Financial: What are the rough estimates of cost to see if they match general expectations, or would have an acceptable return on investment? •Applicability: Which technologies apply? To what levels of AV/CV market penetration would it apply? How does viability shift with market penetration levels? •Impact on market decisions: To what degree will the strategy make a difference in market decisions made by individuals and organizations? •Level of government: Is this strategy most appropriate at the local, regional, or state level? •Ownership model: Is the strategy most effectively applied in a private ownership model or a subscription model?
  16. 16. Deliverables • Final report, communication products • Outcomes – How will state, regional and local agencies use the results? • Who are the audiences? Completion: January 2017
  17. 17. TTI Policy Research Center • Challenges and Benefits of Making AV’s a Reality (primer) • Policy Considerations for AV Testing in Texas • Cybersecurity Considerations for CAV Policy • Data Privacy Considerations • Liability Issues • Consumer Acceptance of AV • Implications of AV Crash Scenarios • Mobility Effects of CAV (in progress) • Vehicle Telematics as a Platform for Road User Fees (in progress) tti.tamu.edu/policy/technology
  18. 18. NCHRP 20-102 (01) Thank you! Ginger Goodin g-goodin@tamu.edu

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