TRIAS eGovernment introduction


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Lecture given during TRIAS masterclass, The Hague 2007

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TRIAS eGovernment introduction

  1. 1. eGOV: Introduction Monica Palmirani CIRSFID – University of Bologna Law Faculty
  2. 2. CIRSFID – School of Law <ul><li>CIRSFID is an interdisciplinary center of research of the University of Bologna – Italy </li></ul><ul><li>It was funded in 1986 inside School of Law by prof. Enrico Pattaro </li></ul><ul><li>Very active in European and national research projects – TRIAS, LEFIS </li></ul><ul><li>Strong attitude to promote and organize undergraduate, post-graduate courses </li></ul><ul><li>Training for legal operators – lifelong-learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tribunals (judges, clerks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Administrations (directors, employees, politician) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal professionals (advocates, consultants) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative operators (parliament, region, municipality clerks) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. CIRSFID’s courses in Legal Informatics and ICT Law <ul><li>1989 - Two Doctorates : ICT Law and Bioethics </li></ul><ul><li>2002 - Master’s course of Legal Informatics and ICT Law at the Bologna University School of Law, in coordination with EULISP ( European Legal Informatics Study Programme ) </li></ul><ul><li>2003 – founded the Three-year Undergraduate Programme Computer Science and Law of Bologna University School of Law </li></ul><ul><li>2004 - founded the Two-year Undergraduate Programme eGovernance at the Ravenna Division of the Bologna University School of Law </li></ul>
  4. 4. Outline <ul><li>Part I: Content – 1,5 hour </li></ul><ul><li>Break </li></ul><ul><li>Part II: Methodology – 0,5 hour </li></ul><ul><li>Part III: Card Sorting – 1,15 hour </li></ul><ul><li>Break </li></ul>
  5. 5. Objective <ul><li>Present the organisation of the eGov module </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the content and identify the missing topics </li></ul><ul><li>Use Topics Map for navigating the content in the wiki platform </li></ul><ul><li>Ask your contributions for grouping the topics </li></ul>
  6. 6. Table of content <ul><li>The table of content of the EGov module is organised in three sub-modules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eGov I - From the eCommerce to the Egovernment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eGov II - From eGovernment to eGovernance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eGov III - ICT Enabling eGovernment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eGov IV – National Legal Framework </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Table of content <ul><li>Table of content </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:// / index.php / Education : EGovernment_III </li></ul>
  8. 8. eGOV: part I Monica Palmirani CIRSFID – University of Bologna Law Faculty
  9. 9. eCommerce definition <ul><li>We can define informally electronic commerce when </li></ul><ul><ul><li>there is communication of information dealing with business topics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>including in the term business all the steps of the Porter-Miller value chain from inbound logistics to customer service and customer relationship management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The e-commerce uses online tools but also telecommunication instruments, therefore a telephone order or a fax message are eCommerce process </li></ul></ul></ul>Raw Materials Logistics Transfor-mation Marketing & Sales Distribution After-sales & Customer service Porter-Miller value chain model
  10. 10. Economic Bubble of the e-commerce in 2001 <ul><li>The dot-com bubble of the end of 2001 affected the e-commerce phenomena </li></ul><ul><li>who did not re-engineer the back-office was affected by the financial disaster </li></ul><ul><li>You can see all the .com enterprise that failed the e-commerce goal in the web site http:// </li></ul>
  11. 11. From eCommerce to eGovernment … <ul><li>e-government : using the tools of the information and communication technologies (ICTs) to improve the management of public administrations and the quality of the services </li></ul><ul><li>e-commerce has been a “preparatory” phenomenon and a “pushing” factor </li></ul><ul><li>the Internet accelerated the process of phasing ICTs into the public administration, a process dating back to the 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>In comparison with e-commerce, e-government has to deal with a much more complex, constraining, and regimented legal framework </li></ul>
  12. 12. Diversification points <ul><li>Rules and Law : Business processes in the private sector can be freely redesigned. In the public sector t he rule becomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a constraint, an engine, an object, a pwerful tool for implementing the administrative innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional role: Duties toward citizens and toward other administrations operating under the rule of law and protecting this rule: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice, transparency, good government, protection of citizens’ rights </li></ul></ul>(Reference to Batini C. e G. Santucci (editors), Information systems for the Public Administration: methodologies and techniques, Presidency of the Cabinet, Upper School of the Public Administration, Rome, 2005)
  13. 13. Diversification point 3: political role <ul><li>Political role of good governance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>openness and communicability – plain and clear language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>participation – enabling all social, economic, and political forces to play a role in the process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>responsibility – every public administration must clearly define its institutional role and become more accountable for its behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>efficiency – the policies adopted by the public administration must be responsive to the pace and practices of the socioeconomic environment in which they will be implemented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consistency – the actions of the public administration must be consistent with the assumed responsibilities and the stated policies </li></ul></ul>(From:White paper on European Governance, COM(2001) 428/final)
  14. 14. Similar but institutionally different in the motivations.. eGovernment policy Support for the enterprises On-line public services Socio-cultural growth Growth of democracy Process Simplification Reduction of government spending
  15. 15. Challenges facing Europe's public sector <ul><li>§ 2.1 Responding to a changing world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The public sector is challenged to play a key role in modernising Europe’s economy and society , so that Europe becomes more competitive and dynamic, with sustainable growth capable of creating more and better jobs while providing for greater social cohesion. These are the Lisbon targets for 2010.” </li></ul></ul>(From: COM(2003) 567 final, Brussels, 26/9/2003)
  16. 16. Challenges facing Europe's public sector <ul><li>“ Government revenues add up to 45% of the EU's GDP. The public sector is the single largest purchaser in the economy. Public consumption amounted to 20.6% of GDP in 2002, up from 19.9% in 1998. Public administrations are also a major provider of services to business, influencing enterprises' ability to compete, and of services to citizens, enabling them to obtain education and training and to find jobs .” </li></ul>(From: COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS, COM(2003) 567 final, Brussels, 26/9/2003)
  17. 17. eGovernment … for eCommerce <ul><li>eGovernment is necessary to support eCommerce and the new challenges of the net-economy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to guarantee services for the enterprises, within the time constraints required by eCommerce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>quick, efficient, flexible, high-quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to avoid needless redirecting from one office or administrative body to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to facilitate access to information and knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to simplify access channels to new markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to provide adequate infrastructures </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. eGovernment definition <ul><li>eGovernment </li></ul><ul><li>means the usage of information and communication technology tools </li></ul><ul><li>with the purpose to improve the management of internal and external processes of the public administration and to favour the supply of services and information to citizen and enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>Actors: Public bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Users: citizens, enterprises, other public bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Object: Government is a term from the political sciences that concerns the management of the administrations </li></ul><ul><li>Means: all the information and telecommunication technologies and especially INTERNET </li></ul>
  19. 19. Definition of the domain of activity <ul><li>G2C – government to citizen </li></ul><ul><li>G2B – government to business </li></ul><ul><li>G2G – government to government </li></ul><ul><li>G2E – government to employees </li></ul><ul><li>These definitions has been adapted to broader enlargement to new categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not enterprises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local public administration bodies </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Definition by the EU <ul><li>“ eGovernment is the use of information and communication technologies in public administration, combined with organizational change and new skills in order to improve public services and democratic processes and strengthen support to public policies. ” </li></ul>(From: COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS, COM(2003) 567 final, Brussels, 26/9/2003)
  21. 21. eGovernment is innovation: A holistic approach <ul><li>The concept of eGovernment is enriched by meanings that surpass the basic definition of an application of technology to the public sector including other important sectors in a holistic vision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulations and Best practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization and processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology and contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge and human capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication and accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social aspects </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. EU-Vision dell’eGov
  23. 23. Whitepaper on International Collaboration on eGovernment Research (From: Joint Meeting between the EU and US Delegations at the NSF’s Fifth National Digital Government Conference dg.o 2004, eattle, May 23, 2004)
  24. 24. eGovernment is ICT <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructures : broadband, national public administration backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling technologies : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>certified email, electronic signatures, online protocol, document management system, CRM, KMS, data-warehouse, semantic Web, workflow, Web 2.0 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional technologies : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>front-office: software application to provide users with online services - Portals (laws on accessibility) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>back-office: software applications to support the procedures internal to an administrative agency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transversal: crosswise communication among different public administrations and administrative agencies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. eGovernment is communication <ul><li>Interface methods and metaphors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life events: planning and grouping services according to the flows of events in everyday life; the same goes for the enterprises. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain map: discover the goal by decision tree. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multi-channel access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mobile phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>call centres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one-stop shops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>earth digital television </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. eGovernment knowledge and education <ul><li>Human capital : E-gov enhances the experience of its participants, thus increasing the value of the information systems </li></ul><ul><li>KMS (Knowledge Management Systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging and enabling the sharing of experiences: information + experience + results = knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing when and how to retrieve and use appropriate information for more-effective problem solving ( best practices ) </li></ul>
  27. 27. eGovernment is citizen-centricity <ul><li>Citizens and civil servants are the focus of E-gov innovation, since the customer is of central concern to the enteprises </li></ul><ul><li>CRM - citizen relationship management as a tool by which to improve communication between the public administration and users (citizens, enterprises, non-citizens, non-enterprises) </li></ul><ul><li>Long-life-learning - education in change : Regulations, laws, and organizations change, and we must therefore learn to adapt to changing organization and law. </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning involves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explaining innovation to civil servants and citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offering ongoing, continuing education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving training in the use of the relevant technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcoming the digital divide </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. eGovernment is political strategy <ul><li>We too often tend to forget that eCommerce models do not simply transfer to eGovernment </li></ul><ul><li>Governance in the public administrations is not the same thing as corporate governance </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to traditional strategic, tactical, and operational elements found in business, eGovernment also includes a political process </li></ul><ul><li>The political layer influences the policies below it </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen satisfaction can be a factor in political strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Without a strong involvement of the political layer the eGov is unsuccessful </li></ul>
  29. 29. Il ruolo della norma nell’e-gov Crf. Monica Palmirani, “The role of legal knowledge from e-government to e-governance”, ICAIL2003 proceeding – vedi materiali
  30. 30. From eGovernment to eGovernance <ul><li>eGovernance consists in using ICTs </li></ul><ul><li>to facilitate good policy-making, </li></ul><ul><li>while e-government is concerned with automating procedures, mainly for the administrative area ( tactical level), as a way to carry out the policies framed in deliberation </li></ul><ul><li>eGovernance brings together a set of ICTs solutions for better democratic processes: The problem is “how to govern” (strategic level) so as to engage the participation of those making up the socioeconomic fabric of the territory in which a public administration operates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>toward a federated e-governance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>and an integration among structures </li></ul>
  31. 31. Governance <ul><li>“ managing a country through actively involving all of its people, at all levels, through systems which allow them to express their needs and rights openly and freely. Governance includes the complex mechanisms, processes and institutions the citizens and the groups utilize to articulate their interests, mediate their differences and exercise their rights . ” </li></ul><ul><li>Good Governance  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>participatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transparent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accountable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>equitable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>promotes the rule of law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>              </li></ul>(From:United Nations Development Program,
  32. 32. Governance <ul><li>“ Governance includes the State but transcends it by taking into account the private sector and civil society . All three are critical for development.  ” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  33. 33. The elements of eGovernance <ul><li>Actors: Public administrations, local authorities, administrative agencies, private entities, associations, organized groups of citizens, non-citizens , enterprises, and non-enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>Users: All the actors who use the system and its tools </li></ul><ul><li>Point: Governance involves the participation of governing and opposition groups working together to frame strategic policies with which to effectively and collaboratively manage a territory </li></ul><ul><li>Tools: Computer and Web technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Objective: To facilitate the democratic process , achieve broad participation in framing policies and activities, foster social cohesion, and set up new governance models making it possible for the different actors to have a role in decision-making and compare views and solutions in that process </li></ul><ul><li>The digital divide : Overcome the divide and enable access for all - eInclusion </li></ul>
  34. 34. Technology enabling the eGov <ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Applications and Services </li></ul><ul><li>Framework and Data </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul>
  35. 35. Technology <ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Back-office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Front-office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life-events orther interface metaphor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BPR – business process reengineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benchmarking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality assurance </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Technology <ul><li>Applications and services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portals – web application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS – geographic information system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-procurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One-stop-shop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-Tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal Information System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSS - Decision Support System </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Technology <ul><li>Framework tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document management system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content management system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KM – Knowledge management system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CRM – Citizen relationship system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CWSC – computer supported cooperative work- groupware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Technology <ul><li>Data level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML& C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility – standard WAI -Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data mining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NL – natural language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AI – artificial intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IR – information retrieval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logic programming </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Technology <ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Band </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cryptography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protocolls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ePayment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-channal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity management eID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biometric </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Card </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Token </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Profiling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single sing-on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital signature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blind signature </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Citizen-Centricity model from gov3
  41. 41. Benchmarking and measurement: How to measure the eGov? eGovernment Economics Project ( eGEP )
  42. 42. Some recent data about the expenditure in EU for eGOV
  43. 43. Interoperability and coordination: a common eGov agenda in any level
  44. 44. Which future for the eGov in EU: Main milestones <ul><ul><li>eEurope – An Information Society for All </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eEurope2002 - Feira 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eEurope2005 - Siviglia 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The European Commission's 2006 Annual Progress Report on Growth and Jobs - 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i2010 - Iniziative 2007 </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. The current eGov Agenda <ul><li>Brussels, 30.3.2007, COM(2007) 146 final , i2010 - Annual Information Society Report 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>“ In 2007 the ICT PSP will focus on the role of the public sector as a user and will address three main themes: efficient and interoperable eGovernment services; ICT for accessibility, ageing and social integration; and, ICT for sustainable and interoperable health services .” </li></ul>
  46. 46. The current eGov Agenda <ul><li>Brussels, 25.04.2006, COM(2006) 173 final “i2010 eGovernment Action Plan: Accelerating eGovernment in Europe for the Benefit of All” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No citizen left behind: eInclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making efficiency and effectiveness a reality – user satisfaction, transparency, accountability, efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing high-impact key services for citizens and businesses - eProcurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting key enablers in place - eID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthening participation and democratic decision-making – eDemocracy and ePartecipation in the decision-making </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. The current eGov Agenda <ul><li>Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Progamme (CIP) ICT Policy Support Programme open call 23/10/2007 </li></ul><ul><li>THEME 1: EFFICIENT AND INTEROPERABLE EGOVERNMENT SERVICES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective 1.1: Enabling EU-wide public eProcurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective 1.2: Towards pan-European recognition of electronic IDs ( eIDs ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective 1.3: Innovative solutions for inclusive and efficient eGovernment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a) Mutual recognition and interoperability of eDocuments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b) Accessible and inclusive eGovernment services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c) Combined delivery of social services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective 1.4: Experience sharing and consensus building (reuse) </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Web 2.0 <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Michael Wesch , assistant professor of cultural anthropology at Kansas State University </li></ul>
  49. 49. eGOV: part II Monica Palmirani CIRSFID – University of Bologna Law Faculty
  50. 50. How organise all these material? <ul><li>Module </li></ul><ul><li>Wiki Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Topic map </li></ul>
  51. 51. How organise all these material? <ul><li>Module </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pros: hierarchy structure, the student can follow the plan easily, the roadmap is clear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cons: fixed roadmap, no customised learning path, no possibility to have thematic clustering/grouping, relationships are not expressible </li></ul></ul>
  52. 53. How organise all these material? <ul><li>Category : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pros: wiki categories are objective element in the structure not depending to the semantic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cons: they are fixed by the wiki structure, not talk about the content (semantic), relationships are not expressible </li></ul></ul>
  53. 54. How organise all these material? <ul><li>Topic map: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships between topics are modelled, customised roadmap is possible, the end-user can see all the topic in a visual way and decide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cons: Visualization is yet difficult, the author should make each TM to share with the other authors </li></ul></ul>
  54. 55. What is a TM? <ul><li>Topic Map is a standard for developing ontology in the semantic web - ISO 13250-2003 </li></ul><ul><li>A Topic Map ontology is “ the set of privileged topics and their characteristics, including associations between them ” [Grønmo, 2006] </li></ul><ul><li>It is an alternative to RDF/OWL but it is possible to convert a TM into RDF –> XTM = XML for TM </li></ul><ul><li>It is oriented to the concepts rather than to the object oriented approach </li></ul><ul><li>It is more fitted for human discipline modeling </li></ul>
  55. 56. Topic Map Model - ISO 13250-2003 <ul><li>T opic – any relevant concept </li></ul><ul><li>A ssociation – relationships between concpets </li></ul><ul><li>O ccurence – link to the information resources </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual map </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Topics of the lesson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning associations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>part_of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>complementar_to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>secification_of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>equivalence_to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>similar_to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>opposite_of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connection_to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used_by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>propedeuthical_to </li></ul></ul><ul><li>URL of the wiki page </li></ul>
  56. 57. eGOV Topic Map – more over of 60 Topics
  57. 58. Graphic visualization of the eGOV TM
  58. 59. Topic Map in the wiki
  59. 60. Card sorting <ul><li>What is card sorting? It is a HCI technique for collecting the user requirements about topic’s order in a web site </li></ul><ul><li>How to do? The list of the topics + few top-categories are assigned to the individual users or group of users </li></ul><ul><li>We ask to you : to group the topics in middle-categories, to assign the name to the middle-categories, to organise all in a tree structure, to justify the choice </li></ul><ul><li>Reporter : inside of each group there is a reporter of the discussion </li></ul>
  60. 61. Categories <ul><li>Organisation and Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Human resources </li></ul><ul><li>Legal issues </li></ul><ul><li>Social issues </li></ul>
  61. 62. <ul><li>Thank you for your attention </li></ul><ul><li>Monica Palmirani – University of Bologna </li></ul><ul><li>CIRSFID </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>