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Virginia History - 1625 to 1685

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7 :
Virginia Carolorum :
THE COLONY UND2R THE RULE OF CHARLES THE FIRST AND SECOND
A. D. 1625—A. D. 1685,
KASED UPON
Manus...
PREFACE.
a t „f the English colonization of America has
Peri0d*
• . IT 4-
i.i i. ?f mio-ht lead to a more intelligent
wifh...
6 PREFA CK
The duty of the historian is to be careful not to distort
facts, nor to conceal. that which is true.
In the pre...
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Virginia History - 1625 to 1685

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Early American history and early Virginia history. They are one and the same. See what the history books from 100 years ago had to say about American history here. Gloucester, Virginia Links and News website. Visit us for more amazing content.

Early American history and early Virginia history. They are one and the same. See what the history books from 100 years ago had to say about American history here. Gloucester, Virginia Links and News website. Visit us for more amazing content.

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Virginia History - 1625 to 1685

  1. 1. 7 : Virginia Carolorum : THE COLONY UND2R THE RULE OF CHARLES THE FIRST AND SECOND A. D. 1625—A. D. 1685, KASED UPON Manuscripts and Documents of the Period. EDWARD D'f NEILL. NEC FALSA DICERE, NEC VERA RET1CERE. ALBANY, N. Y. : JOEL MUNSELL'S SONS, 82 STATE ST. 1886.
  2. 2. PREFACE. a t „f the English colonization of America has Peri0d* • . IT 4- i.i i. ?f mio-ht lead to a more intelligent wifh the hope, that it raignt ieau w <* coChlsion P ; the motives, and social surroundmgs, of Icniet men of the era, this work has been prepared. The writer has had no political theory, nor religious party „! nrciudice to sustain. As far as possible those loC:—^shaping the destinies of the Colony, we been Permitted to express their views, in the, own woTds aTfoundin ietters to their friends, or in consum- ptions to the English Government. Their revelations conflict with some tractions, and old JvS fable," and may not be acceptabie to those who *r like "Records, on a page, ^ Whence many a pleasant tale is swept away.
  3. 3. 6 PREFA CK The duty of the historian is to be careful not to distort facts, nor to conceal. that which is true. In the preparation of the volume, use has been made of some unpublished papers, in the British Museum, and Her Majesty's Public Record Office in London; and of the records in possession of the Virginia Historical Society, and the counties of Accomac, and Northampton. Rare printed documents of the period have been freely cited, and the quotations, from the early laws, have been taken from Hening's Statutes. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the courtesies extended to me, by Secretary Brock of the Virginia Historical Society, Mr. Gil more Kendall, Clerk of Northampton County Court, and Mr. W. H. B. Custis of the Accomac Court, while searching the records in their keeping. Saint Paul, Minnesota, September, 1886.
  4. 4. CONTENTS. CHAPTER I. From the abrogation of the London Company's Char- ter TO THE DEATH OF GOVERNOR YEARDLEY - - 8-48 CHAPTER II. Principal events from A.D. 1628 to A.D. 1630 - 49-76 CHAPTER III. Transactions from A .D. 1630 to A.D. 1634 - - 77-93 CHAPTER IV. Affairs from A.D. 1634 to A.D. 1638 - - - 98-137 CHAPTER V. Occurrences from A.D. 1638 to A.D. 1642 - - 138-156 CHAPTER VI. From the arrival of Governor Berkeley to the appointment of Parliament Commissioners - 154-217
  5. 5. 8 CONTENTS. CHAPTER VII. Affairs under the Commonwealth of England - 217-279 CHAPTER VIH. From the Accession of Charles the Second to A.D. 1671 - 280-338 CHAPTER IX. From A.D. 1671 to the death of Charles the Second 339-401 APPENDIX. Additional Notes 403-421 Index and Errata - 423
  6. 6. Wujhiia ^aralonutu CHAPTER I. FROM THE ABROGATION OF THE LONDON COMPANY'S CHARTER TO THE DEATH OF GOVERNOR YEARDLEY. Proclamation of Charles the First. Governor and Council- lors A.D. 1624-5. William Claiborne. Secretary Christo- pher Davison. John Martin suspended from the Council. Yeardley visits England. Letters of Gov. Butler of Ber. mudas. Companion of Pocahontas Married. Mate and Cap- tain of the May Flower. Introduction of Negroes. Fear of Spaniards. Death of Ex-Gov. Argall. Re-appointment of Gov. Yeardley. Doctor Pott. Oapt. W. Tucker. Edward Blaney. William Ferrar. Claiborne ancestry. Ovid translated by sandys. arrival and departure of ships. Tobacco Monopoly. Death of Gov. Yeardley. MONG the earliest acts of Charles the First, after his coronation, was a proclamation concerning Virginia. Sir Thomas Smith, the enterprising East India merchant, and Alderman Robert John- son, the London grocer, with their associates, were entirely satisfied with the victory over the Earl of Southampton, Sir Edwin Sandys, and the large majority of the members
  7. 7. 10 VIRGINIA CAROLORUM. of the London Company, resulting from the declaration of Chief Justice Ley (Leigh), in June, 1624, that the Company's charter was null and void. Toward the colonists in Virginia they had no harsh feelings, but their influence was used with the King so to order the tobacco trade, that their friends in London might derive some profit. The ship which brought the news of the death of James the First, also conveyed the views of his successor, as to the Plantation. In a communication of the thirteenth day of May, a.d. 1625, from Whitehall, Charles alludes to the " Collonie of Virginia, planted by the hands of our most deere Father of blessed memorie, for the propagation of Christian religion, the increase of trade, and the enlarging -of his Royal empire." He thought that it "had not hitherto prospered soe happilly as was hoped and desired for, that the government of that Collonie was comytted to the Companie of Virginia, incorporated of a multitude of persons of sev- erall dispositions, amongst wliorae the affaires of greatest moment were and must be ruled by the greater number of votes and voyces, and therefore his late Majestie, out of his great wisedome and depth of judgment, did desire to resume that popular government, and accordingly the letters pat- entes of that Incorporation were, by his Highnes' direction, in a legal course questioned, and therefore judicially repealed B.nd adjudged to be voyd, wherein his Majestye's ayme was onlie to reduce that Government into such a right course as might best agree with that forme which was held in the rest of his Royal Monarchic, and was not intended by him to take awaie or ympeach the particular interest of anie pri-
  8. 8. VIRGINIA CAROLORUM. 11 vate planter or adventurer, nor to alter the same otherwise than should be of necessitie for the good of the publique." He also declared : ' ' Our full resolution is, that there maie be one uniforme course of government in and through our whole Monarchie ; that the government of the Collonie of Virginia shall ymediately depend upon ourselfe, and not be commytted to anie Companie or Corporation to whom it maie be proper to trust matters of trade or commerce, but cannott be fit or safe to communicate the ordering of State affaires, be they of never so mean consequence : And that therefore we have determyned that our Commissioners1 for 1 On the 15th of July, 1624, King James had appointed the following Commis- sioners for Virginia to receive the charters, seals, and letters of the Virginia Company, and attend to the affairs of the Colony Henry, Viscount Mandeville, Lord President of the Privy Council. William, Lord Pagett. Arthur, Lord Chichester, Baron of Belfast. Sir Thomas Edwards, Knight. Treasurer. " John Suckling, " Comptroller. " George Calvert, " Secretary of State. " Edward Conway, " " " " Richard Weston, " Chancellor ot Exchequer. " Julius Caesar, " Master of Rolls. " Humphrey May, " Chaucellor of Lancaster. " Baptist Hickes, " and Baronet. •' Thomas Smith, " Sir Henry Mildmay, Knight, Master of Jewels. " Thomas Coventry, " Attorney General. " Robert Heath, " Solicitor General. " Ferdinand Gorges, " " Robert Killigrew, " " Charles Montague, " " Philip Cary, " " Francis Gaston, " " Thomas Wroth,
  9. 9. 12 VIRGINIA CAliOLORUM. those affaires shall proceecle accordinge to the tenor of our commissions directed unto them, until we shall declare our further pleasure therein ; nevertheless we doe hereby declare that we are resolved with as much convenyent expedition as our affaires of greater importance will give leeve, to estab- lish a Counsell consistinge of a few persons of understand- ing and quallitie, to whom wee will give trust for the yme- diate care of the affaires of that (Jollonie, and whoe shall be answerable to us for their proceedings, and in matters of great moment shall be subordinate and attendant unto our Privie Counsell here; and that wee will alsoe establish an- other Counsell'to be resident in Virginia, who shall be sub- ordinate to our Counsell here for that Collonie, and that att our owne charge we will maynteyne those publique offi- cers." " John Wolstenholme, " " Nathaniel Rich, " " Samuel Argall, " " Humphrey Handford, " Matthew Sutcliffe, D.D., Dean of Exeter. Francis White, D.D., Dean of Carlisle. Thomas Fanshaw, Clerk of the Crown. Robert Johnson, Alderman of London. James Campbell, " " Ralph Freeman, " " Maurice Abbot, Esquire, Nathaniel Butler, " George Wilmore, " Philip Jermayne, " Edward Johnson, " Thomas Gibbs, " Samuel Wrote, " John Porey, " Michael Hawes, "
  10. 10. VIRGINIA CAROL OR UM. 13 In conclusion, he wrote that he wished to bring the tobacco trade into one hand, and exclude that raised in foreign lands, and to fix his own price upon that raised in Virginia. 1 After the charter of the Virginia Company had been dis- solved, James the First continued Sir Francis Wyatt2 as Edward Pallavacine, Esquire. Robert Bateman, Merchant. Martin Bonde, " Thomas Styles, " Nicholas Leate, " Robert Bell, Abraham Cartw right, '' Richard Edwards, " John Dyke, " Anthony Abdy, " William Palmer, Edward Dichfield, Salter. George Mole, Merchant. Richard Morer, Grocer. Upon the recommendation of the Commissioners for Virginia, the following Tobacco Inspectors in London were appointed: Edward Dichfield, Salter; Richard Morer, Reuben Bourne, George Bromley, Grocers ; William Perkyns, Merchant Tailor; and Edward Benuet, Merchant. 1 The entire document is printed in Rymer's "Foedera," Vol. XVIII., pp. 72,73. 2 Thomas Wyatt, of Allington Castle, Boxley Abbey, married Jane, daughter of Sir William Hawte. His estate was confiscated. George, his son, had the estate restored in 1570 by Queen Elizabeth. He married Oct. 8, 1582, Jane, daughter of Sir Thomas Finch, Kt., and he was buried about September 1625, at Boxley Abbey, and left five sons and two daugh- ters. Francis, eldest son of George, in 1618 married Margaret, daughter of Sir Sam- uel Sandys, of Ombersley, Worcester. He was buried at Boxley Abbey August 24, 1644, and his wife March 27, 1644-5. Hawte, brother of Francis, was inducted Rector of Boxley October 3, 1632. He died July 31, 1638. He was twice married, and some of his descendants are
  11. 11. 14 VIRGINIA CAROLORUM. Governor. While he had confidence in the motives of those who had directed the affairs of the Company, Wyatt found that their plans were at times impracticable. In a letter to his father he alluded to the ' ' antipathy " caused by the great demands of the Corporation, and the "grumbling obedience " of the colonists, and he wished "that little Mr. Farrar was in Virginia, that he might add zeal to knowledge." His wife, a daughter of Sir Samuel Sandys, who passed some time in Virginia, was a cheerful person, willing to accept the hardships of a new settlement. His deportment was correct, and a captious fellow could only write r 1 " The old smoker, so good, so carefully mild, religious, just, honest, that I protest, I think God hath sent him, in mercy, for good to us." said to have settled in Virginia. There was a Ralph Wyatt who married the widow of Capt. William Button, of Virginia, and Anthony Wyatt a member of an early legislature. Eleanor, sister of Francis, was the first wife of Sir Thomas Finch, Speaker of House of Commons, 1627. Hotten in Lists of Emigrants gives The Mustek op Sr Thomas Wyatt, Kt., taken in January, 1625. " Sr Francis Wyatt, Kt., Governo' &c, came in the George, 1621. [Wife had gone to England on a visit.] Servants. Christopher Cooke, age 25, in the George, 1621. George Hull, age 13, in the Supply, 1620. Jonathan Giles, 21, in the Triull, 1619, John Matheman, 19, in the Jonathan, 1619. Jane Davis, a-l, in the Abigaile, 1622" 1 Letter of William Capps, an old planter, in " Virginia Vetusta," p. 129 ; Munsell's Sons, Albany, N. Y., 1885.
  12. 12. VIRGINIA CAR 01 OR UM. 15 The Councillors, as their muster-rolls show, were chosen from among the more prosperous and influential. Francis West1 preceded his brother, Lord Delaware, and in a.d. 1608 first arrived. In November, 1623, he was ap- pointed Admiral by the Council for New England, and sailed for Plymouth Harbor, but finding that the fishermen insisted that the fisheries should be opened to all, he returned to Virginia. 1 Alexander Brown, in " Mag. of American History," 1883, p. 461, communi- cates the West Genealogy from the Bennet Roll. From this are gleaned the following; facts Thomas M Lord Delaware, second son of second Lord, " was born the 9th of July, between 2 and 3 o'clock in the afternoon, 1577." Francis West, fourth son, was born the 28th of October, 1586, between twelve and one o'clock nooii. John West, fifth son, was born the 14th of December, 1590, between five and six o'clock in the afternoon. Nathaniel West, sixth son, was born November 3, 1592, between two and Hhree o'clock in the morning. i Doyle, in "History of the American Colonies," speaks of Francis, a nephew )of Francis, who was drowned. I In January, 1625, Captain Francis West was living on the Company's land at Elizabeth City. The census-roll then taken, printed in Hotten, had the fol- lowing : "Captain Francis West, nis Muster. i Capt. Francis Wes% Counseler, aged 36, in the Mary Ann Margaret, 1610. Mrs. Francis West, Widdowe, in the Supply, 1620. Nathaniel West, born in Virginia. Servants. Joaue Fairchild, aged 20, in the George, 1618. Benjamin Owin, aged 18, in the Swan, 1623. William Parnell, aged 18, in the Southampton, 1622. Walter Couper, aged 22, in the Neptune, 1618. Reinould Godwin, aged 30, in the Abigail, 1620. John Pedro, a Neger, aged 30, in the Swan, 1623."
  13. 13. 16 VIRGINIA CAROLORUM. Sir George Yeardley1 had always been recognized for his executive ability and business capacity. John Pory had written of him, in 1619, as "the Governor here, who at his 1 " Muster op Sir George Yeardley, Kt. Sr George Yeardley, Kt., &c. came in the Deliverance, 1609. Temperance, Lady Yeardley, came in the Faulcon, 1608. Mr. Argall Yeardley, aged 4 yeares, Mr. Francis Yeardley, aged 1 yeare, >• Children borne heare. M's. Elizabeth Yeardley, aged 6 years, ) Servants at James City. Richard Gregory, aged 40, ~) Anthony Jones, 26, Thomas Dunn, 14, came in the Temperaim, 1620. Thomas Pbildust, 15