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Abstract
Nguru was a District under the Sayfawa Dynasty since 1630. It was
created when Kanem Borno Empire established four different
th
principalities in the 17 century. Since then, the town, situated in the
geographically advantage environment, has been one of the strategic
economic locations in northern Nigeria. This paper aims to discuss the
contributions of the town in terms of political and economic growth of
Northern Nigeria. It is interesting to note that, Nguru was among the
earliest strategic economic locations of both pre-colonial and colonial
Nigeria. What appeared to have been a turning point in the history of the
town became a District with a District Officer in the colonial period. The
extension of railway line to the town in 1929 added impetus to its
development, between 1930-1960, there were lots of commercial
activities in the area, especially in commodities like groundnuts, Arabic
Gum, Cotton, etc. The quantity and volume of the commodities produced
made Nguru to become the most strategic commercial centre in the whole
north-eastern states of Nigeria at that time. The primary source of this
paper is derived from the oral source as well as monasteries
documentations of the Old Borno Dynasty, especially some documents
related to archival materials. Other sources include written materials like
books and journals which directly discussed the history of the town. These
documents revealed a lot of findings on the history of Nguru.

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Tsu jornal ipsacm vol. 2 no.1

  1. 1. IN THIS ISSUE No. 51 Garu Street, Sabon line Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria. TEL 08036255661, 07035668900. HPLHPL HAMEED PRESS LIMITED V o l u m e 2 , N u m b e r 1 , J a n u a r y 2 0 2 0 2682- 6194ISSN A PUBLICATION OF INSTITUTE OF PEACE STUDIES AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (IPSACM), A PUBLICATION OF INSTITUTE OF PEACE STUDIES AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (IPSACM), 1. The Role of Nguru Emirate to The Political and Economic Development of Northern Nigeria, C.1630 Lawan Jafaru Tahir 2. ImpactofTerrorisminTarabaStateandtheCreationof IDPCamps:CaseStudy of JalingoLGA Inalegwu StephanyAkipu, PhD & HabilaHassan 3. A Panoramic Analysis of Causes and Effects of Herdsmen Invasion of Communities In Nigeria Since 2015 Ngah, Louis Njodzeven Wirnkar, Audu, Tanko Garba & Maimolo, Talatu Emmanuel 4. Use of ICT For Effective Record Keeping In Grade-A Public Secondary Schools In Jalingo Educational Zone of Taraba State Oyeniyi Solomon Olayinka, Joseph Atumba & Oyeniyi Titilayo Mercy 5. The Modifications of African Culture In The Face of Technology: Jukun Culture In Perspective MakaiN. Daniel& RinretWinniefred Lukden 6. Problems and Prospects of Commercial Motorcycle (Achaba) Transportation Enterprise: A Historical Survey of Katsina Metropolis in Northern Nigeria, 1987 – 2012 Samuel Wycliff & Abba Aliyu Sararinkuka 7. Assessment of The Utilization of Instructional Electronic Media In Training of Rural Farmers For Post-Harvest Handling As Perceived By Educational Technologists Fidelis H. Bonjoru, PhD & Oyeniyi Solomon Olayinka 8. A Brief Account of The Manipulation of Ethno-Religious Factor In Politics In Southern Taraba BelloZakariyaAbubukar, PhD 9. A Re-Consideration of the History of Origin And Migration of The Chamba People of Ganye Chiefdom, Adamawa State Akombo I. Elijah, PhD &Vincent Christiana 10. Domestic Violence: Types, Causes and Implications On The Child and Society HoseaNakina Martins& Joy IsaiahTonga 11. Nigeria in the Era of Globalization: Implications on the Nigerian society Ayibatari Yeriworikongha Jonathan 12. The Role of Electoral Tribunals in Nigeria: A Case Study of Taraba State Barr. Joseph D. Bagudu & Rev. Bako Yerima Gudubul, PhD 13. The Military and its Role in the Socio-economic Development of Taraba State of Nigeria, 1991-1998 Anuye, StevePaul&Atando DaudaAgbu, PhD Mr.Joseph, Bonglo Kingsley 14. Aspects of Pre-Colonial Urbanization in the Emirate of Fombina: A Case of Yola 1841 – 1901 Umar Zubairu 15. The Indigenship-Settler Question in Plateau State: A Study of Ethno-Religious Crises In Jos North Local Government Area, 2000 – 2017 Abdulsalami M. Deji, PhD, Simon Bala Fwangyil & Alaba Babatunde Israel
  2. 2. JOURNALOF MULTI-DISCIPLINARY STUDIES A Publication of Institute of Peace Studies and Conflict Management (IPSACM), Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria Volume 2, Number 1, January 2020 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies ISSN: 2682-6194
  3. 3. Institute of Peace Studies and Conflict Management (IPSACM), Taraba State University, Jalingo, Volume 2, Number 1, January 2020 ISSN: 2682-6194 Editorial Board Editor-In-Chief Akombo I. Elijah, PhD Secretary Abdulsalami M. Deji, PhD Editorial Members Isa M. Adamu, PhD Aboki M. Sani, PhD Atando Dauda Agbu, PhD Haruna M. Suleimuri, PhD Article should be submitted online to the Secretary, Institute of Peace Studies and Conflict Management (IPSCAM), Taraba State UniversityPMB 1167Jalingo,TarabaState,Nigeria. Email: cpscmjournal@gmail.com, dejfat2009@tsuniversity.edu.ng, journalofmultidisciplinary18@gmail.com Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies i
  4. 4. Editorial Consultants Professor Talla Ngarka S., Director, Institute of Peace Studies and Conflict Management(IPSACM),TarabaStateUniversity,Jalingo,Nigeria. Professor Abolade Adeniji, Department of History and International Studies,LagosStateUniversity,Ojo, Lagos,Nigeria Professor Oguntola-Laguda, Danoye, Department of African Traditional Religions,LagosStateUniversity,Ojo,Lagos,Nigeria Professor Mike O. Odey, Department of History, Benue State University, Makurdi,Nigeria. Professor E. C. Emordi, Department of History and International Studies, AmbroseAlliUniversity,Ekpoma,EdoState,Nigeria Professor Adagba Okpaga, Department of Political Science, Benue State University,Makurdi,Nigeria Prof. Umar Habila Dadem Danfulani, Department of Religious Studies, UniversityofJos, PlateauState,Nigeria. Prof. Olubunmi Akinsanya Alo, Department of Sociology, Federal University,Wukari,TarabaState,Nigeria Professor Saawua Gabriel Nyityo, Department of History, Benue State University,Makurdi,Nigeria. Dr. Gbemisola Abdul-Jelil Animasawun, Centre for Peace and Strategic Studies,UniversityofIlorin,Nigeria Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies ii
  5. 5. Mission Statement The world system is increasingly passing through very disturbing phases. Almost every sphere of life is being subjected to unprecedented crises. Both the human and the physical environments have come to crossroads of crises. There are, for instance, unprecedented episodes of global warming; depreciating conditions of soil fertility caused by, mostly, unregulated human activities; overflowing of banks of oceans and rivers on one hand, and alarming rain failures in different parts of the world resulting in protracted droughts and famine; on the other hand unprecedented frictions in human relationships across the globe resulting in unprecedented inter- personal, inter-group, inter-regional and inter-continental confrontations, amongothers. The Nigerian society is caught up at a similar crossroad. This presupposes that what has become, or is becoming, of the Nigerian society is directly a reflection of the predicament of the international community. Indeed, the entire Nigerian system is increasingly becoming alarmingly chaotic, resulting in unprecedented episodes of conflicts and violent behaviours. For instance, relationship within, and between, families is increasingly becoming very confrontational; the echoes of intra and inter-communal or group conflicts and violence are assuming new disturbing dimensions; the educational system is fast proving highly incapable of producing variables for positive national growth and development; the two dominant religions, Christianity and Islam, are disturbingly proving to be avenues for the promotion of intra and inter-religious rivalries other than peace and unity which are supposedly their main tenets; the political system is fast becoming terrains of unprecedented violence, conflict, misrule on one hand,asthesecurityagenciesareincreasingly Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies iii
  6. 6. Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies iv proving to be suspiciously incapable of performing their constitutional roleson theotherhand,amongmanyothervices. Needless to assert at this juncture that conflict, violence and confrontation have become the dominant features of the Nigerian society. This development results from a network of causes.Apparently, therefore, for us to be able to adequately comprehend the adjoining variables responsible for this down trend in our society, much mental, physical and financial energies have to be exerted. This, of course, is the hallmark of Journal of Multi- Disciplinary Studies, A Publication of Institute of Peace Studies and Conflict Management (IPSACM), Taraba State University, Jalingo, TarabaStateUniversity,Jalingo. The Centre appreciates our renown academies who have identified with this mission, particularly, the maiden edition of its Journal through their very valuable articles. Our most reputable senior colleagues who have graciously accepted to be part of this mission as editorial consultants cannot be appreciated enough. The Centre has, indeed, put its hands on the plough and pledges to stick to the philosophy of “Forward Ever, Backward Never”. Weremainresolute. Akombo ElijahItyavkase, PhD
  7. 7. Notes on Contributors 1. Lawan Jafaru Tahir, Department of History, Yobe State University, Damaturu, Yobe State. 2. Inalegwu Stephany Akipu, PhD & Habila Hassan Department of Archaeology and Heritage Studies University of Jos, Plateau State Nigeria. 3. Ngah, Louis Njodzeven Wirnkar, Audu, Tanko Garba & Maimolo, Talatu Emmanuel Department of History, College of Education, zing, Taraba State, Nigeria. 4. Oyeniyi Solomon Olayinka, Joseph Atumba, Faculty of Education, Taraba State University, Jalingo & Oyeniyi Titilayo Mercy Post Primary School Management Board, Jalingo Taraba State. 5. Makai N. Daniel & Rinret Winniefred Lukden Department of History and Diplomatic Studies Federal University Wukari, Taraba State. 6. Samuel Wycliff, Department of History, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria & Abba Aliyu Sararinkuka, IJAMB Unit, Alqalam University, Katsina – Nigeria. 7. Fidelis H. Bonjoru, PhD, College of Education, Zing, Taraba State & Oyeniyi Solomon Olayinka, Faculty of Education, Taraba State University, Jalingo, Taraba State, 8. Bello ZakariyaAbubukar, PhD, Department of History and Diplomatic Studies, Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State. 9. Akombo I. Elijah, PhD &Vincent Christiana Department of History and Diplomatic Studies Faculty of Arts Taraba State University, Jalingo, Taraba State. 10. Hosea Nakina Martins & Joy Isaiah Tonga, Department of Christian Religious Studies, Faculty of Arts Taraba State University, Jalingo, Taraba State. Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies v
  8. 8. 11. Ayibatari Yeriworikongha Jonathan, Department of History and Diplomacy Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State. 12. Barr. Joseph D. Bagudu, Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law Taraba State University, Jalingo & Rev. Bako Yerima Gudubul, PhD Department of History and Diplomatic Studies Federal University, Wukari Taraba State. 13. Anuye, Steve Paul & Atando Dauda Agbu, PhD Department of History and Diplomatic Studies, Taraba State University Jalingo, Taraba State & Joseph, Bonglo Kingsley, Department of History, College of Education, Zing, Taraba State. 14. Umar Zubairu, Department of History Federal College of Education, Yola Adamawa State. 15. Abdulsalami M. Deji, PhD Simon Bala Fwangyil Department of History and Diplomatic Studies Faculty of Arts Taraba State University, Jalingo Taraba State & Alaba Babatunde Israel Department of History and International Studies, Faculty of Arts, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies vi
  9. 9. Contents 1. The Role of Nguru Emirate to The Political and Economic Development of Northern Nigeria, C.1630 Lawan JafaruTahir 2. Impact of Terrorism in Taraba State and the Creation of IDPCamps:CaseStudyofJalingoLGA Inalegwu StephanyAkipu, PhD &HabilaHassan 3. A Panoramic Analysis of Causes and Effects of Herdsmen Invasion of Communities In Nigeria Since 2015 Ngah, Louis Njodzeven Wirnkar, Audu, Tanko Garba & Maimolo, Talatu Emmanuel 4. Use of ICT For Effective Record Keeping In Grade-A Public Secondary Schools In Jalingo Educational Zone of Taraba State Oyeniyi Solomon Olayinka, Joseph Atumba & Oyeniyi Titilayo Mercy 5. The Modifications of African Culture In The Face of Technology: Jukun Culture In Perspective MakaiN. Daniel&RinretWinniefredLukden 6. Problems and Prospects of Commercial Motorcycle (Achaba) Transportation Enterprise: A Historical Survey of Katsina Metropolis in Northern Nigeria, 1987 – 2012 Samuel Wycliff & Abba Aliyu Sararinkuka 7. Assessment of The Utilization of Instructional Electronic Media In Training of Rural Farmers For Post-Harvest Handling As Perceived By Educational Technologists Fidelis H. Bonjoru, PhD & Oyeniyi Solomon Olayinka 8. A Brief Account of The Manipulation of Ethno- Religious Factor In Politics In Southern Taraba BelloZakariyaAbubukar,PhD 9. A Re-Consideration of the History of Origin And Migration of The Chamba People of Ganye Chiefdom, Adamawa State Akombo I. Elijah, PhD &Vincent Christiana 1-11 12-23 24-34 35-44 45-59 60-71 72-79 80-89 90-100 vii Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  10. 10. viii Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies 10. Domestic Violence: Types, Causes and Implications On The Child and Society HoseaNakina Martins&Joy IsaiahTonga 11. Nigeria in the Era of Globalization: Implications on the Nigerian society Ayibatari Yeriworikongha Jonathan 12. The Role of Electoral Tribunals in Nigeria: A Case Study of Taraba State Barr. Joseph D. Bagudu & Rev. Bako Yerima Gudubul, PhD 13. The Military and its Role in the Socio-economic Development of Taraba State of Nigeria, 1991-1998 Anuye, StevePaulAtando DaudaAgbu, PhD & Joseph, BongloKingsley 14. Aspects of Pre-Colonial Urbanization in the Emirate of Fombina: A Case of Yola 1841 – 1901 Umar Zubairu 15. The Indigenship-Settler Question in Plateau State: A Study of Ethno-Religious Crises In Jos North Local Government Area, 2000 – 2017 Abdulsalami M. Deji, PhD & Simon Bala Fwangyil & Alaba Babatunde Israel 101-113 114-123 124-152 153-164 165-176 177-193
  11. 11. 1 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies The Role of Nguru Emirate to The Political and Economic Development of Northern Nigeria, C.1630 Lawan Jafaru Tahir Department of History, Yobe State University, Damaturu Email: lawanjafar@gmail.com Phone: 08065555527 Abstract Nguru was a District under the Sayfawa Dynasty since 1630. It was created when Kanem Borno Empire established four different th principalities in the 17 century. Since then, the town, situated in the geographically advantage environment, has been one of the strategic economic locations in northern Nigeria. This paper aims to discuss the contributions of the town in terms of political and economic growth of Northern Nigeria. It is interesting to note that, Nguru was among the earliest strategic economic locations of both pre-colonial and colonial Nigeria. What appeared to have been a turning point in the history of the town became a District with a District Officer in the colonial period. The extension of railway line to the town in 1929 added impetus to its development, between 1930-1960, there were lots of commercial activities in the area, especially in commodities like groundnuts, Arabic Gum, Cotton, etc. The quantity and volume of the commodities produced made Nguru to become the most strategic commercial centre in the whole north-eastern states of Nigeria at that time. The primary source of this paper is derived from the oral source as well as monasteries documentations of the Old Borno Dynasty, especially some documents related to archival materials. Other sources include written materials like books and journals which directly discussed the history of the town.These documentsrevealedalotoffindingsonthehistoryofNguru. Keywords: Nguru, Political,Economy,Colonialism,Northernregion. Introduction There is no doubt, Nguru District was one of the oldest pre-colonial political entities of the old Safewa Dynasty of Borno. It was one of the chiefdoms created in the early Seventeen Century (1630AD).The first ruler appointed for the chiefdom was Mai Muhammad Makintami in the year 1630AD, who then was the eldest son of Mai Hajj Umar Ibn Idriss (the then MaiofBornounderSayfawaDynasty,thefounderofBorno Empire). The creation of Nguru came as a result of the various expeditions carried out with the view to expanding and protecting the empire from external aggressions, and several other series of night raids experienced in the
  12. 12. 2 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies Dynasty by scavengers and marauders. Since its establishment, Nguru District which was later upgraded to an Emirate had been contributing to the political and economic development of northern Nigeria. In the colonial period, for instance, the town became a melting pot of economic activities duetoso manyadvantages,geographicallyandotherwise. This paper aims to discuss the political map of Nguru District, and above all itscontributionstoeconomicactivitiesoftheNorthsincepre-colonialtime. What further made Nguru quite relevant in the economic activities of northern Nigeria was the extension of railway line to the area which came along with many merchants and expatriate firms. Its commercial activities covered the north-eastern district's states during and after colonial period. The smooth running of the affairs both in political and economic aspects in the area was because of firm political authority of the ruling house which was controlled by the Galadima of Borno A.K. Benishiekh maintained, for instance; “The Galadima occupied a unique position in the imperial hierarchy of pre- nineteenth century Bornoan Government. As a politico-military official of the empire with mandatory authority over the Western Borno Empire, the Galadima also ranked next to the Mai in the imperial hierarchy. The Galadima was accorded a large measure of autonomy so much so that he appeared more of a sub-imperial ruler than a mere official of the Bornoan Government…” From the above explanation on the role of Nguru in the political organization of Saifawa dynasty, it is obvious that the town had played a siginificant role in the political and economic seheres of life of Borno and northern Nigeria as a whole. Thus, it is of great significance to substantiate this history so that clear contribution of the town would be analyzed and documented. Most of the literature relevant to the history of Saifawa Dynasty did not fully discuss in details the role played by Nguru both during pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial periods. No document on the history of northern Nigerian and its economic and political fortunes both in the colonial and post-colonial era will not be fully substantiated unless contributionsofNguru arecarefullysubjectedtoanalysis. Establishment ofBirninNguru (1630) Historically, the Sayfawa Dynasty or Kanem Borno Empire was one of the biggest political entities in Central Sudan. The Dynasty, with Mai as the th th political leader, was founded in the 9 or 10 century A.D. and existed for nearly 1000 years. The Empire was in control of vast territory in the Lake th Chad region until towards the end of the 15 century when natural disaster and internal royal conflicts devastated it. This led to the emergence of “Man of the hour”, Mai Ali B. Dunama, popular known as “Ghaji” meaning “the
  13. 13. 3 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies Younger”. It was the appearance of Ghaji that brought peace to Sayfawa, which subsequently led to the establishment of a new state in western Lake ChadwithitscapitalatBirninNgazargamu(Y.Mukhtar:1985). After more than one hundred years of political and economic survival, and having established a powerful authority over a vast territory, the need arose for effective defensive frontiers more competent than the previous principalities for the purpose of neutralizing possible threats from different angles. The possibility for such challenges compelled the Mai to establish offices of the Galtima and the Khalifa. While the Galadima was at Birnin Nguru and in charge of western Borno, the Khalifa was in control of the eastern frontier.The first Galtima (Galadima as the title was later popularly called) appointed was Mai Makintami in about 1630 A.D., a prince of the royal family, who soon established a strong political and military base at Birnin Nguru. Mai Musa Shehu Galadima told us a story of how the Mai wentoutandcreatedtheDistrictofNguru: The Mai in the company of his domestic forces of 14,000 mounted troopers made up of courtiers, Dukes, Barons, Counts, Nobles, Guards and royal military consisting of slaves and freemen stopped over in a place which later was made to be the capital of Nguru, very close to a river bank, which had a lots of hippopotamus within its surrounding. They stayed there for a week hunting the hippos around for their meals and stock as well using the river to drink from and feed the transport animals that comprised horses and camels. After then the Mai and his troops proceeding their journey up to the intended destination. Their arrival was highly royal and full of entourage. They succeeded in building befitting a palace, a mosque to perform prayers and what they called “the Fambalam”, that is, “Prison”, which was followed by all necessary buildings as permanent home.Thusm it was after overcoming all these challenges that the task to name the new settlement begun.After long consultations among the top ranking title holders, at the end, Mai Makintami named it Birni Ngurtuwa (city of the Hippos). History has it that, from there the name Nguru was deduced, meaning: “Nguru- hippopotamus”inKanuri/Mangalanguages(B.Sanda:1994) In no time, the Mai succeeded in recruiting a local standing army and established the offices of Zanna Nduwama (Head of Protocol), and Zanna Mai Dala (In-Charge of food store).Within the short period of establishing Birnin Nguru, the Galtima was able to exert the influence of his new kingdom on the entire region of western Borno. Some independent and small principalities of Muniyo, Auyo and Tashena were compelled to recognizetheauthorityoftheGaltima. The developments that followed this journey were series of appointments by the king makers of the dynasty headed by Mai Birnima, who was in
  14. 14. 4 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies charge of the appointment of the Mai of Nguru. The new town received prime importance from the Mai because of its position and strategic location. This could be seen from how the Mai of Sayfawa divided his 14,000 domestic forces into two (2) and deployed the half to the new Mai of Nguru as his troops, with many slaves and concubines to make his new Kingdomstrong andpowerful(M.M. Shehu:2015). From then on, the Nguru District operated as a District under the direct administrative control of Sayfawa Dynasty, and later as the, Dynasty of Shehus. This spanned through a period of more than three hundred years stretching across the rough periods of colonial and post-colonial economies. It is interesting to note that since the establishment of the town, it has been the house of Galadima Mai Makintami that has been ruling the District except on some few occasions where care takers were posted to serve as District Heads. One important landmark in the history of Nguru District is its potentialities in terms of economic fortunes. This single potential was said to have made the town a melting pot of colonial and post-colonial commercial activities that turned the area into the economic or commercial hubofNorth-EasternDistrictofNigeria. However, History has it that the capital of Nguru survived for over 170 years before it was ravaged by the flood that destroyed farm crops and several houses. Within that period, it was learnt that about fourteen different Mai ruled the town. The graves of thirteen Mai in the royal cemetery of the old Birni Nguru are a clear certification of above historical fact. It was after that disaster that the capital was moved from Birni Nguru to Baosori, later called Burburwa both now situated in the Republic of Niger. However, during the th reign of the 20 ruler that is, Mai Mommodu Kellumi, the capital was brought back to a place near Birni Nguru some six kilometres away from the capital – the present capital of Nguru Emirate (Nguru Ngelaiwa). `It is of great significance to note that this period was one of the critical times in the history of Bilad-Al Sudan because most of the then existing states, empires and kingdoms in present day northern Nigeria were either battling with state formation or on the verge of political and economic consolidation. This indeed had to do with either Borno itself or the states of Hausa land (S. Abubakar:1980). th With emergence of the British colonial government in the 18 Century, Nguru was recognized officially as a District due to the continuing intricate relationship with the El-Kanemi Dynasty of Borno. Since then, the office of the Galadima though next to the Shehu, has been reduced to a mere title holder up to the present period. However, despite all the changes in the structure of the political authority, as well as the intervention of colonial masters, it is the same royal family who founded the Kingdom that still
  15. 15. 5 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies maintains the heritage to rule this historic settlement known as Nguru. Belowisthelistofthethirtysix (36)GaladimathathaveruledNguru todate List of The Galadimas of Borno Hereditary Mais of Nguru From 1625 To Date S/N NAME YEARS ON THRONE 1. Galadima Mai Muh’d Makintami 30 years 2. Galadima Mai Mammadu Aminami 7 years 3. Galadima Mai Bukar Mommadumi 10 years and 11 months. 4. Galadima Mai Aisami Mai Makuntami 1 day; installed in the morning and deposed in the evening. 5. Galadima Mai Amar Aisatami Bukar Mommadumi 17 years 6. Galadima Mai Mammadu Kellum 5 years 7. Galadima Mai Ibrahim 1st 14 years and 3 months. 8. Galadima Mai Iriima Sanammi 1 year 9. Galadima Mai Dunoma Aisatami 3 years 10. Galadima Mai Nasr Irimami 33 years 11. Galadima Mai Mommadu Hatsatami 11 years 12. Galadima Mai Ibrahim 2nd 16 years 13. Galadima Mai Umar Kirma Farma Zarami 20 years 14. Galadima Mai Dunoma 27 years; killed in Fulani war, Birni Nguru deserted. 15. Galadima Mai Ganama 9 years at Baosari) Now in Niger Rep. 16. Galadima Mai Gumsum Ibn Mai Ganamami 3 years and ran away. 17. Galadima Mai Kyari Ibn Mai Mommodu Hapsatami 7 years at Burburwa 18. Galadima Mai Gumsum 4 years 19. Galadima Mai Umar Kura 7 years at Burburwa now in Niger Republic and 11 years at Bundi. 20. Galadima Mai Dunoma 2 years and imprisoned 21. Galadima Mai Umar (restored) 4 years at Bundi 1and 7 years at Ngelaiwa. 22. Galadima Mai Dunoma Again 11 years and deposed 23. Galadima Mai Mammadu Kellum 27 years. 24. Galadima Mai Kyari Kura 2 years and imprisoned. 25. Galadima Ibrahim (appointed in Damagaram) 3 years in Kachallari; broke with Damagaram and imprisoned in Kukawa. 26. Galadima Gambo (appointed in Damagaram) 11 months 27. Galadima Ibrahim Restored by Shehu 2 years 28. Galadima Bukar son of Ibrahim Usurped the position for 9 months 29. Galadima Mai Kyari Kura Again 5 years and deposed. 30. Galadima Mai Umar Kellumi As Wakil 3 years, as well as Galadima 1 year. 31. Galadima Mai Musa Karumi 11 yrs and deposed. 32. Galadima Mai Kyari Kwallami 5 years and died at Anamo his farm house and was buried there. 33. Galadima Mai Musa Karumi Again 9 years and Nguru reduced to the status of district Head. 34. Galadima Mai Musa Karumi Again 11 years, but this time as a title holder. 35. Galadima Mai Kyari Ibn Mai Musa 23 years, 12 years at Nguru, 9 years at Galadima and Waziri of Borno. 36. Galadima Mai Dunoma Ibn Mai Umar Kellumi 33 years as a traditional title holder and died 2011 on throne. TOTAL 386 years Source: Socio-Economic and Political History of Nguru (M. M Shehu: 2015).
  16. 16. 6 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies The Economic Potentialities of Nguru During the Pre-colonial and ColonialPeriods. Agriculture had been the dominant economic activity in the pre-colonial period. It was basically subsistence, that is, productions were generally made for household consumption. Millets, beans, guinea corn and groundnuts were the principal crops produced in the area. The implements generally used in the period were cutlasses, hoes, axes, etc, which were produced by black-smiths. The cultivation was compounded through irrigation farming. Irrigation culture was developed as a result of the surrounding lakes, which increased the volume of production of various crops that supplied the needs of both animal husbandry, as well as served as a means of exchange of goods through trade with the neighboring villages andtowns (G.J. Lethem:10:1919). Another economic potentiality of Nguru was animal husbandry, which was, and is still, practiced in the area. The presence of Kumadugu Yobe encouraged the raising of livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats in the area. Similarly, the Manga people of Nguru, were traditionally associated with fishing and hunting, which was developed due to the availability of streams and water ponds. The people were also involved in salt and neutron production. This development naturally brought people very close to the culture of local industrial growth that was nurtured based on plant and animal resources. The former aided in the making of items such as woodwork and mat-making, while the later led to the making of hides and skin products which facilitated the growth of local industries in Nguru. This contributed enormously in the socio-economic development of Northern regioningeneral(AT.Abba:1998). The economic activities and potentialities highlighted above were the factors that led to the development of trade routes linking Nguru with various economic centres, particularly Hausaland. Also the trade routes inevitably influenced the growth of local markets, where the exchange of local industrial goods and various agricultural products. A.G. Hobskin however maintains that, it was when the surpluses of these products were over and above subsistence level that exchange of goods became quite prominentinthearea. Furthermore, colonial conquest and establishment of British rule in Nguru was similar to that of other parts of northern Nigeria both in theory, practice, objectives and exploitations. Nguru was thus conquered by the British with the desire to unite the various semi-independent units of the Shehu Dynasty formoreeffectiveexploitationofthewholeregion. AccordingY. Muktar andA. Bako, from the advent of British rule in 1902 to the attainment of Nigeria's independence in 1960, Borno Province had
  17. 17. 7 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies recorded spectacular strides in land, water and air transport. Within this period, the Province was connected to motorized road network, which was initiated within the framework of Nigeria rail network. Later, it was linked to both domestic and international route, among which were Nguru air strip andsubsequentlytheMaiduguriAirport. The development of transportation and communication networks led to the rapid growth in value and volume of agricultural exports in Nguru. This advantage made Nguru to witness economic transformation from pre- colonial subsistence farming and short trading activity to one of the highest location of cash crop economy that fed European industries, particularly Britain. The extension of railway line to Nguru in 1929 was a historic landmark in the history of the area, especially when British District Officer was sent to the town. This was done to facilitate effective administrative duty and to maintain law and order due to the influx of people, attracted by the commercial opportunities of the town. By 1911, the rail line had reach Kano from Lagos (a total of 711miles). It was from Kano that the line was extended to Nguru. The rail line became effective in serving the European purpose of using Nguru as the centre for accumulating raw materials. In fact, all the major exports from the northern and western part of Borno Province were transported through Nguru from where they were finally moved through Kano via Kaduna down to Lagos for its final exportation to Europe(L.Jafaru:1998:32). It is important to note that to link the railway with other subsidiary communication lines, a policy of constructing feeder roads to merge the important market centres in western Borno with the rail head at Nguru was put in place. One of those major roads that attracted British attention for linkage it with Nguru was Gashu'a road. By 1930, the construction had started, and by 1934, about 43 miles was reached all to facilitate economic activity(E.KFeatherson:1940). No matter the economic advantage Ngur enjoyed during the colonial period, colonial economy had in no time changed both the practice and production capacity of the agriculture as well as the livestock economy in the area. By 1929, E.K. Featherson maintained that the comparative figure forlivestockwereasfollows: The growth in the quantity of livestock was so vital to the colonial interest because, it served as an avenue for supplying meat, hides and skins which were very much needed to enable the European industries to function Cattle Camels Sheep Goats 3718 165 17357 37418 Source:NAK,Mainprof:1945,
  18. 18. 8 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies beneficially. Measures taken to ensure their targets were met, including the introduction of improve yield, new seed such asAmerican alien cotton seed in 1935. The annual report of that period indicates that about six tons of cottonseedsweredistributedtofarmersinNguru (Y.B.Sanda:1994:43). One measure taken by the British to boast the volume of production by the farmers in Nguru was the introduction of both the use of currency and taxation system. Both means facilitated the smooth running of British administration. Currency was used to pay workers monthly salary and allowances, while tax collected were used to enable them execute administrative work as well as development of infrastructures, maintenance of security agency, etc. Nguru had therefore offered a good economic centre for the British. For instance, the tax collected kept rising year in year out. It increased from 908 pounds in 1911 to 1,557 in 1912, and by 1918 it had reached 2,064 despite the famine that ravaged the farmers in 1915 (L.J. Lethem:1919). Two crops that received serious attention during the colonial economy in Nguru was Groundnuts and Arabic gum. This development started when British officials propagandized to the local farmers that groundnuts offered a new potentially lucrative commercial opportunity. They, therefore, extended financial assistance by persuading the farmers to grow more and gave guarantees regarding the purchase of the harvest. Thus, in 1933, about 8,323 tons of groundnuts and 459 tons of Arabic gum were railed from Nguru. Equally in 1935, the tonnage had reached about 7,716 (E.K. Featherson:1930). The foregoing development gradually attracted attention far and near to Nguru and in no time Nguru became a melting pot of commercial centre in the then northern region of Nigeria. For instance, dried meat, dried fish and neutrons market became of great importance to the colonial authority. Its consumption indicated the rapid increase in the number of the cattle slaughtered at a time for that Particular purpose. For instance, in 1936, a camel market was started and about 350 camels were sold, and by the year 1948, about 500 to 700 cattle were slaughtered at a time for the dried meat marketalone(ibid). One significant development that further revolutionized commercial activities in Nguru was the extension of railway line from its station to the abattoir. This facilitated the strategic location of loading dried meat, hides and skins including all the farm products. The table below shows the list of the tonnage railed from Nguru to Kano for onward exportation to Europe indicating the astronomical rise of the quantity in volume.
  19. 19. 9 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies The later development that followed this economic growth was a clash between farmers and colonial authority on the basis of price control. It was probably as a result of the disenchantment of the producers that in 1949, a Marketing Board was established aimed at giving fair price for the producers of commodities.This was a turning point in the economic history of Nguru and northern Nigeria in general, because soon the trade brought the involvement of expatriate firms around Nguru and the whole northern Nigeria. Even though as early as 1912 a firm called London KanoTrading Company had been in existence in Nguru, prior to the linkage of railway line, their activities were concentrated at Maja Kura, a very prominent commercial centre. For quite sometimes, this trading firm was in control of the production of raw materials. The above development was what led to the full participation of expatriate firms in the whole economic activities.Thus, by 1950 Euopean firms like the Niger Company, Perterson Zochonis and Company, G.B. Olivant and Company purchased about 320 to 500 tons of hidesandskins fromNguru alone(L.JLethem:1940). Nguru from Districttoan Emirate The first move to create Nguru Emirate was made during the reign of the late Galadima Mai Kyari, who was then the ruler of Nguru in the early 1950s. This was during the period of Sir John MarcPherson, the then Governor- General of Nigeria. The move was initiated in the late 1952, when he was accompanied by Sir Bryan Shan Wood Smith, the then Governor for Northern Nigeria, and many other colonial officers to Nguru foratourtoeconomiccommercialcentresofnorthernregion. Secondly, also between 1953 and 1963, attempt was made under nine-man committee, but because of some issues that arouse from the mother Emirate (Borno), things were not well for Nguru. That ambition was not fulfilled until 30 years later when Yobe State was curved out Borno State in August 1991. Another attempt was made when after the eight-man committee was assigned with the responsibility of spearheading the movement for the Commodity Year (1946) Year (1947) Potash 4.76tons 6160tons DriedMeat 574tons 712tons Hidesandskins 324tons 532tons Groundnuts 4, 881tons 8, 956tons Arabicgum 1, 789tons 1, 091tons Cotton 24tons 24tons Beans 2, 980tons 2, 080tons Total 15,314tons 19,582tons Source: BornoProvinceannual reports, 1947.
  20. 20. 10 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies creation of Nguru Emirate in 1993. It was this tireless struggle that finally paved way for Nguru to subsequently be granted the status of Emirate together with eight other Emirates in Yobe State. But not very long, the Emiratewas dissolvedbecauseofsomepoliticalintrigues. However as history shall properly place Nguru in its rightful place, another event turned the District into a first class Emirate with political and economic structure reflecting the by-gone days of the Sayfawa Dynasty. This was facilitated when the Federal Government established a National Reconciliation Committee to look into the matters. The committee recommended Nguru to become an Emirate in the year 2000, with MustaphaIbnGaladimaMaiKyariasthefirstEmir. Conclusion From what has been discussed in this paper, the history of northern Nigeria cannot be fully substantiated without discussing the political and economic contribution of Nguru District. The formation of the town since 1630, its potentialities and opportunities, political and military strength had all contributed to the growth and development of the town from pre-colonial, throughcolonialandpost-colonialperiodsrespectively. The study reveals that the volume of economic activities in Nguru as outlined, was increased as a result of the extension of railway line which facilitated the influx of people into the area. Colonial economy had exploited the fortunes of the area for more than thirty years. Within the period, a lot of political and economic transformation had been realized which were mostly pro-colonial policies. Development of feeder roads, introduction of new seeds, construction of abattoir and ware houses, taxation system were all among the colonial policies and strategic economic exploitationapplied in colonial Nguru.The subsequent growth in the volume of production had also paved way for expatriate firms to settle and establishe bases in the area.All these are factors that could be combined to justify the relevant and contributions of Nguru in the political and economicdevelopmentofnorthernNigeria. References 1. Abubakar, S. (1980), “The northern province under colonial rule 1900-1959”, in O. Ikimi (ed) Groundwork of Nigerian History, Macmillan Ibadan, Nigeria. 2.Alkali,M.N. (1978),“TheKanemBorno undertheSayfawa: Astudyof Origin,GrowthandCollapseofan Empire”.(Ph. DThesissubmittedto thedepartmentofhistory,ABU Zaria) 3.Al-Mahram,JournalofTransSaharanStudies,UniversityofMaiduguri,
  21. 21. 11 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies Nigeria.Maidenedition,November2004. 4.AAdelina(1997) “Colonisation,Commerceand Entrepreneurshipin Nigeria1914-1960” SocietyandPoliticsinAfrica,Vol2NewYork. 5.AbdulrahmanA. M. andCanhamO. P(1978)“TheInkoftheScholar” MacmillanIbadan,Nigeria. 6.Bala,U.(1991), in“TheGirgam's oftheGaladima'sofBorno.” ABU ZariaPress, Nigeria. th 7.Benishiek,A.K.(1983), “The19 centuryGaladimas ofBorno,”inB. UsmanandN.Alkali(ed)“Studiesinthehistoryofpre-colonialBorno.” N.N.P.C.ZariaNigeria. 8.Butcher, P.G. (1935), “Annual report on the province,” N.A.K. 25730 Vol.1 9.DoiA. I.andBakariA. (2009)“Land oftheBlack Muslims” Published by S.M.H.Akbar,inHajjPublication. 10. Lawan,J.(1998), “Nguru Under Colonialrule:acasestudyofan economy of North-eastern District state.” (final project submitted to the departmentofhistoryUniversityofMaiduguri.) 11.Oyewola,E.O.(1987) ColonialUrbanization inNorthern Nigeria: Kaduna1913-1960.Ph.DThesisA. B.U. Zaria.Nigeria. 12. Okediji,F.A. B,(1970 )“AnEconomichistoryofHausa-Fulani EmirateofNorthernNigeria1900-1939.”IndianaUniversity. 13. Shaw.F,(2010),EconomicresourcesofNorthernNigeria.Cambridge Universitypress.(Cambridgebooks Online). 14. Shehu,M. M.(2015) “Socio-EconomicandPoliticalperspectivesof Nguru 1630-Date.”PublishedbyAl-MumtazprintersKeffi,Nigeria. 15.Tyron.F,(2013) “Theprocess ofagriculturalmodernizationin Northern Nigeria:AnOver-determinedanalysis.”U. K. Publishedby ProQuest UMI Dissertation.
  22. 22. 12 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies Impact of Terrorism in Taraba State and the Creation of IDP Camps: Case Study ofJalingoLGA Inalegwu Stephany Akipu, PhD & Habila Hassan Department of Archaeology and Heritage Studies University of Jos inalegwus@unijos.edu.ng; akeeps2014@gmail.com hassanhabila01@gmail.com Phone: 08036042234, 07030937779 Abstract Terrorism can be said to have stemmed from differences, leading to conflict of interests. Sadly, in Nigeria, terrorism can no longer be referred to as news. This menace seems to have come to stay, as all efforts to curb or eliminate it has proved futile. The aim of this study is to critically examine the effect of terrorism in Jalingo Local Government Area of Taraba State and the creation of IDPs camp between 1999-2015. The paper starts with an introduction to the onset of terrorism in Nigeria, causative factors responsible for terrorism, the impact of Terrorism resulting in the creation of IDPcamps and the challenges being faced by the occupants of these IDP camps. The research adopts a multidisciplinary approach as it engages the use of interviews, questionnaires and written materials in form of texts, journals and reports from the National Archive, Kaduna. The paper concludes by suggesting tentative solutions on ways of curbing or totally eliminatingthismenace. KeyWords:Impact,Terrorism,IDPCamps,Jalingo. Introduction Terrorism, though very frequently used, can be relatively hard to define. It has been described variously based on the views of the person defining it. The United States Department of defense defines terrorism as the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate government or society in the pursuit of goalsthataregenerallypolitical,religious,orideological. The word terror has its political origin in the French revolution –in the sense of terror carried out by the state. With the enlightenment, the idea of popular sovereignty was born: it was in its name and in its defense that the revolution justified state terror. Political terrorism was later used in the second half of the nineteenth century, notably by the Russian Populists who were influencedbyRomantictradition. Okeke asserts that Terrorism shall be seen as organized violent attack on a
  23. 23. 13 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies target with the aim of undermining a lawfully constituted authority and to cause fear among the populace in furtherance of some socio-political objectives. Furthermore, as stated by Aaron, Terrorism may be briefly defined as coercive intimidation. It is the systematic use of murder and destruction in other to terrorize individuals, groups, communities or governmentsintoconcedingtotheterroristpoliticaldemands. Terrorism is one of the oldest techniques of psychological warfare. A primary target for terrorism is determined and credibility established by convincing the target that the threat can actually be carried out .The victim or victims of the actual terrorist violence may or may not be the primary target and the effects of relatively small amounts of violence will tend to be quite disproportionate in terms of the numbers of people terrorized. For instance, in the words of an ancient Chinese proverb,'' kill one, frighten thousands. Nowadays, terrorism beats out guerrilla warfare as the preferred and practically exclusive weapon of the weak against the strong. Its primary target is the mind. In that sense, terrorism is the most violent form of psychological warfare, and its psychological impact is commonly understoodtobefargreaterthanitsphysicaleffects. Brain Jenkins notes, the term “terrorism” has no precise or widely accepted definition. If it were a mere matter of description, establishing a definition would be simple; terrorism is violence or a threat of violence calculated to create an atmosphere of fear and alarm-in a word, to terrorize-and thereby bringaboutsomesocialorpoliticalchanges. HistoryofTerrorisminNigeria It is difficult to come to terms with the direction of terrorism in Nigeria as it is has extended and has become enmeshed into political, religious and ideological goals of the terrorists.Although tentatively, one can surmise that it was ideological from the onset, and later became religious, then now it has become political. But then again, the Chinese proverb can be said to succinctly describe the situation in Nigeria. Fred Femi et-al, in a Journal article titled; “Boko Haram and terrorism in northern Nigeria”, however, categorized Boko Haram into three.They are the religious one, the criminal, and the political. The religious one is the original one led by late Mohammed Yusuf. The criminal Boko Haram are those individuals harassing and extorting money from people, those that rob banks, etc. and kill Nigerians in the name of religion. While the one; the political Boko Haram, are the political rivals in the north who use arms to settle dispute between themselves. They came about when local politicians sponsored armed thugs to help disrupt the 2007 election and then abandoned them creatingafertilerecruitmentfield.
  24. 24. 14 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies No doubt, one of the greatest challenges to Nigeria's national security is terrorism which has cascaded into other areas such as the economy, social and psychological aspects of the country.Though Nigeria has witnessed, in time past, isolated acts of violence and violent killings with the use of Improvised Explosive Device (IED's) and other terroristic apparatus, (Example of such is the killing of Mr. Dele Giwa, by letter bomb in October, 1986, the hijacking of Nigeria airways aircraft in October, 1993, following the annulment of Chief M.K.O Abiola's presidential election by Movement for the advancement of Democracy). several other incidents have occurred since then. For instance, between 1996 and 1998 there was bomb attack on the car of the then chief security officer of FederalAviation Authority of Nigeria ,Dr. Omoshola, which was followed by the attack on the convoy of the former MilitaryAdministration of Lagos State, Brig Gen Marwa(Rtd). Acts amounting to terrorism have also been committed in the very many ethno-religious conflicts that plagued the nation, especially the northern part. There have been series of bombings and killings in the country, some of which can be traced to the Movement for the Emancipation of Niger Delta (MEND) and the 'Jama'atul Alhul Sunnah Lidda' Watiwal Jihad, which means people committed to the propagation of the Prophet's teachings and Jihad also known as Boko Haram (a term for western educationisforbidden). Zubainat Abdulhameed Jalingo reports in Nigeria Sunrise that terrorist have now adopted new tactics. Taraba State police Public Relations Officer, PPRO, Joseph Kwaji, has stated that the common Intelligence Department revealed that terrorists have now adopted a new modus of operation to attack and destroy lives and property of innocent citizens through the application of a fire lighter to the exhaust of a parked vehicle to cause explosion. According to a press statement issued by the command's spokesman, another way of causing destruction by the suspected terrorists was by throwing remote control explosive device into a car, especially when parked far away from the owners. The statement further warned vehicle owners/users to always ensure that their cars were parked closely for easy monitoring. This plague seems to have waxed stronger over time andcallsforseriousconcernbyallandsundry. TheOriginofHokoHaramas aTerroristGroup In order to understand the prevalence of terrorism in Nigeria, a brief overview of the birth of Boko Haram is apt. The group was founded by as self-proclaimed Nigerian spiritual leader, late Mohammed Yusuf, in 2002 in the city of Maiduguri, with the aim of establishing a Sharia government in Borno state. Late Yusuf established an organization of youth, some of
  25. 25. 15 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies whom were school dropouts and unemployed university graduates. They were indoctrinated to believe that their state of hopelessness was caused by the government which imposed western education on them and failed to manage the resources of the country to their benefits. The group soon believed that the only way out of their predicament was to attack the government and its institutions, and that whoever died in the process will go to heaven. Members of the sect always armed themselves with such sophisticated modern weapons as rocket propelled grenades, RPGs, and AK47 rifles; trained in guerrilla warfare and had support from rebels from neighboringstatesandveryrichNigerianswithinthecountryandabroad. In 2004, from its new location which was nick –named'' Afgha, the late Yusuf established a religious complex that included a mosque and a school where many poor families from across Nigeria and neighboring countries enrolled their children. The Centre had ulterior political goals and soon was also working as a recruiting ground for full Jihadists to fight the state.' More attention has been given to the Boko Haram group even though other groups such as MEND exist because this group seems to have caused more damage than all others and cannot be tamed since its birth in 2002 till date, despite all effortsmadebythegovernment. Causes ofTerrorism As stated earlier, clash of interest is often times, the reasons behind conflict which inevitably leads to terrorism. Talla Ngarka states that, conflict is a universal phenomenon. It is not a preserve of one region, group, and religion or tribe. Such celebrated cases are the ethnic cleansing in Rwanda by the Hutu against the Tutsi, Dafur in Western Sudan, the Tiv/Azara conflict, Tiv/Jukun conflict, Jos (2001, 2004, 2008, 2010), Kafanchan/Kagaro conflict,etc. Conflict is defined simply as: “a struggle over values and claims to scarce status, power and resources in which the aim of the opponents are to neutralize injure, or eliminate their rivals”. Conflict has been divided into five main stages; namely, emerging stage, escalating stage, severe stage, de- escalatingstageandrebuildingandreconciliationstage. Emerging Stage:- At this stage, sign and signals of all kind are being given closeness between two friends, for example, closeness gradually giving way to aloofness and disinterestedness. Frequent visitations are reduced considerably. Emotional expressions of warmth and familiarity slowly will bereplacedbycoldnessandsomeelementsofindifference. Escalating Stage:- The time frame for this stage can be very short and at this point all the parties to the conflict are quite aware that something is fundamentally wrong in the relationship and if nothing is done to check the situation,apointofno returnwillquicklysurfaceleadingtothethirdstage.
  26. 26. 16 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies The Severe Stage:- At the most severe stage, nothing is sacred again. Schools, hospitals, churches, mosques community property and so on may be destroyed. Any human person could be attacked and killed including those that are not members of the conflicting parties. When the conflicting parties are now tired or there is no external intervention, the fourth stage of theconflictbeginstoshow itsface. The De-escalating Stage:- At this level, the disputants now involve their elders, leaders, religious functionaries' and popular persons in the environment to mediate or intervene and suggest the way forward in the conflict. Rebuilding and Reconciliation Stage:- This stage is concerned with repairing relationships, institutions and social facilities and putting in place schemes that can help the disputing communities or individuals to be united once again. The question that comes to mind now is, where did the problem arise? A conflict between the originator of the Boko Haram group and the government? A psychological and emotional instability of the individual whichmanifestedthroughthebirthofBokoHaram? Impact ofTerrorism As a result of conflict generated by Northern Nigeria is notorious for its refugee flows and forced population displacements. These in turn created nationalsecurityproblemsforstatesinNigeria. The capital city of operation for the Boko Haram sect in Nigeria began in Maiduguri before its spread to Yobe, Adamawa, and other states. Going by proximity to its capital city in the North eastern region of Nigeria, locations suchasJalingoinTarabaStateisnotsparedfromtheinfluxofrefugees. At this juncture, a brief overview of the geographical location of Jalingo would suffice in understanding the impact of terrorism in the aforementioned area of study, especially as a result of geographical proximitytoBorno. Terrorismand RefugeeCamps inJalingo Taraba state, otherwise known as “Natures Gift to the Nation” was created on 27th August, 1991, by the administration of the then military president, General Ibrahim Babangida. It was carved out of the defunct Gongola state in fulfillment of the long nurtured aspiration of the different ethnic groups thatinhabitthearea. At creation, Taraba state was made up of nine (9) local government areas, namely, Bali, Gashaka, Jalingo, Karim-lamido, Lau, Sardauna, Takum, Wukari and Zing. This number was increased to twelve (12) in September, 1991, when three (3) additional local government areas; Yorro, Donga and Ibi were created. Following yet another local government creation exercise by theAbacha administration in 1996, the number of local government area
  27. 27. in the state increased to sixteen (16) as Ardokola, Gassol, Kurmi and Ussa localgovernmentareawereadded. Taraba state lies roughly between latitude 6.30o and 7.35o north and longitude 9.10o and 11.50o. It is bordered on the north-east by Adamawa and Gombe states and on the west and south east by Plateau and Benue states respectively. On its eastern border lies the Republic of Cameroun. Based on the release of the 2006 census figures by the National Population Commission and subsequent endorsement by the federal government, Taraba state has a provisional population figure of two million, three hundredthousand,sevenhundredandthirtysix(2,300,736). Jalingo Local Government Area of Taraba state lies between latitudes 8o11 to 8o50 north and longitudes 11o05 to 11o25 east. It is bounded to the north by Karim-Lamido and Lau Local Government Areas, to the east by Yorro Local Government Area, to the south and west by Ardo-Kola Local Government Area. It has a land mass of about 1380km square. In terms of relative location, Jalingo is accessible from Benue and plateau states through Wukari and Ibi Local Government Areas respectively and through Gassol andArdo-kola Local GovernmentAreas from the southern axis. It is also accessible from Adamawa state through Mayo-Belwa, Zing, Lau and Yorro LocalGovernmentAreas on one hand and through Demsa and Numan LocalGovernmentAreasontheotherhand. Levinus Nwabughiogu reports (Vanguard Newspaper) that five days after Boko Haram terrorists seized Mubi, the second largest town in Adamawa, the insurgents help unto the town even as about 3,000 residents who managed to escape joined other internally displaced persons at an NYSC Camp in Yola. Some at the survivors of the invasion also recounted their ordeals. Most of them who ran for safety were student of the Federal Polytechnic,Mubi. The concern for the problems of terrorist groups has led to the breakdown of law and order, loss of thousands of lives, properties, and destruction of places of worship, churches, mosques, markets, Beer Parlors, recreation centers and schools. These properties are worth billions of naira. The activities of these terrorist groups have led to mass fleeing of people to neighboring states for safety and protection, and that led to the creation of IDPs campsinJalingoanditenvirons. Refugees are persons who have fled their original homes due to one crisis or the other. They are popularly referred to as displaced people. Today, refugees make the most coherent and the systematic impact of forced migration on national security. Although the international refugees' regime has its roots in the 1920s, the current refugee norms, laws and institutions werecreatedafterWorldWarII. 17 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  28. 28. The definition of a refugee adopted by the international community in the 1951 UN Convention Relating to the status of refugees centered on individual persecution rather than on a threat to life or freedom due to generalized violence and was limited to the events occurring before 1951. In a 1967 Protocol, the time limitation was dropped and the refugee regime, which was essentially European in nature, was expanded to all corners of theworld. As more refugee emerged in the Developing World, often as a result of colonial independent struggles, it became clear that the 1951 definition of refugees was inadequate. Only some of the persons seeking asylum feared individual persecution. Many other fled simply to avoid death, injury and devastation. Their plight was equally intolerable. Hence, in 1969, the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), now African Union (AU), adopted its own convention. It defined a refugee as person fleeing from violence in hisher country. Similarly, the 1984 Cartagena Declaration of Refugees in LatinAmericarecognizedthosethreatenedby violence. Definition of the analytical report of the Secretary-General of UN on Internally Displaced Persons of 14 February, 1992, sees IDPs as; “persons who have been forced to flee their homes suddenly or unexpectedly in large number, as a result of armed conflict, internal strife, systematic violation of human right or natural or manmade disasters; and who are within the territory of their own country”. By defining an internally displaced person as one who is forced from his home, the 1992 definition needlessly complicatedthesearchforacceptable-notideal-solution. The IDP definition, unlike the refugee definition, does not mention a government's willingness or ability to protect displaced persons. By making location, the essence of the IDP definition, and not the rights to be protected, it does not offer the restoration of one's rights in another location asadurablesolutionforinternallydisplacedpeople. The advent of terrorism in Taraba State, Jalingo to be precise, can be traced back to 30th April, 2012, and subsequently, to other series of attacks and terrorist activities in the state. The advent of IDPS in Jalingo, on the other hand, can be traced back to 2013 when the terrorist activities engulfed the North Eastern region of the country. Following the attacks, many people from neighboring states ran to Taraba, Jalingo in particular, for safety. Find below a list of some of the IDP camps in Jalingo and their years of establishment. i. MalumIDPin2014. ii. KofaiIDPin2014. iii. AbujaPhase2 IDPin2014. 18 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  29. 29. iv. MayoDasaIDPin2014. v. Sabon GariIDPin2015. From the above, it can be seen that within two years five IDP camps were established in Jalingo alone. The number kept increasing in these designated camps, in addition to other unofficial camps within Taraba State in search of safety.Today, Jalingo and, indeed,Taraba State at large, serve as placeofrefugefornumerousdisplacedpeople. Amidst the deteriorating security situation in north east Nigeria is also confronted with daunting developmental challenges such as endemic rural and urban poverty, high rate of unemployment, debilitating youth unemployment, low industrial output, unstable and deteriorating exchange rate in the state and the country, high inflation rate, inadequate physical and social infrastructure, very large domestic debt and rising stock of external debt. The areas affected by the Boko haram insurgency have been devoid of virtuallyalleconomic,politicalandsocialactivities. ChallengesofIDPCamps inJalingo The foregoing scenarios are replicated in IDP camps in Jalingo and in other camps within Taraba State. The social effects in the camps stretch across educational, health, cultural and psychological spheres of life of the displacedpeople. i. In the area of education, many displaced children or people have their educational pursuit terminated or disrupted due to either lack offunds ordistance; ii. Culturally, values, beliefs and tradition no longer matter to the refuges in their new environment thereby affecting producing psychologicaleffects; iii. Politically, the dreams and aspirations of some the refugees are truncated. Ironically, while the presence of the migrants in a particular area increases the political strength of that area, the place theymigratedfromlosesitspoliticalstrength; iv. Economically, the refugees live in pitiable conditions resulting from the lost of property worth million of naira, in addition to their dislocation from their sources of livelihood. Their dependence on charity for survival does not give them satisfaction and happiness inlife. v. On the part of government, a lot of money is expended in organizing the IDP camps and fixing the much needed 19 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  30. 30. infrastructure,nomatterhow temporary. vi. Going by the influx of persons into Jalingo, other factors come to play such as population increase, leading to traffic gridlock, scarcity of resources as a result of high demand, introduction of negative social vices such as kidnapping, criminality, prostitution, new values and culture which are alien to the host community, to mentionafew. vii. Generally, after the initial attacks and emotions that follow, there is a lot of clamour for help for the displaced people. Unfortunately, after a while, this passion of the call for help dies down and they are left to their fate. Consequently, the IDP camps are faced with not only the challenges of space and basic amenities which are usually missing in these camps, but also even adequate food supply for their feeding. In addition, the camps are found wanting in areas of health and much needed attention of the social and psychological wellbeingofanyhumanbeing. Terrorism is certainly a threat to economic prosperity and development .This is because until peace and order is restored in the society, viable economic activities cannot thrive successfully and both domestic and foreign investors will not feel confident or save to invest in such areas. For instance, re-occurring attacks by the Islamic terrorist group known as Boko Haram in Taraba State has eventually led to a standstill in economic activities of various communities in the state as a result of its attendant effects. Recommendations Nigeria's current security challenges, especially the one posed by Boko Haram insurgency, can be resolved if a pragmatic approach is used. This is connected to the fact that, in Nigeria, usually government approaches to national issues are defective due to wrong diagnosis of the real problems at hand. Though the cause of Boko Haram insurgence is contrary to the value of democracy, civilization and humanity, the Movement is being influenced by both internal and external factors, and largely concerned with the socio political order under which the members live and a struggle for change in line with their doctrinal assumption. The recurring problems of bad leadership at all levels of government and other related or attendant factors have contributed to the lingering of terrorism in north east Nigeria. The followingrecommendationsarethereforeprofferedforthewayforward. i. Good leadership as well as the use of counter ideology are believed 20 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  31. 31. to be the possible long lasting solution to Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria .Critical here is the role of religious leaders of both Christianity and Islam alike to educate their followers that the insurgency is not targeted at any religious groups, but a common threat to the peaceful corporate existence of Nigeria.To counter the Boko Haram insurgency, the government and other stakeholders mustatalllevelssynergisetogetherforthewayforward. ii. It is imperative that everybody should know that the issue of security is not only the concern of security service and the government alone but all and sundry. It requires the efforts of everybody to effectively deal with it. Security is therefore no longer an arcane subject that must be left only in the domain of the security personnel. If Nigeria must remain safe and secure, its people must be involved in fighting Boko Haram and any other formofinsurgency. iii. Related to the above is the need for re-training of the security agents not in terms of the use of military hard ware, but in intelligence gathering .The government needs to develop the intelligence gathering mechanism through adequate training of security agents. Efforts should be made to give more priority to securityagencies,atleastatthiscriticalmoment. iv. Government should also focus on factors responsible for insecurity in the country. Issues of poverty, unemployment, bad governance should be tackled seriously if the government wants to see the end to Boko Haram terrorism in Nigeria. Government should approach security through the development of infrastructure such as roads, health, housing, water, employment generation, economic empowerment and the education of the people, particularly the youth. If this is done, the level of insecurity imposed by Boko Haram in the country will be reduced to barest minimum. v. The government should adopt a more friendly people-centered approach to national issues rather than self –tendencies of the politicians. The government should provide basic welfare for the people in the forms of employment, housing, electricity and adequate food security. When this is done the activities of Boko 21 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  32. 32. Haram terrorists will remain tenuous and fragile in Nigeria. Alternatively, the federal government through its security agencies, should flush out within the agencies backers or supporters of Boko Haram sect. such security personnel should be made to face the law for appropriate disciplinary measures or actions. In conclusion, this paper has looked at the origin of Boko haram in Nigeria, causative factors responsible for the birth of terrorism, the ensuing impacts of terrorism such as the creation of IDP camps. It further attempted a cursory overview of the challenges faced by the occupants in the IDPcamps within specific emphasis on Jalingo camps. It finally suggests ways of curbing or totally eliminating this menace that terrorism has become in Nigeria as a whole and in Jalingo in particular. It is hoped that if these recommendations are critically looked and implemented into by the stake holders,then,therecanbehopeforNigeriainthefightagainstterrorism. References Elizabeth IhughYecho.Historical Discourse of Terrorism. A Journal of the Department of History and Archaeology.Taraba State University.Vol 2,No.182.p.4 O.A.H Lar.Terrorism and Human Rights in Nigeria .A Journal of the DepartmentofPoliticalScienceandInternationalRelations.p.139 DailyTrust,Tuesday,March9,2010.p.4 DailyTrust,Tuesday,March9,2010.p.4 Gerard Ckilliand and ArmaudBlin .The History of Terrorism from Antiquity toAl-Qaeda University of California Press Berkeley LosAngelis London.p.16 . Advance Systems and concept office Defense Threat Reduction Agency.Terrorismconcepts,causes and conflicts Resolution .Virginia,January,2003.p.22 Fred Femi Akinfola,GabrielAundeAkinbode ,Ibi-AgiobuKemmer.Boko Haram and Terrorism in Northern Nigeria .British Journal Publishing.2014.p.119 O.A.H Lar.TerrorismandHumanRightsinNigeria.p.139 Vanguard.Monday,November3,2014.p.9 O.A.H Lar.TerrorismandHumanRightsinNigeria.p.139 TallaNgarkaSunday,AparaS.E.A,Aliyu Mohammed,DawoodOmolumenEgbefo.Peace Studies and Conflicts Resolutions.SmartPrintProductionsBauchiRd,Jos.p.16 Taraba State Government of Nigeria, Natures Gift to the Nation, Diary 22 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  33. 33. 2012.DesignedbyMinistryofInformation,CultureandTourism.p.5 Vanguard.Monday,November3,2014.p.9 U.S Committee for Refugees (USCR),CF WWW.Refugees.org.p7 December2016 AbiodunAfolabi. Terrorism and its effects on the Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria. A case Study of Boko Haram in Borno State. March2012.p.15 23 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  34. 34. APanoramicAnalysis of Causes and Effects of Herdsmen Invasion of Communities In NigeriaSince2015 Ngah, Louis Njodzeven Wirnkar, Audu, Tanko Garba & Maimolo, Talatu Emmanuel Department of History, College of Education, zing, Taraba State, Nigeria. Email: ngahlouis72@gmail.com, ydconsul@yahoo.com, tankoaudu602@gmail.com Phone No: 08037131250, 08033667107/ 08027980493 Abstract Since 2015, the phenomenon of armed Fulani Herdsmen invasion, especially their nature and the root causes have been a bone of contention. Too many interpretations or views have been expressed in attempts to explain cause of the phenomenon. The Fulani Herdsmen invasion of some communities in Nigeria, especially the BenueValley, is an example that can be used to x-ray the influence of historic, social, political and economic aspects in the inoculation of the belligerency, as well as in analyzing intercourse of causes and aftermath of the perpetuation of Fulani Herdsmen Invasion. This Paper is therefore an attempt to analyze the antecedence that gave rise to the invasion and to proffer the way forward. To attain this, a multi dimension has been adoptedtoincorporateawiderangeof sources inthedatacollection KeyWords:Analysis, Causes, Effects,HerdsmenandInvasion Introduction .Primordialist postulations have often emerged to try to explain armed Fulani herdsmen invasion of Nigeria. These analyses considered violence a mere internal issue, based on atavistic confrontations between and among ethnic groups. Contrary views have also emerged in favour of interpreting causes of upheavals as consequences of competing claims and counter claims over resources. This view has been widely accepted by mass media and even some sectors of the civil society and the academia. Consequently, an interpretation of armed Fulani herdsmen invasion of the Middle-Belt region or the Benue Valley of Nigeria, especially after the inauguration of Mohammadu Buhari as the elected democratic president th on the 29 May 2015 must take into account the various spheres and dimensions, including local, regional, international and transnational levels. These levels are deeply rooted in the historical, social, economic 24 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  35. 35. andpoliticalcontextofeachconflict. The Genesis of the incessant attacks on communities in the Middle Belt RegionofNigeria Since after the 2015 general elections, attacks on Middle Belt communities by Fulani herdsmen intensified. These attacks have taken place in Nasarawa, Benue, Plateau, Kogi, Kwara, Adamawa, Taraba, Kaduna states, including the FCT, all in the Middle Belt. The media label them “attacks by Fulani herdsmen or armed bandits”. The regularity, discipline and weapons used in the attacks lead us to conclude that there is more attached to the causes of the attacks more than mere cattle rustling or vengeance. The Miyetti Allah Cattle Breeders Association, the umbrella body of Fulani cattle rearers has openly drummed up support for the cattle breeders, attributing the actions of the dreaded herdsmen, also to incidents of 1 cattlerustlingandblockadeofcattleroutesbyfarmers. The questions that readily come to mind in connection with the unfortunate development are; When and why have the Fulani become blood thirsty vampires? And why is it that only Middle Belt blood is a solution to their lust?We have heard from leading Fulani politicians that the 'North' will not forgive the Middle Belt for siding with a Southerner (Goodluck Jonathan) to defeat a Northerner (Muhammadu Buhari) in the 2011 2 Presidential Election. Our deduction, therefore, is that these attacks on communities by the murderous gangs of the Fulani have much to do with the effects of the results of the 2011 elections during which the Middle Belt communities turned up enmass to vote for former President Goodluck JonathanagainstMohammaduBuhari,aFulanikinsman. No matter justification the herdsmen may have for their organized attacks, the persistent attacks by herdsmen without doubt have become the most fearful threat to national security in the last couple of years. What makes the attacks by herdsmen very disturbing are, the frequency, the level of unimaginable destruction and brutality being exhibited.The development in almost all cases is characterized by high casualty rate and massive displacement of communities. One can say with certainty that never has the country experienced this level of destruction and social dislocation where cows are more cherished and valued than human beings. What however, is so disturbing about the development is how the attacks in some cases tare allegedly persecuted under the watchful eyes of security agencies and amidstthisseemingsupportivebody languageofthePresident. It is imperative to note that the incessant attacks by the herdsmen are 25 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  36. 36. no doubt comparable to the insurgency in the North East region. This is the reason why fears are being expressed that the nation is seemingly trading on a very dangerous ground. As at date, there has being wanton killings by herdsmen in Benue, Niger, Taraba, Kaduna and Plateau States that have resulted in massive displacement of people and loss of lives.The attacks are unprecedented when assessed on the basis of the frequency, the casualty and sheer brutality. The fallout naturally is huge humanitarian crisis in almostallthestatesaffected. TheTheoreticalPerspectives Even if the assertion to the debate on the root causes of the armed Fulani herdsmen invasion have been varied and numerous which can be segmented into one of the three is new barbarism, underdevelopment, and politicaleconomyofwarandhostofothers. New Barbarism: - The first postulation and, in fact, the starting point in the debate, is what Paul Richards labeled the 'new barbarism', with regard to Robert Kaplan's thesis. Kaplan explains African armed conflict as chaotic and irrational confrontations, where demographic pressure, environmental collapse, and societal stress are critical. He empatheticallystatesthat: West Africa is becoming the symbol of Worldwide demographic, environmental, and societal stress, in which criminal anarchy emerges as the real 'strategic' danger. Disease, overpopulation, unprovoked crime, scarcity of resources, refugee migrations, the increasing erosion of nation states and international borders, and the empowerment of private armies, security firms, and international drug cartels are now most tellingly 4 demonstratedthroughaWestAfricanprism. Kaplan underscores the fact that crisis emanates many factors among which include from racial discourse and cultural determinism to cultural and religiousbias. Underdevelopment and Violence: -A second position regards underdevelopment as the main cause of Armed Fulani's 'new wars'. While one stream emphasizes internal factors, such as the increase of poverty, environmental degradation, the rise of social exclusion and marginality, elite corruption and the militarization of societies, a second stream focuses on external factors, such as the legacy of colonialism, external dependence, the impact of structural adjustment programmes (SAP) and the external debt, or the growing marginalization ofAfrica in the global economy. Both approaches, however, uphold the idea that enhanced modernization, improved literacy, and increase investment in basic services are all elementsthatdiminishtheoccurrenceofviolence. 26 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  37. 37. Political Economy of War: -A third last narrative, called 'the political economy of war', supports the idea that African armed conflicts are the direct respond of certain elites to it unequal integration into the world's economy. According to this view, the neo-patrimonial state built up since independence started (after the end of the Civil War) to suffer a crisis of 4 accumulation and governance that prompted a crisis of legitimacy. In this sense, elites started looking for new sources of authority, privileges and material benefits, whether through the processes of democratization or consolidating economy of war (exploitation of land, control of natural resources,armsdealing,manipulationofhumanitarianaids,etc). The axis of this issue is located in the 'greed and grievance' debate, advertised mainly by World Bank theorists Collier and Hoeffler. This discussion tries to ascertain whether personal will of enrichment (greed) or historical, political and socio-economic injustice (grievances) have more 5 importance in the origin of those contexts of violence in Nigeria. Although both approaches offer relevant contributions to understanding violence, Collier and Hoeffler, as well as Keen, and Renner, among others, sacralised economic agendas as the main (and sometimes unique) cause of war in Africa.According to them, and quoting Clausewitz, 'these civil wars could be 6 betterunderstoodasthecontinuationof“economics”byothermeans' In Nigeria's national politics, Christian anxieties about Muslim domination of the national political space and the accompanying fear that politically dominated Muslims will use their privileged perch to Islamize national institutions and impose Islamic Sharia Laws on non Muslims date back to colonial times. Muslims, especially those from Northern Nigeria, for their part, have sought to fend off what they regard as unbridled Westernization and have sporadically sought refuge in parochial religious reforms. Subsequently, religion became a major topic of national political debates with each religious community pushing increasingly adversarial agendas. In Northern Nigeria, clashes between Muslim groups-mainly ethnic Hausa and Fulani and Christians and traditionalist communities have become a regular affair, with devastating consequences. In this charged environment where religion functions as the primary idiom of political identity, conflicts over resources, cattle, land and political offices have often takenonareligiouscolorationwithMuslimspittedagainstChristians Actorsand theraisind'entrefortheherdsmen invasion Some common features come to bare in the scrutiny of most Nigerian Armed conflicts, especially the herdsmen terrorism. First of all, they are mainly internal or intrastate (they take place within internationally 27 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  38. 38. recognized borders); localized (violence does not affect the whole country); regionalized; and internationalized (causes as well as consequences must be 7 dulycomprehendedwithinthegreaterregionalandinternationalcontext). Secondly, all kinds of actors, each with a different agenda and purpose, this 'net of actors' is made up of, primary, secondary and tertiary actors,aswellasthepoliticaleconomyoftheconflictsashighlightedbelow: Primary actors: Those who are directly engaged in armed violence (governments, armed groups or guerrillas, militias, paramilitary forces, warlords, organized criminal gangs, police forces, mercenaries, violent fundamentalistgroups, regionalarmedgroups, regionaltroops,etc). Secondary actors: Those who, although not directly participating in the confrontation, are widely interested in its continuation (criminal networks, regional governments, local and regional traders, international governments, private security companies, business with interest in natural resources,armsindustry,etc). Tertiary actors: Those who try to intervene with or without a mandate to do so, in order to manage the confrontation (the Diaspora, civil society organizations, local and international mass media, regional and international organizations, regional and international governments, diplomatic organizations, international humanitarian organizations, 8 multilateralorganizationssuchasUnitedNations,Donor agenciesetc). TheEffectsoftheArmedHerdsmenInvasion The unending political tensions, wars, mayhems and conflicts of the armed Fulani herdsmen invasion in the Middle Belt have had lasting negative impact on the socio-economic development of Nigeria because socio-economic development cannot be sustained in an environment riddled . withviolence,instability.Someofthese are brieflyexaminedbelow 1. TheHumanTragedy Over the last three years, the Middle Belt Region has been the most conflict-affected region in Nigeria. The Fulani herdsmen menace has been responsible for more death and displacement than famine or flood. The scale and nature of warfare have directly affected the lives of 9 many millions of Africans. The main elements of this tragedy are the millions of uprooted people who have lost their homes and livelihood, the increasing numbers of direct civilian casualties and increased levels of violence, abuse and mutilation suffered by defenseless noncombatants Civiliancasualties The incidents of Fulani Herdsmen invasion and war in Nigeria have caused increasing suffering for civilians. The people suffer death and 28 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  39. 39. injuries and the indirect consequence of famine and epidemics that have followed in the wake of war. The Global Burden of Disease study established that since 1990, 6% of all death in the world was caused by physical violence. In sub SaharanAfrica, the figure was 13% with one in six males dying from violence causes. Almost 1 in 20 of all death in Africa are 11 clearly attributable to war. Epidemiological projection suggest that by 2020, injuries caused by war will have become the eighth most important factor (after tuberculosis) incurring a disease burden on society. In Nigeria, the number of civilian casualties has continued to increase year by year, unlikeinotherpartsoftheworld. Violence The most disturbing aspect of the attacks is the increasing use of extreme violence, especially over the last three years. Violence is now deliberately targeted at civilians in their homes, churches, etc, rather than in the farms and individuals directly involved in the conflicts. In Nigeria, the violence has taken appalling forms such as killing, mutilation, torture of women and children, rape, ritual, etc. In some instances, rituals are believed 12 to be the means of binding the militia groups together. Extreme violence in some cases is used as means of humiliation and morbid fear. There is a danger that extreme violence of this kind will erode the social fabric of the Nigeriansocietiesandfurtherstatecollapse. Child soldiers Children have become one of the main targets of violence and, in turn, are being used to perpetuate it. Children are deliberately indoctrinated into a culture of violence and used as a specific instrument of war. Militia groups and irregular armed forces such as the Boko-Haram and the Armed Fulani Herdsmen Militia have adopted the practice of forcefully recruiting children and initiating them through acts of violence against their own 13 communities.Theintentionistocreateafightingforcethatis separate. 2. TheEconomicImpact ofConflict Nigeria's development is threatened by conflict. The effects of the Fulani intrusions and attacks cut across all levels of the economy down to the level of the household. War has a direct and immediate economic impact through the physical disruption it causes, denying access to land, key 14 resources or markets. Some of the effect of conflict is less tangible. Insecurity is the least conducive climates for domestic saving and internal or external investment. Nor are the impacts of war limited to the area of conflict. War damages regional infrastructure, market and investment confidence across a wider region. The regional spreads of conflict jeopardizesstableandsuccessfulinter-grouprelations. 29 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  40. 40. Nationalimpactson production and livelihood Nigerian, the most direct impact of war is on production and household livelihood. War denies people access to their land at critical growing or planning period, increases the costs of agricultural inputs disrupts markets and restricts sales of produce. Agricultural produce and 15 familylivelihoodhavesuffereddramaticallyasaresultofherders'menace. Loss ofinfrastructure The Herdsmen attacks and unrelenting war has seriously damaged Nigeria's infrastructure, schools, churches, and telecommunication has all been affected. During and after the menace, there has been a dearth of investment in and maintenance of infrastructure. States affected by the herdsmen invasion also suffer from weak, fragmented and highly unstable 16 schools and markets which are often close. This in turn contributes to another characteristic of war-affected economies: hyperinflation and a volatilecurrency. 3. TheCost ofWar Refugeesand InternalDisplacement Internal displacement and refugee flows have a serious effect on the economy and the environment. The denial of access to the land by herdsmen 17 has led displaced people to congregate in cities and surrounding area. Uprooted population have lost access to any means of production which has resultedinenormouspressureon governmentservice. Effectson services Recent onslaughts have led to the destruction of the basic social infrastructures. Churches, Schools and health centers are increasingly the targets of Fulani military activities. For instance now, over 40% of health centers, churches, homes, farms and schools were destroyed. The situation 18 is similar in most conflict-affected countries. The provision of Social amenities is also squeezed by increased military expenditure. A long term consequence is reduced access to education and health care. The displacement of large numbers of uneducated young men helped to create thecircumstancetosustaintheconflict. . Solution totheMenaceofArmedFulaniHerdsmenInvasion As a way out of the predicament of wars and conflicts that have bedeviled Nigeria, it is apt to offer some valuable suggestions based on a thorough analysis of the causes of the problem. In this wise, two major broad solutions may be experimented to bail Nigeria out of recurrent conflicts and wars. These are committed and sincere leadership and eradication of poverty. 30 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  41. 41. (a)Committedand SincereLeadership Nigerian state need committed and sincere leaders who will lead by example and act as good, responsible and responsive fathers to all the component sections and peoples of the nation so as to promote peace and harmony within the confines of their respective communities. This can be doneinanumberofways: (i)Evendistribution ofresources Nigerian leaders must ensure an even distribution of resources among the various geopolitical zones in the country. Marginalization of one unit/group should not be allowed in order to win the support and cooperation 20 ofallandsundry andtoavoidanyfeelingofalienation. (ii)Promotionofruleoflaw Nigerian leaders should also endeavour to promote the rule of law. This involves equal access to justice by all citizens irrespective of their status, respect for court decisions by the government and conduct of free and fair periodic elections among others. When and where leaders promote the rule of law as indicated above, it guarantees peaceful coexistence among 21 people. (iii)ProtectionofFundamental Human rights Nigerian leaders should also promote, protect and guarantee the fundamental human rights of every citizen irrespective of ethno-religious and regional affiliations. Freedom of speech, association and religion should be guaranteed. People should be free to assess and criticize the performance of government without fear of persecution. Opposition must be tolerated while the fourth realm of government, the press, must not be censured, in this wise government would always be kept on her toes to provide qualitative andsincereleadership. (b) EradicationofPoverty Without much controversy, one may boldly declare that poverty is the root causes of all evils in Nigeria. A poor man, who has been economically humiliated and financially traumatized may not be said to be in his right senses. Hence, it may be apt to observe that a hungry man is a mad man. He can steal, kill, maim and destroy. Poverty can demean a man and affect his psychology negatively. Hence, a major policy instrument for peace and stability is the eradication, or at worst, a reduction of the monster, poverty.Thiscanbeachievedinanumberofways assuggestedbelow: (i)Equal accesstoqualitativeeducation Governments in Africa should give their citizens equal access to qualitative education. The importance of education to the socio- economic development of a nation has been well articulated in the Millennium Development Goal. Education, no doubt, is a lever to human and societal 31 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  42. 42. development. Apart from imparting skill and knowledge in the citizens, it will also eliminate ignorance. Education will also empower citizens for employment in the future. It makes labour more mobile across the globe. Opportunitiesforsurvivalareverymuchavailabletotheeducatedpeople. (ii)Provisionofgainfulemploymentfortheyouths Governments in Nigeria should also strive to provide gainful employment for all their citizens especially the youths. Dormant Industries and factories should be resuscitated and new ones be established to absorb the teeming graduates of higher institutions of learning. Government should also encourage farming and grazing through mechanized agriculture. Modem farm and husbandry implements and technology should be provided for farmers and grazers at cheap prices. Apart from eradicating the problem of hunger, this will no doubt equally enhance the economicempowermentofyouths anderadicateidleness. Conclusion th Since independence in the late 20 century, Nigeria has been betting with the problem of civil wars and conflicts. This has taken its toll on Nigeria's development in a number of ways, especially in death of her illustrious sons and daughters and alienation of her peoples which, in turn, has been hindering the process of integration and cohesion in country. This paper set out to x-ray the Causes and Consequences of Herdsmen Invasion of communities in Nigeria since 2015, and to proffer solution how the menace of armed Fulani herdsmen invasion can be nib at the bud. Conclusively, all hands must be on deck to halt this negative development and chart a new course for peace in Nigeria. This will not only enhance adequate security of life and property in the country, it will also attract foreign investors to Nigeria for the adequate exploration of her numerous naturalresourcesforgrowthanddevelopment. References 1. Takeover the Hausa Fulani Islamic Agenda for Nigeria, (Middle BeltDialogue,2014), p.17 2. Takeover the Hausa Fulani Islamic Agenda for Nigeria, (Middle BeltDialogue,2014), p.17 3. M. Kaldor, New War and Old Wars: Organize Violence in a Global Era,(Cambridge,Polity,1999),P.12 4. M. Duffied, Global governance and the new wars: The Merging of developmentandSecurity,(London,Zeb,2001), Pp.190-193 5. M. Duffied, Global governance and the new wars:The merging of- --2001),Pp.190-193 6. R. D. Kaplan, The Coming anarchy, February 1994, 32 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  43. 43. http://www.theatlantic.com??doc/199902/anarchy 7. M. Duffied, Global governance and the new wars:The merging of -- -2001),Pp. 190-193 8. M. Berdal and Malone, Greed and grievance: Economic agenda in CivilWars,(Boulder,LynneRienner,2000) 9. D. Peter, “Breaking: why we attacked Agatu-Fulani herdsmen”, (March 6, 2016), Vanguard available at http://www.vanguard ngr.com/2016/03/breaking-why-we-attacked-agatu-Fulani- herdsmen 10. T. Sani and G. Abdullahi,”Fayemi, Pastors lauds selection of Osinbajo as running mate to Buhari”, 19 December 2014, Premium T i m e s , a v a i l a b l e a t http://www/premiumtimesng.com/news/topnews/173551-fayemi- pastors-lauds-selection-osinbajo-running-mate-buhari-html 11. F. Abayomi, “Buhari meets Northern Christian Leaders”, 2 F e b r u a r y 2 0 1 5 , T h e N a t i o n , a v a i l a b l e a t http//thenationonlineng.net/buhari-meets-northern-christian- leaders/ 12. V. Z. Samuel, a chant at College of Agriculture, Jalingo, Taraba th State,20 June,2018 13. Obaioma NERDC boss”, 1 November 2012, Vanguard available at http:///www. Vanguardngr.com/2012/11/what-nigeria-stands-to- gain from-basic-education-curriculum-revision-obioma-nerdc- boss/ 14. “Saudi Arabia from Muslim to anti terrorism Coalition”, 15 D e c e m b e r 2 0 1 5 , A l j a z e e r a , a v a i l a b l e a t http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/12/saudi-arabia-from muslim-anti-terrorism-coalition-15121503914865html 15. “CAN protest moves to list Nigeria among Arabs Nation to fight ISIS”, 17 December 2015, Vanguard available at http///www.vanguardngr.com/2015/12-can-protests-moves-to list- nigeria-among-arabia-nationsto-fight-isis/ 16. L. N. W. Ngah, “One of the most significant problems facing Independent African States Consciousness”, (Being a Ph.D Seminar Presentation, Benue State University, Makurdi, 2018), Pp. 18-22 17. L.N. W. Ngah, “One of the most significant problems facing independent…,Pp.18-22. 18. L. N. W. Ngah, “Africa has come under intense conflict in recent times. Discuss the nature and effects of selected conflict in the different region of Africa”, (Being a Ph.D Seminar Paper 33 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  44. 44. Presentation, Benue State University, Makurdi, 15/3/ 2018), Pp.14- 20 19. L. N. W. Ngah, “Africa has come under intense conflict in recent times…Pp.14-20 20. L. N. W. Ngah, “Africa has come under intense conflict in recent times…Pp.14-20 21. A. I Elijah, A chant at the Taraba State University, Jalingo, on 5/7/2018 22. M.Wilson,AchantatCollegeofAgriculture,Jalingo,on7/4/2018 23. D. M. Stephen, Catholic Bishop of Yola Diocese Press Briefing, 10/7/2018 24. DEID, The Causes of Conflict inAfrica: Constitutional Document, (London, Development for International Development, 2001), Pp.10-30 25. DIED, The Causes of Conflict in Africa: Constitutional…2001), Pp.10-30 26. DIED, The Causes of Conflict in Africa: Constitutional…2001), Pp.10-30 27. DIED, The Causes of Conflict in Africa: Constitutional…2001), Pp.10-30 34 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  45. 45. Use of ICT For Effective Record Keeping In Grade-A Public Secondary Schools In Jalingo Educational Zone of Taraba State Oyeniyi Solomon Olayinka, Joseph Atumba Faculty of Education, Taraba State University, Jalingo Email: solomon77790@gmail.com atumbajb@yahoo.com Phone: 08167833189, 08062208589 & Oyeniyi Titilayo Mercy Post Primary School Management Board, Taraba State Email: solomon77790@gmail.com Phone: 08068284089 Abstract This study aimed at finding out the use of ICTfor effective record keeping in grade-Apublic secondary schools in Jalingo educationalzone ofTaraba state. The population of the study was hundred (100) administrative staff from Grade A public secondary schools within Jalingo educational zone of Taraba state, Nigeria. Thirty (30) staff were randomly selected from three Grade A secondary schools within Jalingo educational zoneof Taraba state, Nigeria based on purposeful sampling techniques. Two variables were considered in the study.These variables are:Availability of school records and Utilization of ICT for school record keeping. The data collected was analyzed using Decision Rule, Mean, Standard Deviation and Analysis of Variation (ANOVA) to enhance decision. Findings show that GradeApublic secondary schools within Jalingo educational zone of Taraba state, Nigeria are averagely equipped with some necessary school records but limited in quantity, probably because of some obvious limitations like funding, skilled personnel, etc; and that they scarcely use ICT (computer) for school record keeping. The study suggests that government should devote more money, time, materials and human resources by providing sufficient computers for school record keeping in order to back up and regulate teaching and learning process in Grade A secondary schools in Jalingo educational zone of Taraba State. This will enhance better teaching and learning process. At the same time, different categories of learners ranging from fast learners to slow learners shall be able to learn at ease, when instruction is aided with appropriate electronic records. 35 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies
  46. 46. Introduction According to Ololube (2013), school records can be said to comprise all existing and accessible records, books, files and other documents containing useful information that relates to what goes on in the school system. Osakwe (2011) defines school records as official documents, books and files containing essential and crucial information of actions and events which are kept and preserved in the school office for utilization and retrieval as needed. Such records are kept by principals, teachers,counselorsandadministrativestaff. Ibara (2010) asserts that without records, there can be no accountability. He further maintains that quality performance, task accomplishment, and measurable outcomes are increasingly important responsibilities, all of which depend on the accessibility of usable records. Without access to records, it is virtually impossible to determine responsibility for actions and to hold individuals accountable for their actions. Record management on the other hand, involves the effective, efficient and systematic control of the processes of creating, receiving, maintaining and disposing valuable information about the organization (IfediliandAgbaire2011). ` In the light of the foregoing, it is not arguable that records keeping play a significant role in effective school management. As such, if records are not well m anaged, the school management function suffers (Gama, 2010). Burden (2016) indicated that school records assist in determining the financial position of a school. Therefore, a secured processes and storage facilities are imperative, which necessitate the use of ICT(computer)fordataprocessingandstorage UNESCO (2003), in Ofoegbu (2011) defines Information Communication Technology (ICT) as the range of technologies that are applied in the process of collecting, storing, editing, retrieving and transferring information in various forms, it comprises organized system and can access, retrieve, store, organize, manipulate, produce, present and exchangeinformationbyelectronicandotherautomateddevices. This definition suggests that a wide range of telecommunication equipment and facilities including computer, mobile telephone, iPods, satellites and world wide web are used for the dissemination and exchange of information among people and organizations.The most important service to subscribe to, by the school management, is the electronic-mail (e-mail), for communicating parents or guardians. The basic characteristic of ICT is that it has the capacity to handle, manipulate and relay data or information at anunimaginablespeedandaccuracyatourconvenience. Denis (2014) observes that most transformations in school 36 Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies

Abstract Nguru was a District under the Sayfawa Dynasty since 1630. It was created when Kanem Borno Empire established four different th principalities in the 17 century. Since then, the town, situated in the geographically advantage environment, has been one of the strategic economic locations in northern Nigeria. This paper aims to discuss the contributions of the town in terms of political and economic growth of Northern Nigeria. It is interesting to note that, Nguru was among the earliest strategic economic locations of both pre-colonial and colonial Nigeria. What appeared to have been a turning point in the history of the town became a District with a District Officer in the colonial period. The extension of railway line to the town in 1929 added impetus to its development, between 1930-1960, there were lots of commercial activities in the area, especially in commodities like groundnuts, Arabic Gum, Cotton, etc. The quantity and volume of the commodities produced made Nguru to become the most strategic commercial centre in the whole north-eastern states of Nigeria at that time. The primary source of this paper is derived from the oral source as well as monasteries documentations of the Old Borno Dynasty, especially some documents related to archival materials. Other sources include written materials like books and journals which directly discussed the history of the town. These documents revealed a lot of findings on the history of Nguru.

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