Customer service


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  • Communications & visual identity Corporate comms Uncontrollable comms (YP) Architecture & location Corporate visual identity Behaviour Corporate behaviour Management behaviour Employee behaviour Corporate culture Goals, philosophies & principles (vision) Organisational imagery & history (brand attributes) Market Conditions Nature of industry (emerging market in HE, cuts) Corporate/marketing strategies (strategic plan)
  • Conforming to customer expectations of service on a consistent basis. (Lewis & Booms 1983) Two factors: service quality and customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction > customer loyalty > profitability Attitude change Repeat purchase Brand loyalty Loyalty ladder: Partner Advocate Supporter Client Customer Prospect Relationship marketing. “… establishing, maintaining and enhancing relationships with customers…at a profit, so that the objectives of the parties are met…” (Grönroos, 1994), Service quality and customer satisfaction.
  • Intangible (can’t be stored, patented, displayed, communicated) Difficult for businesses to understand how consumers perceive their services and evaluate service quality. (Zeithaml 1981) Cannot be counted, measured, inventoried in advance of sale. Sold and produced simultaneously (restaurant) Consumer input affects experience of service. Heterogeneous (non-standard, unrepeatable) Varies from producer to producer, customer to customer and day to day. Perishable (can’t sell a bad haircut on)
  • We are committed to making banking easy We are committed to helping when you need us We are committed to supporting the communities we work in We are committed to listening
  • I am Toyota TV campaign
  • 107,000 fans ‘ its our page, we set the rules, it was ever thus…’ Palm oil Work with Indonesian government prominent on site.
  • Strategic benefit of quality in contributing to market share and return on investment as well as in lowering manufacturing costs and improving productivity. (Garvin 1983) Quality is the most important consumer trend in the 1980s. (Rabin 1983) Quality is ‘zero defects’ – doing it right first time. (Crosby 1979) Both contribute to level of customer satisfaction.
  • Physical: facilities, classrooms Corporate: reputation, culture Interactive: interactions between staff and students Experience properties: only be discerned after purchase and during consumption. RATER Credence properties: impossible to evaluate even after purchase and consumption. Competence, security.
  • Reliability: meeting promise reliably, most important Assurance: courtesy, trust and inspiring confidence Tangibles: facilities, equipment, personnel and materials Empathy: caring, attentive. Customers are unique and special Responsiveness: help and be prompt, viewing service delivery from customer perspective
  • Remote encounters (university website, OLP, CRM) Phone encounters (course enquiries) Face-to-face encounters (lecturer, security, cleaners, retail staff)
  • Top five factors come into play within first 10 minutes. Marriott.
  • Service recovery (timetable issue) Adaptability (non-standard students) Spontaneity (‘moments of magic’ dealt with on the spot ie Yorkshire Water and Marriott reception) Coping strategies (to prevent escalation, particularly for unreasonable customer behaviour)
  • Simplistic Comments, complaints Meetings, forums Surgeries Market research Exit survey (NSS) Mystery shopping New, declining and non-completing students Service gap analysis Service design Insights Benchmarking Blueprinting Five Whys Critical Incident Technique
  • Customer Gap – the difference between expectations and perceptions (central) Provider Gap 1 – management not knowing what customer expects Insufficient market research Poor use of market intelligence Lack of interaction between management and customers Insufficient communication between management and employees Provider Gap 2 – service standards incorrect Lack of management commitment to service quality Absence of process to set service quality goals Inadequate standardisation of tasks Perception that customer expectations cannot be met Provider Gap 3 – failing to meet service standards People not clear what they should be doing Work/customer requirements in conflict Poor employee fit Powerless employees Poor teamwork Provider Gap 4 – failure to match service performance to service promises Marcomms not integrated Horizontal comms poor Not managing customer experience Over-promising service levels
  • Wrong medicine Why? Incorrect prescription Why? Wrong decision Why? Chart did not contain all info Why? Latest results not added Why? Lab technician phoned them through to the receptionist who forgot to pass it on Answer: Absence of a formal system
  • Customer service

    1. 1. Our identity: created in every interaction Richard Berry Head of Creative Design
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Corporate identity </li></ul><ul><li>Service quality </li></ul><ul><li>Customer satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
    3. 3. Corporate identity <ul><li>Communication & visual identity </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate culture </li></ul><ul><li>Market conditions </li></ul>Melwar & Jenkins 2002
    4. 4. Service quality definition <ul><li>The consumer’s overall impression of the relative inferiority/superiority of the organisation and its services. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Adding value <ul><li>Build trust </li></ul><ul><li>Build brand differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Increase loyalty </li></ul>
    6. 6. Qualities <ul><li>Intangible </li></ul><ul><li>Sold and produced simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>Interactions affect experience </li></ul><ul><li>Non-standard, unrepeatable </li></ul><ul><li>Perishable </li></ul>
    7. 7. Natwest ‘computer says no’
    8. 9. Toyota recall <ul><li>http:// /safety/ </li></ul>
    9. 10. Nestlé Facebook fan page <ul><li>http:// =_m0cItafczk </li></ul>
    10. 12. Determining service quality <ul><li>The outcome of the service delivery (technical) </li></ul><ul><li>How the service was delivered (functional) </li></ul>Gronroos 1984
    11. 13. Three quality dimensions <ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive </li></ul>Lehtinen & Lehtinen 1982
    12. 14. Experience properties <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Tangibles </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness </li></ul>Zeithaml & Bitner 2003
    13. 15. Service interactions <ul><li>Remote </li></ul><ul><li>Phone </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face </li></ul>Shostack 1985
    14. 16. Open Day: Moments of truth <ul><li>Website </li></ul><ul><li>Register </li></ul><ul><li>Campus tour </li></ul><ul><li>Coach tour </li></ul><ul><li>Queries to ambassadors/staff </li></ul>
    15. 18. Creating memorable service encounters <ul><li>Service recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptability </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneity </li></ul><ul><li>Coping strategies </li></ul>Zeithaml & Bitner 2003
    16. 19. Evaluation <ul><li>Simple </li></ul><ul><li>Market research </li></ul><ul><li>Service gap analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Service design </li></ul><ul><li>Five whys </li></ul><ul><li>CIT </li></ul>
    17. 20. Service gap analysis <ul><li>The difference between expectations and perceptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management not knowing what customer expects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service standards incorrect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failing to meet service standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to match service performance to service promises </li></ul></ul>Zeithaml, Parasuraman & Berry
    18. 21. Five whys <ul><li>Get to root cause by asking ‘why?’ five times </li></ul>Senge et al 1994
    19. 22. Critical incident technique <ul><li>When did it happen? </li></ul><ul><li>What led to the situation? </li></ul><ul><li>How was it satisfying/dissatisfying? </li></ul><ul><li>What could have been done differently? </li></ul>Zeithaml & Bitner 2003
    20. 23. Our identity: created in every interaction Richard Berry Head of Creative Design