Welcome to Architecture Exchange East 2013
Architecture Exchange East 2013
Virginia Society AIA is a registered provider with the American
Institute of Architects Co...
Architecture Exchange East 2013

Combined Effects of Multi-Story Buildings
and Brick Veneer

Presented By:
Michael A. Matt...
Speaker Bio
•

Mike Matthews is President and CEO of The Structures
Group, Inc., a consulting engineering firm with its co...
Our Goal Today Will Be To Illustrate:
•

Differing expansion and contraction properties of masonry
veneer and its backup

...
Volume Change of Clay Brick
The 2009 Edition of the Virginia Uniform
Statewide Building Code (VUSBC) adopts and
amends the...
Volume Change of Clay Brick continued
As stated in Section 1.8 of ACI 530:
• Temperature Expansion (Reversible):
kt = 4 x ...
Volume Change of Clay Brick continued
As stated in Section 1.8 of ACI 530:
• Moisture Expansion (Non-reversible):
ke = 3 x...
Volume Change of Clay Brick continued
Summary of volume change:
•

Expansion due to temperature
– Δt = 100(12)(100)(.00000...
Volume Change of Concrete Masonry
(CMU)
The 2009 Edition of the Virginia Uniform
Statewide Building Code (VUSBC) adopts
an...
Volume Change of Concrete Masonry
(CMU) continued
As stated in Section 1.8 of ACI 530:
• Temperature Expansion (Reversible...
Volume Change of Concrete Masonry
(CMU) continued
As stated in Section 1.8 of ACI 530:
• Drying Shrinkage (Non-Reversible)...
Volume Change of Concrete Masonry
(CMU) continued
Creep: Long-term deflection will be relative
to instantaneous deflection...
Volume Change of Concrete Masonry
(CMU) continued
As stated in Section 1.8 of ACI 530:
•
•
•
•

Expansion due to Temperatu...
Volume Change of Wood

Three directions of Wood Expansion and Shrinkage:
• Tangential
• Radial
• Longitudinal
Volume Change of Wood continued
Moisture Shrinkage: Timber is manufactured today at 19%
moisture content while equilibrium...
Volume Change of Wood continued
Simplified Method for Moisture Shrinkage Analysis:
• Horizontal Lumber (Joists, Truss Chor...
Volume Change of Wood continued
Temperature Expansion: Radial and tangential depend on specific
gravity wood species
• Rad...
Volume Change of Wood continued
Moisture Expansion:
• Wood exposed to moisture will expand and shrink back
towards its ori...
Volume Change of Cast-in-Place Concrete
Three elements of movement involved in cast-in-place
concrete structures that need...
Volume Change of Cast-in-Place
Concrete continued
The 2009 Edition of the Virginia Uniform
Statewide Building Code (VUSBC)...
Volume Change of Cast-in-Place
Concrete continued
Elements of Concrete Frame Shortening
Elements

Time Dependent

Load Dep...
Volume Change of Cast-in-Place
Concrete continued
Volume Change of Cast-in-Place
Concrete continued
Magnitude of long term concrete volume changes (Per ACI 209)
• Elastic S...
Volume Change of Cast-in-Place
Concrete continued
Creep and Shrinkage (Per ACI 209)
Applied to creep coefficient and shrin...
Volume Change of Steel
Shelf Angles and Shelf Angle Flashing
Volume Change due to Temperature
• Coefficient of Expansion: ...
Volume Change of Steel continued

Expansion of steel shelf angles and metal flashing must
be accounted for.
What Happens When Movement of the
Veneer & Frame are not Accounted for

Examples of distress in masonry after construction
Example No. 1
Brick Veneer with Wood Frame Backing
ACI 530 Section 6.2.2.3.1.2 - Anchored
Veneer with a backing of wood
fr...
Example No. 1 Continued
Expansion of Brick Veneer and
Shrinkage of Wood Frame are additive:
Brick Veneer Expansion:
• Expa...
Example No. 1 continued
Expansion of Brick Veneer and
Shrinkage of Wood Frame are additive:
Wood Frame Shrinkage:
Example:...
Example No. 1 continued
Expansion of Brick Veneer and
Shrinkage of Wood Frame are additive:
Exterior Wall

Δ

Brick Expans...
Example No.1 continued
Example of distress where differential movement between wood frame and brick
veneer was not account...
Example No.1 continued

Why did this happen?
Example No. 2
Brick Veneer with Cast-in-Place Concrete Backing

21-story cast-in-place concrete
structure with brick venee...
+ 4.2”
+ 1.5”

+ 5.7”

Shortening of Concrete Frame:
Expansion of Masonry:

Total Veneer Movement:

Example No. 2 continue...
Example No. 2 continued

• 21 floors
• 5.7 in total movement = approximately
0.27” of movement per floor
• Therefore, shel...
Example No. 2 continued
Example No. 2 continued
• Shelf angles 3/8” thick and mortar
joints were 1/2” thick
• 35% compressible filler included in
...
Example No. 2 continued

Example of distress resulting from poorly designed expansion joint
Example No. 3
Concrete Masonry Veneer

• Designed: Circa 2005
• Built: Circa 2006
• Distress: Circa 2011
Example No. 3 continued
Example of distress at expansion joints at alternating floors and
welded flashing
• Joints at alte...
Example No. 3 continued

+183’-3”

Total Vertical Masonry Expansion:
+ 1.1 inches (CMU Veneer)
Formula:
Δm = H * ε t Δ T
ε...
Example No. 3 continued
0.11
0.12

Total Concrete Frame Shortening
(Ultimate Life): + 4.3 inches.

0.14
0.15
0.17
0.18

0....
+ 5.4”
Total Veneer Movement:

+ 1.1”
Expansion of Masonry:

Shortening of Concrete Frame:

+ 4.3”

Example No. 3 continue...
Example No. 3 continued
Specifications
Section 04810 – Unit Masonry Assemblies
2.8 MISCELLANEOUS MASONRY ACCESSORIES
A. Co...
Example No. 3 continued

Expansion Joint Detail
(From Architectural Drawings)

• 3/8” (.375) vertical gap shown with seala...
Example No. 3 continued

Section (From Structural Drawings)

Section (From Structural Drawings)

Typical Shelf Angle Detai...
Example No. 3 continued
Construction Documents:
Ten (10) levels with shelf angles (Denoted
by Arrows).
-Total Allowable Ve...
Example No. 3 continued
0.10
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.16
0.17

0.19
0.20
0.20
0.21
0.23
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.25
0.22
0.23
0.23
0.24

T...
+ 5.2”

+ 1.1”

+ 4.1”

Example No. 3 continued
Total Cumulative Concrete
and Masonry Movement
(Over 5 years): + 5.2 inche...
Caution in Use of Generic Details
BIA Technical Note 7 - Water Resistance of Brick Masonry Design and Detailing
Details Re...
Caution in Use of Generic Details continued
BIA Technical Note 28B - Brick Veneer

11
Caution in Use of Generic Details continued

Emphasis added by TSG

11
Attention to Detail
• Pay Attention to Construction Tolerances

Per ACI 117 “Structural Specifications for Tolerances for
...
THANK YOU
for attending

Combined Effects of Multi-Story
Buildings and Brick Veneer
Presented By:
Michael A. Matthews, P.E...
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Combined Effects of Multi-Story Buildings and Brick Veneer

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The Structures Group, Inc., a consulting engineering firm specializing in structural engineering, presented at Architectural Exchange East in November 2013. The presentation focused on the properties of brick veneer and special considerations for multi-story building designs.

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Combined Effects of Multi-Story Buildings and Brick Veneer

  1. 1. Welcome to Architecture Exchange East 2013
  2. 2. Architecture Exchange East 2013 Virginia Society AIA is a registered provider with the American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of completion for non-AIA members are available on request. This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
  3. 3. Architecture Exchange East 2013 Combined Effects of Multi-Story Buildings and Brick Veneer Presented By: Michael A. Matthews, P.E. The Structures Group, Inc.
  4. 4. Speaker Bio • Mike Matthews is President and CEO of The Structures Group, Inc., a consulting engineering firm with its corporate office in Williamsburg, Virginia. He graduated from Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University in 1982 with a degree in Civil (Structural) Engineering and received an MBA from the College of William and Mary in 1988. • Mike is currently chairman of the ACEC/VA Professional Development Committee and former chair of the Codes and Regulations Committee. Mike has served on the VBCOA Region Eight Special Inspections Task Force and is one of the Co-Authors of National Practice Guidelines for the Structural Engineer of Record (CASE, Fourth Edition) and the Hampton Roads Regional Special Inspection Guidelines and Procedures (2003, 2006, and 2009 USBC Editions). • The Structures Group, Inc. provides structural engineering, forensic analysis, special inspections, independent code review, and risk analysis services. The firm, as well as Mike, is currently licensed to practice engineering in eighteen (18) states, as well as the District of Columbia.
  5. 5. Our Goal Today Will Be To Illustrate: • Differing expansion and contraction properties of masonry veneer and its backup • Building code requirements regarding masonry veneer and expansion joints • Pros and cons of commonly used masonry veneer expansion joint details • Need for collaboration between Architects and Structural Engineers in developing construction documents and value engineering related to masonry veneer
  6. 6. Volume Change of Clay Brick The 2009 Edition of the Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code (VUSBC) adopts and amends the 2009 Edition of the International Building Code (IBC) Chapter 21 of the IBC refers to: Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI 530-05) Section 1.8: Material Properties of ACI 530 defines the coefficients for: • • • Temperature Expansion (Reversible) Shrinkage (No curing shrinkage of clay brick) Moisture Expansion
  7. 7. Volume Change of Clay Brick continued As stated in Section 1.8 of ACI 530: • Temperature Expansion (Reversible): kt = 4 x 10-6 in/in/°F Example: ΔF = 100F H or L=100’ Δt = L(12)(100)(ΔF)(Ke) Expansion due to temperature Δt = 100(12)(100)(.000004)=0.48in
  8. 8. Volume Change of Clay Brick continued As stated in Section 1.8 of ACI 530: • Moisture Expansion (Non-reversible): ke = 3 x 10-4 in/in Example: H or L = 100’ Δe = L(12)(Ke) Expansion due to moisture Δe = 100(12)(.0003) = 0.36 in
  9. 9. Volume Change of Clay Brick continued Summary of volume change: • Expansion due to temperature – Δt = 100(12)(100)(.000004)= 0.48in • Expansion due to moisture – Δe = 100(12)(.0003) = 0.36 in • Total Expansion of Brick – Δt + Δe = 0.84 in
  10. 10. Volume Change of Concrete Masonry (CMU) The 2009 Edition of the Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code (VUSBC) adopts and amends the 2009 Edition of the International Building Code (IBC) Chapter 21 of the IBC refers to: Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI 530-05) CMU Backup Section 1.8: Material Properties of ACI 530 defines the coefficients for: • • • • Temperature Expansion (Reversible) Moisture Expansion (Reversible) Drying Shrinkage (Non-Reversible) Creep CMU Veneer
  11. 11. Volume Change of Concrete Masonry (CMU) continued As stated in Section 1.8 of ACI 530: • Temperature Expansion (Reversible): – kt = 4.5 x 10-6 in/in/°F Example: ΔF = 100F H or L=33’ Δt = L(12)(ΔF)(Kt) CMU Backup
  12. 12. Volume Change of Concrete Masonry (CMU) continued As stated in Section 1.8 of ACI 530: • Drying Shrinkage (Non-Reversible): – Km = 0.55 S1 ≈ ranges from 0.0002 – 0.00065 in/in (S1 : Total linear drying shrinkage of concrete masonry units determined in accordance with ASTM C426) Example: H or L=33’ Δm = K m L(12) Drying Shrinkage = .000425(33)(12) = 0.17 in. CMU Backup CMU Veneer
  13. 13. Volume Change of Concrete Masonry (CMU) continued Creep: Long-term deflection will be relative to instantaneous deflection from sustained loading. (Negligible) KL = 2.5 x 10-7 in/in/psi Example: Loads: Dead + Reduced Live (ASCE-7 Appendix C) 3rd Floor – 800 plf 2nd Floor – 1600 plf 1st Floor – 2400 plf 8” CMU reinforced with #6 bars at 24” on center Creep: Δc = K l Ph/AE 3rd Floor – 0.0003 in 2nd Floor – 0.0008 in 1st Floor – 0.0011 in Total Creep: Δc = 0.0003 + 0.0008 + 0.0011 = 0.0022 in
  14. 14. Volume Change of Concrete Masonry (CMU) continued As stated in Section 1.8 of ACI 530: • • • • Expansion due to Temperature Δt = 100(12)(33)(.0000045)=0.18 in. Drying Shrinkage = .000425(33)(12) = 0.17 in. Moisture Expansion (Reversible): Value not given by ACI 530 Creep: Negligible Total CMU wall Movement = Δt + Δm + ΔL Temperature Shrinkage Creep Total 0.18 inches 0.17 inches 0.0022 inches 0.3522 inches
  15. 15. Volume Change of Wood Three directions of Wood Expansion and Shrinkage: • Tangential • Radial • Longitudinal
  16. 16. Volume Change of Wood continued Moisture Shrinkage: Timber is manufactured today at 19% moisture content while equilibrium of timber is about 11% to 12% • Tangential Shrinkage: Greatest Shrinkage • Radial Shrinkage: Approximately 1/2 of tangential shrinkage • Longitudinal Shrinkage: Very small and usually disregarded Problem: Not knowing how wood grain is oriented
  17. 17. Volume Change of Wood continued Simplified Method for Moisture Shrinkage Analysis: • Horizontal Lumber (Joists, Truss Chords, and Plates) – Shrinkage of dimensional lumber Δs: 0.2% shrinkage per 1% change in moisture content (Δmc) Example for horizontal members considering tangential and radial shrinkage: Joist Plate Δs =(0.002) d Δmc d = 11.25 in (2 x 12 joist) Δmc = 8 (moisture change in wood from manufactured to equilibrium) Δs = (0.002)(11.25)(8) = 0.18 inches Δs =(0.002) d Δms d = 1.5 in (2 x plate) Δmc = 8 (moisture change in wood from manufactured to equilibrium) Δs = (0.002)(1.5)(8) = 0.024 inches • Vertical Members (Studs, Columns, Web Members, and Truss Webs) – Shrinkage of dimensional lumber: negligible Δs ≈ 0
  18. 18. Volume Change of Wood continued Temperature Expansion: Radial and tangential depend on specific gravity wood species • Radial Expansion: αr = (18G + 5.5) * 10-6 per F – Example: 10’-0” of southern pine (G = 0.55) experiencing 100F temperature change: Δ=0.18” • Tangential Expansion: αT= (18G + 10.2) * 10-6 per F – Example: 10’-0” of southern pine (G= 0.55) experiencing 100F temperature change: Δ=0.24” • Longitudinal temperature change independent of specific gravity. Ranges from αL= 0.0000017 to 0.0000025 per F – Example: 10’-0” of long board subject to (100F temperature change: Δ=0.03”
  19. 19. Volume Change of Wood continued Moisture Expansion: • Wood exposed to moisture will expand and shrink back towards its original size, reversing the wood shrinkage experienced.
  20. 20. Volume Change of Cast-in-Place Concrete Three elements of movement involved in cast-in-place concrete structures that need to be considered in design: • Elastic Shortening • Creep • Shrinkage
  21. 21. Volume Change of Cast-in-Place Concrete continued The 2009 Edition of the Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code (VUSBC) adopts and amends the 2009 Edition of the International Building Code (IBC) Chapter 21 of the IBC refers to: Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI 530-05) Section 1.8: Material Properties of ACI 530 defines the coefficients for: • • • Elastic Shortening Creep Shrinkage
  22. 22. Volume Change of Cast-in-Place Concrete continued Elements of Concrete Frame Shortening Elements Time Dependent Load Dependent X  Creep   Shrinkage  X Elastic Shortening
  23. 23. Volume Change of Cast-in-Place Concrete continued
  24. 24. Volume Change of Cast-in-Place Concrete continued Magnitude of long term concrete volume changes (Per ACI 209) • Elastic Shortening: The instantaneous deflection in the concrete frame due to applied loads. • Creep, νu : 2.35 times the instantaneous deflection experienced from sustained loading. Reaches approximately 90% of total anticipated creep in approximately 5 years. • Shrinkage, (εsh): 780 γsh x 10-6 in./in., i.e. 0.078%. Reaches approximately 90% of total anticipated shrinkage in approximately 1 year. Example: H or L = 100’ Δs = L(12)(εsh) Shrinkage = 100(12)(0.00078) = 0.94 in.
  25. 25. Volume Change of Cast-in-Place Concrete continued Creep and Shrinkage (Per ACI 209) Applied to creep coefficient and shrinkage strain to achieve more accurate volume change prediction. • Curing Conditions – Specified Curing Processes • Concrete Composition – Concrete Mix Design • Geometry – Exposed Surface Areas • Anticipated Loading – Specified Live/Dead Loads – Specified Length of Time for Shoring
  26. 26. Volume Change of Steel Shelf Angles and Shelf Angle Flashing Volume Change due to Temperature • Coefficient of Expansion: 6.5 x 10-6 in./in./°F (Per the AISC Steel Manual) – Example: 20’ long angle with 100 °F temperature change: Δ = 0.17 in
  27. 27. Volume Change of Steel continued Expansion of steel shelf angles and metal flashing must be accounted for.
  28. 28. What Happens When Movement of the Veneer & Frame are not Accounted for Examples of distress in masonry after construction
  29. 29. Example No. 1 Brick Veneer with Wood Frame Backing ACI 530 Section 6.2.2.3.1.2 - Anchored Veneer with a backing of wood framing shall not exceed the height above the noncombustible foundation given in Table 6.2.2.3.1. Maximum Height of Anchored Veneer with Wood Backing ACI 530 Table 6.2.2.3.1 Height at top plate Height at gable 30’-0” 38’-0”
  30. 30. Example No. 1 Continued Expansion of Brick Veneer and Shrinkage of Wood Frame are additive: Brick Veneer Expansion: • Expansion due to temperature: Δt = (33)(12)(100)(0.000004) = 0.16 in • Expansion due to moisture: Δc = (33)(12)(0.0003) = 0.12 in Total anticipated expansion of brick veneer: 0.28 inches
  31. 31. Example No. 1 continued Expansion of Brick Veneer and Shrinkage of Wood Frame are additive: Wood Frame Shrinkage: Example: 9’-0” ceiling and 2’-0” floor wood truss framing for three (3) story building: Per Floor: • (1) 2x sill plate; (2) 2x top plates; (2) 2x chords from wood truss (Total of (5) 2x plates per floor) • Δs = (5 plates per floor)[(0.002)d Δms ] = 0.12 inches per floor Total anticipated shrinkage of wood framing: 0.36 inches
  32. 32. Example No. 1 continued Expansion of Brick Veneer and Shrinkage of Wood Frame are additive: Exterior Wall Δ Brick Expansion 0.28” Wood Shrinkage 0.36” Total Movement 0.64” Total movement to be accounted for: 0.64” = + 10/16” = + 5/8”
  33. 33. Example No.1 continued Example of distress where differential movement between wood frame and brick veneer was not accounted for
  34. 34. Example No.1 continued Why did this happen?
  35. 35. Example No. 2 Brick Veneer with Cast-in-Place Concrete Backing 21-story cast-in-place concrete structure with brick veneer located in Baltimore, Maryland
  36. 36. + 4.2” + 1.5” + 5.7” Shortening of Concrete Frame: Expansion of Masonry: Total Veneer Movement: Example No. 2 continued
  37. 37. Example No. 2 continued • 21 floors • 5.7 in total movement = approximately 0.27” of movement per floor • Therefore, shelf angels at each floor
  38. 38. Example No. 2 continued
  39. 39. Example No. 2 continued • Shelf angles 3/8” thick and mortar joints were 1/2” thick • 35% compressible filler included in joint below angle • 3/4“ deep covering edge of angle lip prevents any expansion joint between brick coursing • However, the Design Professional allowed joints to be every other floor during value engineering
  40. 40. Example No. 2 continued Example of distress resulting from poorly designed expansion joint
  41. 41. Example No. 3 Concrete Masonry Veneer • Designed: Circa 2005 • Built: Circa 2006 • Distress: Circa 2011
  42. 42. Example No. 3 continued Example of distress at expansion joints at alternating floors and welded flashing • Joints at alternating floors • Shelf angles are continuous and welded • Flashing is continuous and welded
  43. 43. Example No. 3 continued +183’-3” Total Vertical Masonry Expansion: + 1.1 inches (CMU Veneer) Formula: Δm = H * ε t Δ T ε t :Temperature Expansion: 4.50 x 10-6 in/in /°F (CMU Veneer) Δ T: Temperature Change (110) BIA: Maximum temperature of wall 140 43
  44. 44. Example No. 3 continued 0.11 0.12 Total Concrete Frame Shortening (Ultimate Life): + 4.3 inches. 0.14 0.15 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.21 0.21 0.22 0.24 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.24 0.25 0.24 0.25 Note: 1. Concrete shortening calculation based on ACI 318-99, ACI 209 R-92 and ASCE 7-98. 2. Concrete shortening is affected by concrete creep, shrinkage, and elastic shortening per floor (inches). 3. Variations on concrete frame shortening result from variations in column layout, floor height, floor loading, and concrete length. 4. Concrete material properties taken from construction documents. 0.39 4.32 44
  45. 45. + 5.4” Total Veneer Movement: + 1.1” Expansion of Masonry: Shortening of Concrete Frame: + 4.3” Example No. 3 continued Cumulative Calculated Concrete & Masonry Veneer Vertical Movement (Ultimate Life) Total Anticipated Cumulative Concrete and Masonry Movement During the Ultimate Life of the Structure: + 5.4 inches
  46. 46. Example No. 3 continued Specifications Section 04810 – Unit Masonry Assemblies 2.8 MISCELLANEOUS MASONRY ACCESSORIES A. Compressible Filler: Premolded filler strips complying with ASTM D 1056, Grade 2A1; compressible up to 35 percent; of width and thickness indicated; formulated from neoprene urethane or PVC. 3.9 CONTROL AND EXPANSION JOINTS C. Provide horizontal , pressure relieving joints by either leaving an air space or inserting a compressible filler of width required for installing sealant and backer rod specified in Division 7 Section “Joint Sealants,” but not less than 3/8 inch. 1. Locate horizontal, pressure-relieving joints beneath shelf angles supporting masonry. 2. Compressible filler to be compressible to 35% of thickness. TSG Note: Compressible filler only allows for 1/4” expansion of 3/8” joint 9
  47. 47. Example No. 3 continued Expansion Joint Detail (From Architectural Drawings) • 3/8” (.375) vertical gap shown with sealant joint, backer rod, and compressible filler. • Expansion joints to be located at every other floor. • Vertical movement for typical 18.16’ between expansion joints (7th and 8th floor) mid height of building 0.62 inch ~ 5/8” > 3/8”. 47
  48. 48. Example No. 3 continued Section (From Structural Drawings) Section (From Structural Drawings) Typical Shelf Angle Detail Shown on Structural Drawings • • • • No vertical expansion area shown between top of brick and bottom of angle. Overhang of masonry from end of angle is not defined. No gap is indicated between masonry and concrete floor slab. L6 x 6 x 3/8 shelf angle supports 4” CMU. 8a
  49. 49. Example No. 3 continued Construction Documents: Ten (10) levels with shelf angles (Denoted by Arrows). -Total Allowable Vertical Expansion height with 35% compressible fill: 2.44 inches. -Total Allowable Vertical Expansion height without compressible fill: 3.75 inches. Total Anticipated Vertical Expansion: +5.4 inches > Total Designed Vertical Expansion (w/o compressible fill): 3.75 inches. Total Anticipated Vertical Expansion: +5.4 inches > Total Designed Vertical Expansion (w/compressible filler): 2.44 inches. 49
  50. 50. Example No. 3 continued 0.10 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.16 0.17 0.19 0.20 0.20 0.21 0.23 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.25 0.22 0.23 0.23 0.24 Total Concrete Frame Shortening (Over 5 years): + 4.1 inches. Note: 1. Concrete shortening calculation based on ACI 318-99, ACI 209 R-92 and ASCE 798. 2. Concrete shortening is affected by concrete creep, shrinkage, and elastic shortening per floor (inches). 3. Variations on concrete frame shortening result from variations in column layout, floor height, floor loading, and concrete length. 4. Concrete material properties taken from construction documents. 0.37 4.32 50
  51. 51. + 5.2” + 1.1” + 4.1” Example No. 3 continued Total Cumulative Concrete and Masonry Movement (Over 5 years): + 5.2 inches. Total Veneer Movement: Expansion of Masonry: Shortening of Concrete Frame: • Remaining Concrete and Masonry Movement Over Life of Structure - Ultimate Concrete Shortening: + 4.3 inches - Concrete Shortening to Date: + 4.1 inches • Remaining Concrete Shortening : + 0.2 inches • Masonry Expansion: + 1.1 inches Total Remaining Concrete and Masonry Movement Over Life of Structure: + 1.3 inches
  52. 52. Caution in Use of Generic Details BIA Technical Note 7 - Water Resistance of Brick Masonry Design and Detailing Details Require Project Specific Coordination 11
  53. 53. Caution in Use of Generic Details continued BIA Technical Note 28B - Brick Veneer 11
  54. 54. Caution in Use of Generic Details continued Emphasis added by TSG 11
  55. 55. Attention to Detail • Pay Attention to Construction Tolerances Per ACI 117 “Structural Specifications for Tolerances for Concrete Construction and Materials” the lateral alignment for cast-in-place concrete members, including elevated slabs, is permitted to vary up to 1” from a specified line or point in the horizontal plane. 11
  56. 56. THANK YOU for attending Combined Effects of Multi-Story Buildings and Brick Veneer Presented By: Michael A. Matthews, P.E. The Structures Group, Inc. Please remember to complete an evaluation form. You may leave the form on the table outside the room or with a room monitor.

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