Historic Baltimore Presentation

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Academic presentation of cultural resistance to racial discrimination in Baltimore ca. 1930-1980

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Historic Baltimore Presentation

  1. 1. African American Cultural Resistance to Racial Discrimination in Old West Baltimore from 1930-1980 Tara L. George Dr. Michelle Scott, Mentor University of Maryland, Baltimore county
  2. 3. Major research Questions <ul><li>Why the time period 1930-1980? </li></ul><ul><li>What is cultural resistance? </li></ul><ul><li>Why study cultural forms of resistance? </li></ul><ul><li>Why study Baltimore’s African American history at all? </li></ul>
  3. 4. Literature Review
  4. 5. Literature Review <ul><li>Black Culture and Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom’s Port </li></ul><ul><li>From Mobtown to Charm City </li></ul><ul><li>Blockbusting in Baltimore </li></ul><ul><li>Baltimore: The Building of an American City </li></ul>
  5. 6. Origins of the black community in Baltimore
  6. 7. Segregation & racial discrimination <ul><li>Growing sense of fear and racism after emancipation </li></ul><ul><li>3 events heightened this fear and racism from 1865-1920’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job busting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodist Camp Fight Meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legalization of segregation </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Fear and racism grow Methodist Camp Meeting, circa 1865 Colored School circa 1917
  8. 9. Old west Baltimore <ul><li>By 1904, over 50% of Baltimore’s black population lived in an area known as old west Baltimore </li></ul><ul><li>South Baltimore was the second black neighborhood, but was contaminated with diseases (tuberculosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Old west Baltimore was the preferred neighborhood </li></ul>
  9. 10. Old West Baltimore
  10. 11. Music counterculture
  11. 12. The Music Counterculture <ul><li>Two distinct countercultural forms of music arose : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jazz (Billie Holiday, Louis Armstrong) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doo-wop (The Orioles) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. The Royal Theater The Royal Theater circa 1920’s
  13. 14. The Chitlin Circuit <ul><li>A circuit which gave black performers opportunities denied by segregation ordinances </li></ul><ul><li>Performers included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jimi Hendrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duke Ellington </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Billie Holiday </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Jimi Hendrix performs on the Chitlin Circuit
  15. 16. The negro League
  16. 17. the Negro League overview <ul><li>1867: The National Association of Ball Players rejected the all black Pythian Clubs application </li></ul><ul><li>1885: Cuban Giants Form </li></ul><ul><li>1901: Baltimore Orioles deny John McGraw a spot on the team </li></ul><ul><li>1916: Negro League Baseball comes to Baltimore </li></ul>
  17. 18. The Baltimore Black Sox The Black Sox circa 1929 Championship winners in 1929
  18. 19. The Baltimore Elite Giants The Giants circa 1949 Championship winners in 1939, 1949
  19. 20. The Black Church
  20. 21. The Black Church <ul><li>Sharp Street United Methodist Church </li></ul><ul><li>Bethel A.M.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Lovely Lane United Methodist </li></ul>Sharp Street United Methodist Congregation, circa 1940’s
  21. 22. Community Devolution
  22. 23. Black Flight to the Suburbs <ul><li>NAACP </li></ul><ul><li>Bethel A.M.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Middle and Upper Class Black Families </li></ul>
  23. 24. Community Devolution INTEGRATION SUBURBAN FLIGHT CIVIL RIGHTS LEGISLATION COMMUNITY DEVOLUTION
  24. 25. Community Devolution
  25. 26. Penn Ave. Today <ul><li>1953: Destruction of Lafeyette Market </li></ul><ul><li>1968: Middle and Upper Class Blacks Begin to Flee the City </li></ul><ul><li>1970: The Royal Theater Closes </li></ul><ul><li>1980: Drug War Begins </li></ul><ul><li>1990-present: Urban Renewal Efforts Take Place </li></ul>
  26. 27. The Royal Theater today
  27. 28. Conclusions: Perspectives on the Future
  28. 29. Reviving The Community <ul><li>How can cultural forms of resistance be useful to Baltimore's black population today? </li></ul>
  29. 30. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Dr. Michelle Scott </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History Department, UMBC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dr. Michael Johnson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History Department, UMBC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Advisor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The UMBC McNair Scholars Program & Staff </li></ul>
  30. 31. References <ul><li>Afro-American “Factional Machine Politics” by Edward Rothman April 27, 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>Afro American “Don’t Buy Where You Can’t Work” 1933 </li></ul><ul><li>Afro American 1968 </li></ul><ul><li>Annapolis Gazette , 1866 </li></ul><ul><li>Argersinger, Jo Ann. Toward a New Deal in America: People and Government in the Great Depression . </li></ul><ul><li>Baltimore American November 11 1866 </li></ul><ul><li>The Baltimore Evening Sun “Jazz Greats Played at the Royal.” Februrary 3, 1971. </li></ul><ul><li>Baltimore Gazette June 12,1886 </li></ul><ul><li>Baltimore Sun 1858, 1866, 1968 </li></ul><ul><li>Brewington, Kelly and Andrew Green. “NAACP Ponders Suburb of DC” The Baltimore Sun August 1, 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Bowdon, Mar. “Bossin’ Around: A history of how things got done in Baltimore” The Baltimore CityPaper June 29,1979. </li></ul><ul><li>Cohen, Charles. “Charmed Life: The Old Ball Game” The Baltimore CityPaper . March 26, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Diplomas Court: An essential guide to graduation policies and rates” Education Week (2006) June 22, 2006 Volume 25 Issue 41S </li></ul><ul><li>Elfenbein, Jessica, John Breihan and Thomas Hallowak, eds. From Mobtown to Charm City: New Perspectives on Baltimore’s Past . Maryland Historical Society, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Elfenbein, Jessica. “A Place of Resort and Help for Their Young Men: Baltimore’s Black YMCA 1885-1925.” From Mobtown to Charm City: New Perspectives on Baltimore’s Past . Eds. Jessica Elfenbein, John Breihan, Thomas Hollowak. Maryland Historical Society, 2005. 149-171 </li></ul><ul><li>Fuke, Richard Paul. “Race and Public Policy in Post-Emancipation Baltimore.” From Mobtown to Charm City: New Perspectives on Baltimore’s Past . Eds. Jessica Elfenbein, John Breihan, Thomas Hollowak. Maryland Historical Society, 2005. 129-148. </li></ul><ul><li>Fuller, Nicole. “Experienced Stressed to Convert Upland Apartments” The Baltimore Sun November 15, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Griel, Marcus. “The Woman Who Created Rock and Roll.” Rolling Stone 1993: 659.15, 120-140. </li></ul><ul><li>Hogan, Lawrence. Shades of Glory: The Negro Leagues and the Story of African American Baseball . National Geographic, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson, Lillie Mae. The Crisis , April 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>Levine, Lawrence. Black Culture and Black Consciousness . New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis, Edward S. “Profiles: Baltimore” Journal of Educational Psychology 17.5 (1944): 288-295. </li></ul><ul><li>McDougall, Harold. Black Baltimore:A New Theory of Community . Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>Negro Housing Patterns Report Association for the Condition of the Poor, 1907. </li></ul><ul><li>Olson, Karen. “Old West Baltimore: Segregation, African-American Culture, and the Struggle for Equality” The Baltimore Book: New Views of Local History Eds. Elizabeth Fee, Linda Shopes and Linda Zeidman. Temple University Press, 1991, 40-57. </li></ul><ul><li>Olson, Sherry. Baltimore: The Building of an American City . Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>Orser, W. Edward. Blockbusting in Baltimore: The Edmondson Village Story . University Press of Kentucky, 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>Phillips, Christopher. Freedom’s Port: The African American Community of Baltimore, 1790-1860 . University of Illinois Press, 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>Power, Garrett. “Apartheid Baltimore Style: The Residential Segregation Ordinances of 1910-1913.” Maryland Law Review 42.3 November 1983 </li></ul><ul><li>Reddy, Sumathi and Gus Sentementes. “Interim Chief Taking Over at a Critical Time.” The Baltimore Sun . July 17, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Royster-Hemby, Christina. “Street of Dreams: Pennsylvania Avenue was once the center of Black life and culture in Baltimore. Can it be again?” The Baltimore City Paper February 2, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Tipping Point: Maryland’s Overuse of Incarceration and the Impact on Community Safety” Justice Policy Institute. </li></ul><ul><li>Towers, Frank. “Job Busting at Baltimore Shipyards: Racial Violence in the Civil War Era South” The Journal of Southern History 66.2 (2000): 221-256. </li></ul><ul><li>Wilerkson, Doxey. “The Negro Press” The Journal of Negro Education 16.4 (1947) </li></ul><ul><li>Zeidman, Linda. “Sparrows Point, Dundalk, Highlandtown, Old West Baltimore: Home of Gold Dust and the Union Card” The Baltimore Book: New Views of Local History Eds. Elizabeth Fee, Linda Shopes and Linda Zeidman. Temple University Press, 1991, 155-175. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Any Questions? <ul><ul><li>Tara George </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul></ul>

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