Advanced energy design guides a blueprint for cutting your campus energy use in half

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Advanced energy design guides a blueprint for cutting your campus energy use in half

  1. 1. AEDG K-12 50%: A Blueprint for Cutting Your Campus Energy Use in Half Terry E. Townsend, P.E., FASHRAE, LEED®AP, ASHRAE Presidential Member June 26, 2013
  2. 2. AEDG K-12 50%: A Blueprint for Cutting Your Campus Energy Use in Half If you are thinking a year ahead, sow a seed. If you are thinking ten years ahead, plant a tree. If you are thinking one hundred years ahead, educate the people. - Chinese Proverb
  3. 3. Why Should Owners, Architects and Engineers be Concerned? Two Types of Energy Targets * Energy Use Index/Intensity (EUI) – includes no on-site renewable energy generation EUI = Total Annual Energy Use (kBtu/SF-yr) Gross Floor Area * Net Energy Use Intensity (NEUI) – includes photovoltaic and other on-site renewable energy production NEUI = Net Annual Energy Use (kBtu/SF-yr) Gross Floor Area
  4. 4. Why Should Architects and Engineers be Concerned?
  5. 5. Table 1. BASE Energy Use Intensities based upon ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 by Subsector and Climate Zone, in kBtu/ft2-yr Subsector Climate Zone All 1A 2A 2B 3A 3B 3C 4A 4B 4C 5A 5B 6A 6B 7 8 All 71 82 68 73 78 58 62 70 55 56 75 64 76 74 74 74 Office/professional 57 55 61 65 52 46 44 60 58 53 60 48 62 61 68 68 Nonrefrigerated warehouse 41 27 31 31 37 30 30 42 49 30 47 51 50 47 45 45 Education 52 52 49 57 42 41 54 60 34 43 53 44 60 64 64 64 Retail (excluding mall) 68 68 66 66 63 54 54 68 58 58 73 71 76 91 100 100 Public assembly 62 66 66 66 72 52 52 54 48 77 68 50 66 51 70 70 Service 83 83 78 78 60 63 63 79 52 52 92 76 102 86 108 108 Religious worship 44 40 40 40 29 29 29 44 59 59 51 35 57 39 44 44 Lodging 55 65 51 51 52 40 40 57 61 61 55 51 60 64 63 63 Food Services 354 354 354 354 380 375 375 368 368 368 336 283 341 341 354 354 Health care (inpatient) 111 108 108 108 118 98 97 106 106 106 115 106 113 116 116 116 Public order and safety 67 54 54 54 67 67 67 60 60 60 78 78 73 87 87 87 Food sales 181 200 200 200 190 151 151 188 188 188 173 182 208 208 181 181 Health care (outpatient) 76 76 80 80 64 79 79 66 66 66 90 76 82 78 107 107 Vacant 30 30 23 23 30 20 20 41 41 41 21 21 40 40 40 40 Other 58 73 73 73 58 58 58 57 57 57 61 61 63 63 63 63 Skilled nursing 131 132 132 132 113 102 103 145 145 145 142 106 132 132 132 132 Laboratory 323 323 323 323 323 369 369 272 272 272 313 313 323 323 323 323 Refrigerated warehouse 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 88 86 86 85 86 86 86 86 86
  6. 6. ASHRAE’s Suggested Building Code Energy Use Index Targets (Approved by ASHRAE BOD April, 2007) • ASHRAE 90.1/189 2010 – 36 kBtu/ft2/yr 2013 – 30 2016 – 25 2019 – 20 2022 – 15 2025 – 10 2028 – 5 2030 – Net 0 • Architecture 2030 2010 – 36 kBtu/ft2/yr 2015 – 27 2020 – 18 2025 – 9 2030 – Net 0
  7. 7. ASHRAE’s Suggested Building Code Energy Use Index Targets Approved by ASHRAE BOD April, 2007 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 36000 Year Energy(kBtu/yr) ASHRAE BOD Goal Standard 90.1Standard 90.1 Standard 189Standard 189 AEDGAEDG Energy Reduction Proposal
  8. 8. Advanced Energy Design Guidance
  9. 9. Advanced Energy Design Guidance
  10. 10. Advanced Energy Design Guidance • Present a way, but not the only way to build energy efficient buildings that use significantly less energy than those built to the minimum code requirements • Energy Savings targets when compared to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Std 90.1-1999 (30%); 90.1- 2004(50%) progress towards NZEB • More advanced savings (70+% NZEB) documents to be covered later.
  11. 11. Advanced Energy Design Guidance
  12. 12. Advanced Energy Design Guidance • IIMPROVED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT - Quality of physical environment affects student performance - Quality lighting systems = daylighting + energy efficient electric lighting systems - Energy Efficient HVAC Systems = quieter, more comfortable, & more productive spaces • ENHANCED ENVIRONMENTAL CURRICULUM - Buildings can be teaching tools & demonstrate scientific and philosophic best practices
  13. 13. Advanced Energy Design Guidance • REDUCED OPERATING COSTS - Average schools spend more money on energy each year than on school supplies - Energy efficient facilities help stabilize school budgets • LOWER CONSTRUCTION COSTS/FASTER PAYBACK - Properly designed, constructed & operated = cost less than normal schools - Energy efficient facilities signify responsible stewardship of public funds
  14. 14. Advanced Energy Design Guidance • HOW TO ACHIEVE THE 50% ENERGY SAVINGS GOAL - An individual with decision-making power must champion this objective! - The design, commissioning and construction team must be willing to collectively produce the target energy efficient facility! - The Operations & Maintenance personnel along with the facility’s Staff & Teachers must be trained in the proper operation of a facility’s high efficiency systems! - The Students must be integrated into the overall operations strategies!
  15. 15. Advanced Energy Design Guidance BACKGROUND INFORMATION • Primary Focus = New Schools; Recommendations are also applicable to renovation projects (partial or complete) • Basis of AEDG = 74,000 SF primary school and 211,000 SF secondary school • Energy Savings – ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 = 51% - 65% ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 = 47% (Average) ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 = 28% (Average)
  16. 16. Advanced Energy Design Guidance HOW TO ACHIEVE 50% ENERGY SAVINGS “GAME PLAN” • Obtain Building Owner Buy-in • Assemble an Experienced, Innovative Design Team • Adopt an Integrated Design Process • Hire a Daylighting Consultant • Utilize Energy Modeling during Design Phase • Use Building Commissioning Authority (CxA) • Energy + Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Goals – + Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) – ASHRAE 62.1-2010
  17. 17. Traditional vs Integrated Design Teams Traditional Project Owner----->Architect Consulting Engineers Cost Consultants Commissioning Authority Contractors Integrated Project Design Team Leader (Arch/Eng/PM/CM) + Commissioning Authority Design Team Members Cost Consultants Design Specialists-(Security, Communications, etc..) Facility Personnel Occupant’s Representatives Contractors
  18. 18. Integrated Design Project’s Phases Design Phase • Pre-Design (Project Kickoff, Programming & Concept Design) • Initiation of Commissioning Activities (CxA) • Schematic Design & Design Development • Construction Documents & Bid Process Construction Phase • Design Team & CxA Activities Post Occupancy Phase • Design Team Close-out & CxA M&V Activities • Development of an On-going/Performance Cx Program
  19. 19. High Performance Integrated Design • A Successful Integrated Design Approach Provides the Best Energy Performance at the Least Cost and is Characterized as Follows: 1. It is Resourceful – Proper Building Orientation, Form, and Layout Provide Substantial Energy Savings 2. It is Multi-disciplinary – Process Requires Cross- Disciplinary Design and Validation at ALL Phases of the Process
  20. 20. High Performance Integrated Design 3. It is Goal Driven – Early in the Design Process Goal Setting can Identify Strategies to Meet Energy Efficiency and Other Building Goals in Accordance with the Owner’s Project Requirements/Mission 4. It is Iterative – Goal Setting is Just the Beginning; The Design Concept Needs to be Tested Throughout the Design Process, Optimized for Maintenance Requirements and Adjusted to Provide Acceptable Life-Cycle Costs
  21. 21. High Performance Integrated Design Building Systems Commissioning (CxA) • Process Cx utilizes a paper-based process that is usually conducted by the project’s contractors/sub- contractors (First Party Validation) • Technical Cx utilizes a technical testing-based approach that is conducted by the CxA (Third Party Validation) and includes system adjustments and optimizations
  22. 22. High Performance Integrated Design Design Phase CxA Deliverables a. Updated Owner’s Project Requirements (OPR) b. Issues Log c. Commissioning Plan d. Updates to the Basis of Design (BOD) documentation e. Commissioning Specifications
  23. 23. High Performance Integrated Design Construction Phase CxA Deliverables a. Site Observation Inspections & reports b. Pre-Functional Tests (PFTs) c. Functional Performance Tests (FPTs) d. Issues Log & Deficiency Resolutions e. Owner Training in O&M and functions of building’s systems f. Systems’ Manual g. Final Technical Cx Report
  24. 24. High Performance Integrated Design Construction Phase CxA Deliverables a. Deferred Tests (PFTs and FPTs) b. Performance Verification Testing (PVT) c. Updated Final Technical Cx Report with Deferred Tests and PVTs d. Development of an On-going/Operations Technical Cx Plan and Program for Facility O&M Staff.
  25. 25. Advanced Energy Design Guidance HOW TO ACHIEVE 50% ENERGY SAVINGS “GAME PLAN” • Energy + Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Goals – + Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) – ASHRAE 62.1-2010 + Thermal Comfort – ASHRAE 55-2010 + Visual Comfort – IESNA Lighting Handbook + Acoustic Comfort – ASA S12.60-2010 • Train Building Users & Operations Staff • Continually Monitor Building Performance/On-going Commissioning (OCx)
  26. 26. Prescriptive Recommendations • Envelope (30% & 50%) – Roof – Walls – Floors – Slabs – Doors – Vestibules(50%) – Vertical Fenestration – Interior Finishes • Interior Lighting – Two options- 30% – - Multiple options-50% • HVAC –DX -30% –WSHP-30% –GSHP-50% –Unit Ventilator and Chiller-30% –Fancoil & Chiller-30% & 50% –Package Rooftop VAV- 30% –VAV and Chiller-30% & 50% –Ventilation Systems-30% & 50%
  27. 27. Prescriptive Recommendations • HVAC – Ducts & Dampers-30% & 50% – M&V/Benchmarking-50% • Exterior Lighting-50% • Equipment Choices-50% - Computers - Vending Machines • Controls/Programs-50% - Power/outlet controls • Service Water Heating –30% & 50% • Kitchen Equipment-50%
  28. 28. Envelope Recommendations • Enhanced insulation levels for many assemblies • Fenestration-Floor Area ration (FFR) E-W 5% (50%) N-S 7% (50%) • Recommendations on window orientation – (An * SHGCn + As * SHGCs) > (Ae*SHGCe + Aw*SHGCw) • Exterior sun control recommendations (use of overhangs)
  29. 29. Envelope Recommendations “Roof” Zone 3 ; Zone 4 • Insulation entirely above deck = R-25 ci ; R-30 ci • Metal bldg = R-10 + R-19 FC ; R-19 + R-11 LS • Attic & other = R-38 ; R-49 • Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) = 78 ; “No Rec” • “ci” = continuous insulation; “LS” = liner systems • “No Rec” means the more stringent of either 90.1 or the local code requirements • “FC“ = Filled Cavity
  30. 30. Envelope Recommendations “Walls” Zone 3 Zone 4 •R-11.4 ci R-13.3 ci •R-13 ci R-19 ci R-13 + R-7.5 CI •R-13 + R-13 + R-3.8 ci R-7.5 ci •R-7.5 ci R-7.5 ci • Mass (HC>7 Btu/ft2F) • Metal bldg • Steel framed • Wood framed & other • Below grade walls • “HC” = Heat Capacity
  31. 31. Envelope Recommendations “Doors” Zone 3 Zone 4 • U-0.70 U-0.50 • U-0.50 U-0.50 • Swinging • Nonswinging
  32. 32. Envelope Recommendations “Vertical Fenestration – View Glass” Zone 3; Zone 4 • E-W = 5% Max; N-S = 7% Max • Nonmtl = 0.41;0.38; Mtl = 0.60; 0.44 • 0.25;0.40/ 0.62; 0.75 • PF = 0.5 • Fenestration to Floor Area Ratio (FFR) • Thermal transmittance • SHGC E-W/N/S • Exterior sun control (S only) • “PF” = Projection Factor
  33. 33. Interior Lighting • Considerable attention given to daylighting • Daylighting useful for increased performance of students and energy reduction • Daylit and non-daylit options given for classrooms and gyms • Glass divided into view glass (vertical fenestration) and daylighting glazing (sidelit, roof monitors and combined)
  34. 34. Interior Lighting Recommendations Zone 3; Zone 4 0.7 85 - 92 >50 Manual On – Auto/timed-off - all rooms Dim all fixtures in daylight zones • Lighting Power Density (LPD) (W/ft2 max) • Light Source System Efficacy (mean lumens/watt min) Linear Fluorescent All other sources • Lighting Controls – General • Dimming Controls – Daylight harvesting • “Efficacy” = Lumens/Watt
  35. 35. HVAC Equipment and Systems Recommendations for Multiple System Types • GSHP w/DOAS • Fancoil System w/DOAS • VAV AHU System w/DOAS
  36. 36. HVAC Equipment Recommendations - GSHP System w/DOAS (50%) Zones 3 & 4 Efficiency Cooling Heating Ground Source HP 17.1 EER 3.6 COP GSHP Compr. Control 2-stage or variable speed GSHP Circ Pumps VFD or NEMA Premium Efficiency GSHP Fan Power 0.4 W/cfm DOAS (Humid;Dry;Marine) 60% Enthalpy Reduction DOAS Ventilation Control DCV with VFD GSHP Duct Pressure Drop = Total ESP < 0.2”
  37. 37. HVAC Equipment Recommendations -Fancoil w/DOAS and Chiller/Boiler Systems (50%) Zones 3 & 4 Water-cooled Chiller Efficiency No Rec Water Circ Pumps VFD and NEMA Premium Efficiency Gas Boiler 90% Ec Max Fan Power 0.4 W/cfm Fancoil Fans Multiple Speed Economizer No Rec DOAS Control DCV with VFD Fancoil Pressure Drop Total ESP < 0.2”
  38. 38. Zones 3 & 4 HVAC Equipment Recommendations - VAV w/DOAS and Chiller/Boiler Systems (50%) Air-cooled Chiller Efficiency 10 EER; 12.75 IPLV Water-cooled Chiller Efficiency No Rec Water Circ Pumps VFD and NEMA Premium Efficiency Gas Boiler 90% Ec Max Fan Power 0.8 W/cfm Fancoil Fans Multiple Speed Economizer No Rec DOAS Energy Recovery(Humid;Dry;Marine) 60% Enthalpy Reduction DOAS Control DCV with VFD
  39. 39. Ventilation and Ductwork Zones 3 & 4 • Dedicated OA System required on GSHP, FC w/DOAS & VAV w/DOAS systems • Motorized outside air damper control required • Energy Recovery required • Lower duct friction (design them better) (0.08in WC/100 ft) • Interior only ductwork (reduce impact of possible leakage) • Duct insulation: R-6 • Ductwork sealing Class A
  40. 40. Service Water Heating Zones 3 & 4 • Point-of-Use - 0.82 EF or 81% Et • Heat Pump WH – COP 3.0 (interior heat source) • Solar Hot-water Heater – 30% solar HW fraction when LCC effective • Pipe d < 1½” – 1 ½ ” insulation • Pipe d ≥ 1½” – 1½ ” insulation
  41. 41. “How-to” Guidance - Envelope
  42. 42. Fossil Ridge High School
  43. 43. Fossil Ridge High School • Building Information * 290,000 Sq.Ft. * 55 General Classrooms * 9 Science Classrooms * 145 Seat Lecture Hall * 14 Music/Art/Technology Rooms * 2 Gymnasiums * Athletic Facilities * Media Center, Offices, Kitchen & Dining, Auditorium & Gen. Areas
  44. 44. Fossil Ridge High School • Building Systems * Boiler Plant = High Eff. Condensing Boilers * Chiller Plant = 135 Ton Air-Cooled w/Ice Storage (1120 Ton-hrs) * VFD Pumps * DOAS (Heat Recovery & Direct Cooling) w/VFD * Occupancy Sensor FCU Control
  45. 45. Fossil Ridge High School • Building Systems * Operable Window Sensors – FCU Interface * 100% Air Economizers * Large Spaces – Constant Volume * Offices – VAV 4-Pipe * Computer Rooms – DX Splits
  46. 46. Fossil Ridge High School • Operational Results * LEED-Silver Certification * 60% Less Energy than 90.1 * 3 Yrs Operation  $120,000/yr Utility Savings ($0.49/SF Annual Operating Cost) * Ice Storage – Eliminated Cooling Demand
  47. 47. Net-Zero Richardsville Elementary School Bowling Green, Kentucky PROJECT DESCRIPTION • 72,300 sq.ft. facility for 500 elementary school students • 2-story facility with initial goal of annual consumption of 18 kBtu/sf-year NZEB STRATEGIES • Geothermal HVAC System using dual compressor WSHP units • Ventilation w/100% O/A, variable volume, heat recovery unit; Use of CO2 Sensors/continuous testing of IAQ • Thermal envelope – ICF wall construction
  48. 48. Net-Zero Richardsville Elementary School Bowling Green, Kentucky NZEB STRATEGIES • Daylighting – Combination of Glazing + Solar-tubes • Lighting Power Density = 0.68 W/ft2 • Kitchen – Type II hoods installed – reduced exhaust air requirements; most efficient cooking equipment installed • Computers – First wireless school in KY (all laptops) • Power Generation – 208 KW of roof mounted thin film solar photovoltaics and 140 KW of mono-crystalline photovoltaic panels LESSONS LEARNED • Energy reduction opportunities – Kitchen power, Computers & Ventilation system/control
  49. 49. Net-Zero Richardsville Elementary School Bowling Green, Kentucky
  50. 50. Main Level Lower Level
  51. 51. Net-Zero Richardsville Elementary School Bowling Green, Kentucky Measured Energy Use • Annual Energy Consumption = 357,000 kWh/yr • Renewable Annual Energy Supply = 366,000 kWh/yr • Net Energy Use = (9,000 kWh/yr)
  52. 52. K-12 Schools, Learning Centers, Colleges & Universities Advanced Energy Design & IAQ Guidance (Case Studies) • Gloria Marshall Elementary School (105,000 SF) • Marin County Day School (K-8; 33,000 SF) • Manassas Park Elementary School + Pre-K (140,463 SF) • Kinard Junior High School (113,000 SF) • Two Harbors High School (190,000 SF) • Des Moines Area Community College • R.J Klarek Information Commons, Loyola Univ.
  53. 53. K-12 Schools, Learning Centers, Colleges & Universities Gloria Marshall Elementary School
  54. 54. K-12 Schools, Learning Centers, Colleges & Universities Marin County Day School
  55. 55. K-12 Schools, Learning Centers, Colleges & Universities NZEB Facilities (Net-Zero & Beyond Seminar) • Gebhard-Mueller School • Biberach County Vocational School Centre • Lewis Center for Environmental Studies • Oberlin College
  56. 56. Your Role, Your Duty and Your Responsibility “We are confronted with insurmountable opportunities”……Pogo The “Global Ponzi Scheme” – Lester Brown “We are stealing from the future, selling it in the present and calling it Gross Domestic Product” One Person Can Make A Difference! (Floyd Lee & Pegasus Chow Hall Baghdad Airport)

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