Francis Bacon‟s Analogy: A Review Physical Tasting Swallowing Chewing DigestingConsumption Intellectual Systematic Superficial Analytical SyntopicalConsumption Skimming Reading Reading Reading “Some Bookes are to be Tasted, Others to be Swallowed, and Some Few to be Chewed and Digested: That is, some Bookes are to be read onely in Parts; Others to be read but not Curiously; and some Few to be read wholly, and with Diligence and Attention” (151, ll. 22-26).
Digestion Defined Literally “The physiological process whereby the nutritive part of the food consumed is, in the stomach and intestines, rendered fit to be assimilated by the system” (OED under „digestion‟).
Digestion DefinedFiguratively “The action of digesting, or obtaining mental nourishment from (books, etc.).” (OED under „digestion‟).
Bring the Authors to Terms Construct a neutral terminology of the subject
Terms = Words 1. Identify each author‟s key words 2. Establish how each author uses the key words in context. 3. Arrive at the meaning of each key word. 4. Compare and contrast the use and meaning of each author‟s key words. 5. Arrive at a set of neutral terms that reflect the common use and meaning of each author‟s key words.
Establish NeutralPropositions Frame a set of questions about the subject
Propositions = Sentences 1. Identify each author‟s key sentences 2. Establish how each author uses the key sentences in context. 3. Arrive at the meaning of each key sentence. 4. Compare and contrast the use and meaning of each author‟s key sentences. 5. Arrive at a set of neutral propositions that reflect the common use and meaning of each author‟s key sentences. 6. Based on these neutral propositions, construct a set of questions that help in our investigation
The Kinds of Questions tobe Constructed The first type: those having to do with the existence or character of the phenomenon or idea we are investigating The second type: those having to do with how the phenomenon is known or how the idea manifests itself The third type: those having to do with the consequences of the answers to the previous questions
Define the Issues Range the opposing answers of authors to the various questions on one side of an issue or another
Analyze the Discussion Order the questions and issues to illuminate the subject “The truth is to be found in the conflict of opposing answers…” (322). “The truth, then, insofar as it can be found – the solution to the problem, insofar as that is available to us – consists rather in the ordered discussion itself than in any set of propositions or assertions about it” (322)
Quiz Question Using your understanding of Aristotle and Rousseau‟s writings on the state answer the following question on a single page. Is the state a natural arrangement, with all that that implies of goodness and necessity – or is it merely a conventional or artificial arrangement?