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"Pavement condition measurement at high speed using a TSD" presented at ESREL2017 by Daniel Martinez Otero

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Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the latest developments in the use of an instrumented vehicle called the Traffic Speed Deflectometer (TSD). A large axle load is applied to the pavement under the TSD. The deflection caused by this axle load is measured using several Doppler lasers. In the first step, the velocity of the deflection of the pavement is measured which can be shown to be proportional to the slope of the deformed profile. The pavement deflection is calculated in the second step using an integration model. A Winkler model is used to simulate the pavement behaviour under the axle load and the TSD is represented as a half-car model. The TSD is shown to be an effective tool for pavement damage detection.

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"Pavement condition measurement at high speed using a TSD" presented at ESREL2017 by Daniel Martinez Otero

  1. 1. Pavement Condition Measurement at High Speed using a TSD Abdollah Malekjafarian* Daniel Martínez Otero* Eugene OBrien* * University College Dublin 1
  2. 2. Index Pavement Condition Measurement at High Speed Using a TSD Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin • Measuring Strategies • What a TSD is? • TSD for Pavement Condition • TSD for Bridge Condition • Conclusions 2
  3. 3. Measuring Strategies: Visual Inspection • Frequently used in bridges • Expensive • Worker dependence Measuring Strategies Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin 3
  4. 4. Direct Monitoring • Sensors installed on the bridge • Electricity supply needed • Great number on sensors involved, specially on bridges Hong Kong Stonecutters bridge, 1.6 km length Measuring Strategies Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin 4 • Parts of the road removed for analysis. • Damaged caused in pavements. • Non reliable data. Sampling
  5. 5. Indirect Monitoring (Drive-by) • Sensors installed in a passing vehicle • Quick • Cost affordable • No risk Measuring Strategies Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin 5
  6. 6. What a TSD is? • A Traffic Speed Deflectometer (TSD) is an equipped vehicle that allows us to know the road profile parameters. • Its characteristics make us to think about the suitability of this kind of vehicle for the bridge measurements. What a TSD is? Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin 6
  7. 7. • Truck oPuts axle load on the pavement. oIncludes most of the equipment. oConstant temperature • Beam oEquipped with gyros, accelerometers and Laser Doppler Vibrometers. oParallel to the road. Main components of the TSD 7 What a TSD is? Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin
  8. 8. • Doppler Lasers oInstalled on the beam. oReference laser between the two axles. oChange in frequency allows to calculate the relative velocity. Main components of the TSD 8 What a TSD is? Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin
  9. 9. What is the TSD measuring? 9 What a TSD is? Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin
  10. 10. TSD for Pavement Condition • Deflection slope is calculated using the relative velocities measured. • Basic slope formula is adapted from the data obtained. 𝛼 = ∆𝑣 ∆𝑢 = 𝑣 × ∆𝑡 𝑐 × ∆𝑡 = 𝑣 𝑐 Slope Deflections Velocities Vertical divided by horizontal 10 TSD for Pavement Condition Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin
  11. 11. • Using TSD data the slope formula changes. • Assuming that reference laser is in a zero deflection point, the absolute slope can be obtained. • Vehicle’s body bounce is removed in the subtraction. Slope Calculation 𝛼 = ∆ 𝑣 𝑛 − ∆ 𝑣 𝑅𝑒𝑓 𝑐 Vertical velocity measured in sensor n Vertical velocity measured in reference sensor Vehicle’s horizontal velocity 11 TSD for Pavement Condition Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin
  12. 12. • A simple Winkler model is able to model the characteristics of the road. • Two key parameters are considered: Young Modulus (E) and Pavement Stiffness (Kp) Winkler model 12 TSD for Pavement Condition Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin
  13. 13. TSD for Bridge Condition TSD for Bridge Condition Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin 13
  14. 14. Curvature Methods κℎ𝑒𝑎𝑙𝑡ℎ𝑦(𝑥) = 𝑀(𝑥) 𝐸𝐼 κ 𝑑𝑎𝑚𝑎𝑔𝑒𝑑(𝑥) = 𝑀(𝑥) 𝐸𝐼𝑟𝑒𝑑 TSD for Bridge Condition Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin 14
  15. 15. Instantaneous Curvature • In a moving reference situation this curvature cannot be calculated using only one sensor. • Instantaneous Curvature (IC) is calculated using three different sensors. IC x, 𝐭 = v x−∆x,𝐭 −2v x,𝐭 +v x+∆x,𝐭 ∆x2 TSD for Bridge Condition Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin 15
  16. 16. Deflection Contour Plot with IC calculation TSD for Bridge Condition Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin 16
  17. 17. Contour Plot with IC calculation TSD for Bridge Condition Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin 17
  18. 18. Rate of Instantaneous Curvature • Same idea is used for relative velocities (q). • Rate of Instantaneous Curvature (RIC) is defined similar to IC. RIC x, 𝐭 = q x−∆x,𝐭 −2q x,𝐭 +q x+∆x,𝐭 ∆x2 q = v 𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑑𝑔𝑒 − v 𝑣𝑒ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑙𝑒 TSD for Bridge Condition Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin 18
  19. 19. Rate of Instantaneous Curvature TSD for Bridge Condition Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin 19
  20. 20. Damage Indicator for Bridge Condition • Moving Average Difference (MAD): MAD x = 1 Z n=− (Z−1)×L 2f (Z−1)×L 2f RICDamaged (x+n)− 1 Z n=− (Z−1)×L 2f (Z−1)×L 2f RICHealthy(x+n) min RICHealthy × 100 (%) Z is the number of points for the moving average. f is the measuring sampling frequency of the sensors. L is the length of the bridge. TSD for Bridge Condition Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin 20
  21. 21. MovingAverage Difference TSD for Bridge Condition Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin 21
  22. 22. Summary TSD for Bridge Condition Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin 22
  23. 23. Conclusions Conclusions Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin 23 • Pavement under TSD can be modelled with a simple Winkler model with reasonable accuracy. • Curvature methods have great potential in drive-by monitoring. • Relative velocities can be used in bridge damage detection. • Moving Average Difference (MAD) has the ability of locate damage on bridges.
  24. 24. Thank you for your attention Pavement Condition Measurement at High Speed Using a TSD Daniel Martínez Otero / University College Dublin 24 This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 642453

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