Te Kaitiakitanga o Nga Korero me Nga Matauranga o Nga Tipuna o roto i te Taraipiunera me te Kooti Whenua Maori The Guardia...
Waitangi Tribunal <ul><li>A tribunal to inquire into the claims by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a Maori or groups of Maori </li>...
Waitangi Tribunal <ul><li>Treaty of Waitangi – between British Crown (now NZ) and Maori in 1840 </li></ul><ul><li>2 versio...
Waitangi Tribunal <ul><li>Constituted in 1975 to hear contemporary claims - that Crown is in breach in modern times </li><...
Waitangi Tribunal <ul><li>Deadline for filing historical claims – 1 st  September 2008  </li></ul><ul><li>2157 claims  </l...
Waitangi Tribunal <ul><li>Hears evidence and submissions </li></ul><ul><li>Makes findings as to breach  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Waitangi Tribunal
Inquiry
Tribunal <ul><li>Website –  www.waitangi-tribunal.govt.nz </li></ul><ul><li>Includes links to research resources and Tribu...
Crown Forestry Rental Trust(CFRT) Office of Treaty Settlements (OTS) <ul><li>Set up as part of a settlement with Maori in ...
Other Archives <ul><li>Archives New Zealand – Wellington. Heavily used by treaty claims researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Land...
Nga Korero Tuku Iho <ul><li>Tribunal hearings can be in marae/ ancestral meeting houses situated on reserved land, but als...
Rohe Potae Inquiry
Maori Land Court <ul><li>Crown recognised Maori “owned” New Zealand in 1840 </li></ul><ul><li>Native Land Court 1865 – con...
Maori Land Court <ul><li>Statute changes philosophy of court in 1993 – retention of Maori land and development in hands of...
Waikato Maniapoto / Hamilton  Māori Land Court
Tairawhiti / Gisborne  Māori Land Court
Waiariki / Rotorua  Māori Land Court
Maori Land Court <ul><li>Originals poorly kept in district offices until recently </li></ul><ul><li>No proper archival car...
Maori Land On Line <ul><li>www.maorilandonline.co.nz </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic record developed – problems </li></ul><u...
Owner Interest Search
Owner Interest Search Results
Block Details
Management Structure /  List of owners
Block Location
Issues <ul><li>Whakapapa/Genealogy – fundamental to Maori society, governs all relationships – tapu/sacred information – p...
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Milroy

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Judge Stephanie Milroy, Deputy Chair, Waitangi Tribunal, New Zealand

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Milroy

  1. 1. Te Kaitiakitanga o Nga Korero me Nga Matauranga o Nga Tipuna o roto i te Taraipiunera me te Kooti Whenua Maori The Guardianship of Traditional Knowledge in the Waitangi Tribunal and Maori Land Court, New Zealand
  2. 2. Waitangi Tribunal <ul><li>A tribunal to inquire into the claims by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a Maori or groups of Maori </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that the Crown has breached the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and has thereby caused prejudice to the claimant </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Waitangi Tribunal <ul><li>Treaty of Waitangi – between British Crown (now NZ) and Maori in 1840 </li></ul><ul><li>2 versions </li></ul><ul><li>3 articles – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kawanatanga/governorship to the Crown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tino rangatiratanga/highest authority to Maori over their land, fisheries, forests and all their precious treasures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maori to have citizenship rights of British subjects </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Waitangi Tribunal <ul><li>Constituted in 1975 to hear contemporary claims - that Crown is in breach in modern times </li></ul><ul><li>In 1985 jurisdiction extended for claims back to 1840 (historical claims) </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of Treaty – partnership, protection participation, good faith, loyalty and others </li></ul>
  5. 5. Waitangi Tribunal <ul><li>Deadline for filing historical claims – 1 st September 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>2157 claims </li></ul><ul><li>Total claims received since 1975 – 3500 approx </li></ul><ul><li>Number of tribunal reports – 114 </li></ul><ul><li>Covering issues such as confiscation of land, suppression/destruction of culture and language, destruction of environment, broadcasting, etc </li></ul>
  6. 6. Waitangi Tribunal <ul><li>Hears evidence and submissions </li></ul><ul><li>Makes findings as to breach </li></ul><ul><li>Recommends negotiations with Crown </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes makes specific recommendations </li></ul>
  7. 7. Waitangi Tribunal
  8. 8. Inquiry
  9. 9. Tribunal <ul><li>Website – www.waitangi-tribunal.govt.nz </li></ul><ul><li>Includes links to research resources and Tribunal reports </li></ul><ul><li>Has a research unit which will undertake research for the Tribunal – documentary sources </li></ul><ul><li>Tribunal commissions research from experts –includes research into traditional knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>All research reports and evidence kept in Tribunal archives – accessible at Tribunal office in Wellington. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Crown Forestry Rental Trust(CFRT) Office of Treaty Settlements (OTS) <ul><li>Set up as part of a settlement with Maori in respect of Crown-owned forests </li></ul><ul><li>Also commissions research, pays costs associated with claim research, meetings (hui) of claimants and settlement negotiations. </li></ul><ul><li>Funds a lot of oral traditional research and claimants’ own research </li></ul><ul><li>OTS commissions research for Crown </li></ul>
  11. 11. Other Archives <ul><li>Archives New Zealand – Wellington. Heavily used by treaty claims researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Land Information New Zealand – title and survey information </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of House of Representatives </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries and museums – New Zealand or Maori research collections </li></ul><ul><li>Maori Land Court </li></ul>
  12. 12. Nga Korero Tuku Iho <ul><li>Tribunal hearings can be in marae/ ancestral meeting houses situated on reserved land, but also halls, hotel conference centres, anywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Often local iwi radio will broadcast hearing, video records kept </li></ul><ul><li>Usually lawyer-led but sometimes open forum </li></ul><ul><li>Te Rohe Potae inquiry – claimants presented traditional evidence, unwritten - wananga </li></ul>
  13. 13. Rohe Potae Inquiry
  14. 14. Maori Land Court <ul><li>Crown recognised Maori “owned” New Zealand in 1840 </li></ul><ul><li>Native Land Court 1865 – converts tribal title to individual title – many flagrant abuses led to land loss, Maori land changed to general land </li></ul><ul><li>Became Maori Land Court in 1953 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Maori Land Court <ul><li>Statute changes philosophy of court in 1993 – retention of Maori land and development in hands of owners. </li></ul><ul><li>Records of court represent a huge and incredibly valuable archive but it is a day-to-day working record – IT LIVES. </li></ul><ul><li>Minutes, orders, applications with all associated documents, judges’ handwritten summaries of evidence at hearing, transcripts </li></ul>
  16. 16. Waikato Maniapoto / Hamilton Māori Land Court
  17. 17. Tairawhiti / Gisborne Māori Land Court
  18. 18. Waiariki / Rotorua Māori Land Court
  19. 19. Maori Land Court <ul><li>Originals poorly kept in district offices until recently </li></ul><ul><li>No proper archival care taken until recently </li></ul><ul><li>Public allowed direct access to originals </li></ul><ul><li>No index –expert assistance needed to search the record </li></ul>
  20. 20. Maori Land On Line <ul><li>www.maorilandonline.co.nz </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic record developed – problems </li></ul><ul><li>Website – allows isolated or overseas Maori to access records </li></ul><ul><li>Recent records of court – time-lapse snapshot </li></ul><ul><li>Survey and land information </li></ul><ul><li>Further development of website and searching to be completed </li></ul>
  21. 21. Owner Interest Search
  22. 22. Owner Interest Search Results
  23. 23. Block Details
  24. 24. Management Structure / List of owners
  25. 25. Block Location
  26. 26. Issues <ul><li>Whakapapa/Genealogy – fundamental to Maori society, governs all relationships – tapu/sacred information – public access? </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing dominance of public research by non-Maori researchers although Maori numbers increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Tribunal resources limited - research as currency </li></ul>

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