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EawagÜberlandstrasse 133P.O. Box 6118600 DübendorfSwitzerlandPhone +41 (0)44 823 52 86Fax +41 (0)44 823 53 99info@sandec.c...
Compendium of Sanitation Systems and TechnologiesElizabeth Tilley, Christoph Lüthi, Antoine Morel,Chris Zurbrügg and Rolan...
Investing in sanitation and hygiene is not only about sav-ing human lives and dignity; it is the foundation for inves-ting...
Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsTableofContentsTable of Contents5Introduction: The Aim and Use of this CompendiumBackground ...
S10: Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) 69S11: Anaerobic Filter 71S12: Anaerobic Biogas Reactor 73Functional Group C: Conveya...
Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsIntroduction7BackgroundThis document was developed in the context of theHousehold Centered E...
Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplates8
This Compendium defines sanitation as a multi-stepprocess in which wastes are managed from the point ofgeneration to the p...
Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplates10
ProductsProducts are materials that are also called ‘wastes’or ‘resources’. Some Products are generated directlyby humans ...
Treated Sludge is the general term for partiallydigested or fully stabilized faecal sludge. The USEnvironmental Protection...
Functional GroupsA Functional Group is a grouping of technologies whichperform a similar function. There are five (5) diff...
Using the System TemplatesEach system is a matrix of Functional Groups (columns)and Products (rows) that are linked togeth...
Although the most logical combinations are presentedherein, the Technologies and associated links are notexhaustive. The d...
Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate1–SinglePitSystem16CConveyanceInput/OutputProductsInput/OutputFaecalSludgeC.7S...
Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate1–SinglePitSystem17U1: DRY TOILETslaboption 1option 2S3: SINGLE PIT VIP>30cmai...
Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate2–WaterlessSystemwithAlternatingPits18OrganicsAnalCleansingWaterDryCleansingMa...
This system is designed to produce a dense, compost-like material by using alternating pits without the addi-tion of Flush...
Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate3–PourFlushSystemwithTwinPits20DryCleansingMaterialUrineFlushwaterAnalCleansin...
This is a water-based system utilizing the Pour FlushToilet (pedestal or squat pan) to produce a partiallydigested, humus-...
Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate4–WaterlessSystemwithUrineDiversion22DryCleansingMaterialFaecesUrineC.2HumanPo...
This system is designed to separate Urine and Faecesto allow Faeces to dehydrate and/or recover the Urinefor beneficial us...
Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate5–BlackwaterTreatmentSystemwithInfiltration24StormwaterGreywaterFaecesUrineFlu...
This is a water-based system that requires a flush toiletand a Collection & Storage/Treatment Technology thatis appropriat...
Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate6–BlackwaterTreatmentSystemwithSewerage26StormwaterGreywaterFaecesUrineFlushwa...
This system is characterized by the use of a household-level Technology to remove and digest settleable solidsfrom the Bla...
Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate7–(Semi-)CentralizedTreatmentSystem28StormwaterGreywaterFaecesUrineFlushwaterA...
This is a water-based sewer system in which Blackwateris transported to a centralized treatment facility. Theimportant cha...
Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate8–SewerageSystemwithUrineDiversion30StormwaterGreywaterAnalCleansingWaterDryCl...
This is a water-based sewer system that requires aUrine Diverting Flush Toilet (UDFT). The UDFT is a spe-cial User Interfa...
Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsFunctionalGroups32
Reading the Technology Information SheetsFor each Technology described in the System Tem-plates, there is a Technology Inf...
S.9 Septic TankApplicable to:System 5, 6Application LevelHouseholdNeighbourhoodCityManagement LevelHouseholdSharedPublicIn...
Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsFunctionalGroupU:UserInterfaceUUser Interface35This section describes the technologies with ...
Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsFunctionalGroupU:UserInterface36U
A Dry Toilet is a toilet that operates without water.The Dry Toilet may be a raised pedestal that the usercan sit on, or a...
Pros & Cons:+ Does not require a constant source of water+ Can be built and repaired with locally availablematerials+ Low ...
A Urine Diverting Dry Toilet (UDDT) is a toilet thatoperates without water and has a divider so that theuser, with little ...
Faeces can be accidentally deposited in the urine sec-tion, causing blockages and cleaning problems. As well,urine pipes/f...
A Urinal is only used for collecting urine. Urinals aregenerally for men, although Urinals for women havealso been develop...
have access to a Urinal, they may be encouraged torefrain from urinating in public, which reducesunwanted odours and allow...
A Pour Flush Toilet is like a regular Flush Toilet exceptthat instead of the water coming from the cisternabove, it is pou...
well, there should be no odours and the toilet should beclean and comfortable to use.Maintenance Because there are no mech...
The Cistern Flush Toilet is usually porcelain and is amass-produced, factory made User Interface. TheFlush Toilet consists...
Pros & Cons:+ The excreta of one user are flushed away beforethe next user arrives+ No real problems with odours if used c...
The Urine Diverting Flush Toilet (UDFT) is similarin appearance to a Cistern Flush Toilet except forthe diversion in the b...
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Compendium high sanitation

  1. 1. EawagÜberlandstrasse 133P.O. Box 6118600 DübendorfSwitzerlandPhone +41 (0)44 823 52 86Fax +41 (0)44 823 53 99info@sandec.chwww.eawag.chwww.sandec.chAbundant information exists about sanitation solutionsbut it is scattered throughout hundreds of books andjournals; this Compendium aims to pull it all together inone volume. By ordering and structuring a huge rangeof information on tried and tested technologies into oneconcise document, the reader is provided with a usefulplanning tool for making more informed decisions.Part 1 describes different system configurations fora variety of contexts.Part 2 consists of 52 differentTechnology InformationSheets, which describe the main advantages, disadvanta-ges, applications and the appropriateness ofthe technologies required to build a comprehensivesanitation system. Each Technology Information Sheetis complemented by a descriptive illustration.ISBN: 978-3-906484-44-0Compendiumof Sanitation Systemsand TechnologiesWater Supply & SanitationCollaborative CouncilInternational Environment HouseChemin des Anémones 91219 Châtelaine-GenevaSwitzerlandPhone +41 22 917 8657wsscc@who.intwww.wsscc.orgCover: Sanitation Options Workshop in Dodoma, Tanzaniain 2008 moderated by Mr. Rukeha from the local NGO MamadoCompendiumofSanitationSystemsandTechnologies
  2. 2. Compendium of Sanitation Systems and TechnologiesElizabeth Tilley, Christoph Lüthi, Antoine Morel,Chris Zurbrügg and Roland Schertenleib.Our special thanks go to:the NETSSAF Consortium, the GTZ ecosan programmeand the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA).We would like to thank the following individualsfor their contributions and comments:Chris Buckley, Pierre-Henri Dodane, Barbara Evans, Doulaye Koné,Elisabeth Kvarnström, Duncan Mara, Peter Morgan, Arne Panesar,Eddy Perez, Elias Rosales, Arno Rosemarin, Sören Rud, Darren Saywell,Margaret Scott, Steven Sugden, Kevin Tayler, Kai Udert,Carolien van der Voorden,Yvonne Voegeli, Anita Wittmer.We would like to acknowledge support from:the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR)North-South: Research Partnerships for Mitigating Syndromes ofGlobal Change, co-funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC).
  3. 3. Investing in sanitation and hygiene is not only about sav-ing human lives and dignity; it is the foundation for inves-ting in human development, especially in poor urban andperi-urban areas. However, one of the main bottlenecksencountered the world over, is the limited knowledgeand awareness about more appropriate and sustainablesystems and technologies that keep project costsaffordable and acceptable.Abundant information exists about sanitation technolo-gies but it is scattered throughout dozens of books, re-ports, proceedings and journals; this Compendium aimsto pull the main information together in one volume.Another aim of the Compendium is to promote a systemsapproach; sanitation devices and technologies shouldalways be considered as parts of an entire system.In 2005, Sandec and the WSSCC published ProvisionalGuidelines for Household-centred Environmental Sani-tation (HCES), a new planning approach for implement-ing the Bellagio Principles on Sustainable Sanitation inUrban Environmental Sanitation. The HCES approachemphasizes the participation of all stakeholders – be-ginning at the household/neighbourhood – in planningand implementing sanitation systems. By ordering andstructuring a huge range of information on fully andpartly tested technologies into one concise document,this Compendium is an important tool for stakehold-ers to make well informed decisions during the plan-ning process.Although this source book is primarily addressed toengineers and planners dealing with infrastructure deliv-ery, the technology sheets also allow non-experts tounderstand the main advantages and limitations of dif-ferent technologies and the appropriateness of differentsystem configurations. It is our hope that this Compen-dium will allow all stakeholders to be involved in selectingimproved sanitation technologies and to help promotepeople-centred solutions to real sanitation problems.This is the first edition of the Compendium and we arelooking forward to receiving your feedback – experiencesand suggestions for a next edition are very welcome!Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsForewordForeword3Roland SchertenleibEawag/SandecJon LaneWSSCC
  4. 4. Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsTableofContentsTable of Contents5Introduction: The Aim and Use of this CompendiumBackground 7Target User of the Compendium 7Objective of the Compendium 7Structure of the Compendium 7Part 1: Systems TemplatesGeneral Informations about Sanitation Systems 9Products 11Functional Groups 13Technologies 13Using the System Templates 14Description of the System TemplatesSystem 1: Single Pit System 16System 2: Waterless System with Alternating Pits 18System 3: Pour Flush System with Twin Pits 20System 4: Waterless System with Urine Diversion 22System 5: Blackwater Treatment System with Infiltration 24System 6: Blackwater Treatment System with Sewerage 26System 7: (Semi-) Centralized Treatment System 28System 8: Sewerage System with Urine Diversion 30Part 2: Functional Groups with Technology Information SheetsReading the Technology Information Sheets 33Functional Group U: User Interface 35U1: Dry Toilet 37U2: Urine Diverting Dry Toilet (UDDT) 39U3: Urinal 41U4: Pour Flush Toilet 43U5: Cistern Flush Toilet 45U6: Urine Diverting Flush Toilet (UDFT) 47Functional Group S: Collection and Storage/Treatment 49S1: Urine Storage Tank/Container 51S2: Single Pit 53S3: Single Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) 55S4: Double Ventilation Improved Pit (VIP) 57S5: Fossa Alterna 59S6: Twin Pits for Pour Flush 61S7: Dehydration Vaults 63S8: Composting Chamber 65S9: Septic Tank 67
  5. 5. S10: Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) 69S11: Anaerobic Filter 71S12: Anaerobic Biogas Reactor 73Functional Group C: Conveyance 75C1: Jerrycan/tank 77C2: Human-Powered Emptying and Transport 79C3: Motorized Emptying and Transport 81C4: Simplified Sewers 83C5: Solids-Free Sewer 85C6: Conventional Gravity Sewer 87C7: Transfer Station (Underground Holding Tank) 89C8: Sewer Discharge Station (SDS) 91Functional Group T: (Semi-) Centralized Treatment 93T1: Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) 95T2: Anaerobic Filter 97T3: Waste Stabilization Ponds (WSP) 99T4: Aerated Pond 101T5: Free-Water Surface Constructed Wetland 103T6: Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland 105T7: Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland 107T8: Trickling Filter 109T9: Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB) 111T10: Activated Sludge 113T11: Sedimentation/Thickening Ponds 115T12: Unplanted Drying Beds 117T13: Planted Drying Beds 119T14: Co-Composting 121T15: Anaerobic Biogas Reactor 123Use and/or Disposal 125D1: Fill and Cover/Arborloo 127D2: Application of Urine 129D3: Application of Dehydrated Faeces 131D4: Application of Compost/Eco-Humus 133D5: Irrigation 135D6: Soak Pit 137D7: Leach Field 139D8: Aquaculture Ponds 141D9: Floating Plant (Macrophyte) Pond 143D10: Water Disposal/Groundwater (GW) Recharge 145D11: Land Application of Sludge 147D12: Surface Disposal 149Glossary 151Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsTableofContents6
  6. 6. Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsIntroduction7BackgroundThis document was developed in the context of theHousehold Centered Environmental Sanitation (HCES)planning approach shown in Figure 1. The HCES ap-proach is a 10-step multi-sector and multi-actor partici-patory planning process. The guidelines for implement-ing HCES are available from www.sandec.ch.Target User of the CompendiumThis Compendium is intended to be used by engineers,planners and other professionals who are familiar withsanitation technologies and processes. It is not a train-ing manual or stand-alone resource for people with noexperience in sanitation planning.The user of this document must have an interest inlearning more about alternative or novel technologieswhich may not be part of the common suite employedor taught in the local context. The approach and infor-mation presented herein is meant to broaden the spec-trum of innovative and appropriate technologies consid-ered for sanitation planning.Objective of the CompendiumThe objective the Compendium is threefold:1. Expose the Compendium user to a broad range ofsanitation systems and innovative technologies;2. Help the Compendium user understand and workwith the system concept, i.e. the process of buildinga complete system, by iteratively choosing and link-ing appropriate technologies;3. Describe and fairly present the technology-specificadvantages and disadvantages.Structure of the CompendiumThe Compendium is divided into 2 Parts; (1) the SystemTemplates and a description about how to use them;and (2) the Technology Information Sheets.It is recommended that the Compendium user reviewsPart 1: Sanitation Systems to become familiar with theterminology and structure of the System Templates andtheir components. The user can then familiarize them-selves with the technologies of interest in Part 2:Technology Information Sheets. The user can movebetween the System Templates and the TechnologyInformation Sheets (they are cross-referenced) untilhe/she has identified some systems and/or technolo-gies that could be appropriate for further investigation.Eventually, the user should be able to develop one, orseveral system configurations that can be presented tothe community. The Compendium can then be used, fol-lowing the community’s suggestions, to re-evaluate andredesign the system accordingly.The first four steps of the HCES planning approach definethe project-specific social, cultural, economic, health andenvironmental priorities which will influence technologyselection and the system design. The goal of steps five(5) and six (6) is to identify specific technological optionsand to evaluate feasible service combinations. The fol-lowing steps, seven (7) through ten (10), lead to the for-mulation or design of a comprehensive Urban Environ-mental Sanitation Services (UESS) plan.This Compendium is designed to serve as a resourcetool during steps 5 and 6 of the HCES planning approach.It is presupposed that the user of this Compendium hasa well-developed awareness of the context and priori-ties of the community and other stakeholders as thesocial-cultural elements of sanitation planning are notexplicitly addressed in this document.Figure 1. The 10-step process in the HCES planning approach(EAWAG, 2005)1 Request for assistance2 Launch of the planning and consultative process3 Assessment of current status4 Assessment of user priorities5 Identification of options6 Evaluation of feasible service combinations7 Consolidated UESS plans for study area8 Finalizing of consolidated UESS plans9 Monitoring (internal) evaluation and feedback10ImplementationThe 10-Step processIntroductionEnabling EnvironmentGovernment Support Legal FrameworkCredit and other Finacial ArrangementsInstitutional Arrangements Required Skills
  7. 7. Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplates8
  8. 8. This Compendium defines sanitation as a multi-stepprocess in which wastes are managed from the point ofgeneration to the point of use or ultimate disposal. Asanitation system is comprised of Products (wastes)which travel through Functional Groups which containTechnologies which can be selected according to thecontext. A sanitation system also includes the manage-ment, operation and maintenance (O&M) required toensure that the system functions safely and sustain-ably. By selecting a Technology for each Productfrom each applicable Functional Group, one candesign a logical sanitation system.The purpose of this Part is to clearly explain the SystemTemplates by describing what they consist of, whatqualities they have and how they are to be used.This Compendium describes eight (8) different SystemTemplates.System 1: Single Pit SystemSystem 2: Waterless System with Alternating PitsSystem 3: Pour Flush System with Twin PitsSystem 4: Waterless System with Urine DiversionSystem 5: Blackwater Treatment System withInfiltrationSystem 6: Blackwater Treatment System withSewerageSystem 7: (Semi-) Centralized Treatment SystemSystem 8: Sewerage System with Urine DiversionA System Template defines a suite of compatibleTechnology combinations from which a system can bedesigned. Each System Template is distinct in terms ofthe characteristics and the number of Products gener-ated and processed. The System Templates present log-ical combinations of Technologies, but the planner mustnot lose a rational, engineering perspective. It must alsobe noted that although this Compendium is thorough, itis not an exhaustive list of Technologies and/or associ-ated systems.Although the System Templates are predefined, theCompendium user must select the appropriateTechnology from the options presented. The choice iscontext specific and should be made based on the localenvironment (temperature, rainfall, etc.), culture (sit-ters, squatters, washers, wipers, etc.) and resources(human and material).System templates 1 to 8 range from simple (with fewTechnology choices and Products) to complex (withmultiple Technology choices and Products).The first section of this chapter defines the parts of theSystem Templates. Products, Functional Groups, andTechnologies are explained.The second part of this chapter explains how theSystem Templates can be read, understood, and usedto build a functional Sanitation System.The final section of this Chapter presents a descriptionof how the system works, what are the main considera-tions, and what type of applications that system isappropriate for.Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplatesPart 1: System Templates9
  9. 9. Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplates10
  10. 10. ProductsProducts are materials that are also called ‘wastes’or ‘resources’. Some Products are generated directlyby humans (e.g. urine and faeces), others arerequired in the functioning of Technologies (e.g. flushwater to move excreta through sewers) and some aregenerated as a function or storage or treatment (e.g.faecal sludge).For the design of a robust sanitation system, it is nec-essary to define all of the Products that are flowing into(Inputs) and out (Outputs) of each of the sanitationTechnologies in the system. The Products referencedwithin this text are described below.Urine is the liquid waste produced by the body torid itself of urea and other waste Products. In this con-text, the urine Product refers to pure urine that is notmixed with faeces or water. Depending on diet, humanurine collected during one year (ca. 500 L) contains2–4 kg nitrogen. With the exception of some rare cases,urine is sterile when it leaves the body.Faeces refers to (semi-solid) excrement withouturine or water. Each person produces approximately50 L per year of faecal matter. Of the total nutrientsexcreted, faeces contain about 10% N, 30% P, 12% Kand have 107–109faecal coliforms /100 mL.Anal cleansing water is water collected after ithas been used to cleanse oneself after defecatingand/or urinating. It is only the water generated by theuser for anal cleansing and does not include dry mate-rials. The volume of water collected during anal cleans-ing ranges from 0.5 L to 3 L per cleaning.Stormwater is the general term for the rainfallrunoff collected from roofs, roads and other surfacesbefore flowing towards low-lying land. It is the portionof rainfall that does not infiltrate into the soil.Greywater is the total volume of water generatedfrom washing food, clothes and dishware as well asfrom bathing. It may contain traces of excreta andtherefore will also contain pathogens and excreta.Greywater accounts for approximately 60% of thewastewater produced in households with flush toilets. Itcontains few pathogens and its flow of nitrogen is only10–20% of that in blackwater.Flushwater is the water that is used to transportexcreta from the User Interface to the next technology.Freshwater, rainwater, recycled greywater, or any combi-nation of the three can be used as a Flushwater source.Organics refers here to biodegradable organic mate-rial that could also be called biomass or green organicwaste. Although the other Products in this Compendiumcontain organics, this term refers to undigested plantmaterial. Organics must be added to some technologies inorder for them to function properly (e.g. compostingchambers). Organic degradable material can include butis not limited to leaves, grass and market waste.Dry Cleansing Materials may be paper, corncobs,rags, stones and/or other dry materials that are used foranal cleansing (instead of water). Depending on the sys-tem, the dry cleansing materials may be collected anddisposed of separately. Although extremely important,we have not included a separate Product name for men-stral hygiene products like sanitary napkins and tam-pons. In general (though not always), they should betreated along with the Dry Cleansing Materials that aredescribed here.Blackwater is the mixture of urine, faeces and flush-water along with anal cleansing water (if anal cleansing ispracticed) and/or dry cleansing material (e.g. toiletpaper). Blackwater has all of the pathogens of faeces andall of the nutrients of urine, but diluted in flushwater.Faecal Sludge is the general term for the raw (orpartially digested) slurry or solid that results from thestorage of blackwater or excreta. The composition offaecal sludge varies significantly depending on the loca-tion, the water content, and the storage. For example,ammonium (NH4-N) can range from 300–3000 mg/Lwhile Helminth eggs can reach up to 60,000 eggs/L.The composition will determine the type of treatmentthat is possible and the end-use possibilities.Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplates11
  11. 11. Treated Sludge is the general term for partiallydigested or fully stabilized faecal sludge. The USEnvironmental Protection Agency has strict criteria todifferentiate between degrees of treatment and conse-quently, how those different types of sludges can beused. ‘Treated Sludge’ is used in the System Templatesand in the Technology Information Sheets as a generalterm to indicate that the sludge has undergone somelevel of treatment, although it should not be assumedthat ‘treated sludge’ is fully treated or that it is automat-ically safe. It is meant to indicate that the sludge hasundergone some degree of treatment and is no longerraw. It is the responsibility of the user to inquire aboutthe composition, quality and therefore safety of thelocal sludge.Excreta consists of urine and faeces that is notmixed with any flushing water. Excreta is small in volume,but concentrated in nutrients and pathogens. Dependingon the quality of the faeces it is solid, soft or runny.Brownwater consists of faeces and flushwater(although in actual practice there is always some urine,as only 70–85% of the urine is diverted). Brownwater isgenerated by urine-diverting flush toilets and therefore,the volume depends on the volume of the flushwaterused. The pathogen and nutrient load of faeces is notreduced, only diluted by the flushwater.Dried faeces are faeces that have been dehydrat-ed at high temperatures (and high pH) until theybecome a dry, sanitized powder. Very little degradationoccurs during dehydration and this means that thedried faeces are still rich in organic material. Faeces willreduce in volume by around 75%. There is a small riskthat some organisms can be reactivated in the rightenvironments.Stored urine is urine that has been hydrolyzednaturally over time, i.e. the urea has been converted byenzymes into carbon dioxide and ammonia. Storedurine has a pH of approximately 9. After 6 months ofstorage, the risk of pathogen transmission is reducedconsiderably.Effluent is the general term for liquid that hasundergone some level of treatment and/or separationfrom solids. It originates at either a Collection andStorage/Treatment or a (Semi-) Centralized TreatmentTechnology. Depending on the type of treatment, theeffluent may be completely sanitized or may require fur-ther treatment before it can be used or disposed of.Compost/EcoHumus is the earth-like, brown/blackmaterial that is the result of decomposed organic mat-ter. Generally Compost/EcoHumus has been hygien-ized sufficiently that it can be used safely in agriculture.Because of leaching, some of the nutrients are lost, butthe material is still rich in nutrients and organic matter.Biogas is the common name for the mixture ofgases released from anaerobic digestion. Typically bio-gas is comprised of methane (50–75%), carbon dioxide(25–50%) and varying quantities of nitrogen, hydrogensulphide, water and other components.Forage refers to aquatic or other plants that grow inplanted drying beds or constructed wetlands and may beharvested for feeding livestock.This Compendium is primarily concerned with systemsand Technologies directly related to excreta and doesnot address the specifics of greywater or stormwatermanagement but shows when they can be co-treatedwith excreta. So although greywater and stormwaterare shown as Products in the System Templates, therelated Technologies are not described in detail. For amore comprehensive summary of dedicated greywaterTechnologies refer to the following resource:_ Morel A. and Diener S. (2006). Greywater Management inLow and Middle-Income Countries, Review of different treat-ment systems for households or neighbourhoods. SwissFederal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology(Eawag). Duebendorf, Switzerland.Available free for download: www.eawag.chEawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplates12
  12. 12. Functional GroupsA Functional Group is a grouping of technologies whichperform a similar function. There are five (5) differentFunctional Groups from which the technologies used tobuild a system are chosen. It is not necessary for a Pro-duct to pass through a technology from each FunctionalGroup; however, the ordering of the Functional Groupsshould usually be maintained regardless of how many ofthem are included within the sanitation system. Also,each Functional Group has a distinctive colour; techno-logies within a given Functional Group share the samecolour code so that they are easily identifiable.The five (5) Functional Groups are:User Interface (Technologies U1–U6): RedCollection and Storage/Treatment(Technologies (S1–S12): OrangeConveyance (Technologies C1–C8): Yellow(Semi-) Centralized Treatment(Technologies T1–T15): GreenUse and/or Disposal (Technologies D1–D12): BlueEach technology within a given Functional Group is as-signed a reference code with a single letter and number;the letter corresponds to the Functional Group (e.g. U forUser Interface) and the number, going from lowest tohighest, indicates approximately how resource intensive(i.e. economic, material and human) the technology is.User Interface (U) describes the type of toilet, pe-destal, pan, or urinal that the user comes in contactwith; it is the way that the user accesses the sanitationsystem. In many cases, the choice of User Interface willdepend on the availability of water. Note that greywaterand stormwater do not originate at the User Interface,but may be treated along with the Products that origi-nate at the User Interface.Collection and Storage/Treatment (S) describesthe ways of collecting, storing, and sometimes treatingthe Products that are generated at the User Interface.SUDTCSUTreatment that is provided by these Technologies isoften a function of storage and usually passive (e.g. noenergy inputs). Thus, Products that are ‘treated’ bythese Technologies often require subsequent treatmentbefore use or disposal.Conveyance (C) describes the transport ofProducts from one Functional Group to another.Although Products may need to be transferred in vari-ous ways between Functional Groups, the longest, andmost important gap is between Collection and Storage/Treatment and (Semi-) Centralized Treatment; thus, forsimplicity, conveyance is limited to transporting Pro-ducts at this point.(Semi-) Centralized Treatment (T) refers to treat-ment Technologies that are generally appropriate forlarge user groups (i.e. multiple households). The opera-tion, maintenance, and energy requirements for Techno-logies within this Functional Group are more intensive.The Technologies are divided into 2 groups: Techno-logies T1–T10 are primarily for the treatment of black-water, whereas Technologies T11–T15 are primarily forthe treatment of sludge.Use and/or Disposal (D) refers to the methods inwhich Products are ultimately returned to the environ-ment, as either useful resources or reduced-risk mate-rials. Furthermore, Products can also be cycled backinto a system (e.g. the use of treated greywater forflushing).TechnologiesTechnologies are defined as the specific infrastructure,methods, or services that are designed to contain,transform, or transport Products to another FunctionalGroup. There are between 6 and 15 different techno-logies within each Functional Group. The TechnologyInformation Sheets located in Part 2 provide a detaileddescription of each technology identified within eachSystem Template.DTCEawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplates13
  13. 13. Using the System TemplatesEach system is a matrix of Functional Groups (columns)and Products (rows) that are linked together where log-ical connections exist. Where these logical connectionsexist, a Technology choice is presented (i.e. for a certainProduct (row) intersecting a specific Functional Group(column)).Each Functional Group is colour-coded and the samecolour code is used within a System Template. To facil-itate efficient reference between System Templates andTechnology Information Sheets the Technologies withineach Functional Group adopt the same colour-code.The colour-code for each Functional Group within theSystem Template is presented below in Figure 2.Figure 3 is an example from a System Template. A boldcolour-coded box indicates a Technology choice withina given Functional Group. This System Template showshow three Products (Faeces, Urine and Flushwater)enter into a User Interface (Pour Flush Toilet and some-times a Urinal) and emerge as Blackwater. Blackwaterthen enters the Collection and Storage/TreatmentFunctional Group and is transformed in the Twin Pits forPour Flush into Compost/EcoHumus and Effluent. TheCompost/EcoHumus is transported (Human Powered)to a final point of use and the Effluent is absorbed bythe soil (Disposal/Recharge).Bold lines with arrows are used to link the most appro-priate Functional Groups for a given Product. Thin linesindicate other flow paths which are possible, but notalways common or recommended (see Figure 4).Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplates14U User Interface SCollectionand Storage/TreatmentC Conveyance T(Semi-)CentralizedTreatmentD Use and/orDisposalInputs/OutputsInputs Inputs/Outputs Inputs/OutputsFigure 2. System Template header with colour-code for the Functional Groupsfor11Three Inputs (Faeces, Urine and Flushwater) enter into 22Functional Group U “User Interface” (Pour Flush Toilet).The Blackwater generated 33then enters into 44Functional Group S “Collection and Storage/Treatment” (Twin Pits For PourFlush Latrine) and is transformed into 55Compost/EcoHumus and Effluent. The Compost/EcoHumus enters into66Functional Group C “Conveyance” (Human Powered Emptying & Transport) and passes 77Functional Group T “(Semi-)Centralized Treatment“ without treatment with no further 88Inputs/Outputs. Compost/EcoHumus is transported directly tothe final 99Functional Group D “Use and/or Disposal” (Compost/Eco-Humus, Surface Disposal).The 55Effluent does not enter into 66Functional Group C nor 77Functional Group T (therefore there are 88no Inputs/Outputs)but the Effluent is directly discharged 99in Functional Group D (Disposal/Recharge).Figure 3. System Template: how Inputs enter into Functional Groups and are transformed1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
  14. 14. Although the most logical combinations are presentedherein, the Technologies and associated links are notexhaustive. The designer should attempt to minimizeredundancy, optimize existing infrastructure and makeuse of local resources.This methodology should be followed for each area(region or planning zone) under consideration. However,any number of systems can be chosen and it is not nec-essary that each home, compound, or community with-in the area choose the same Technologies. Some Tech-nologies may already exist; in that case it is the goal ofthe planners and engineers to optimize existing infra-structure and reduce redundancy but maintain flexibili-ty with user satisfaction as the primary goal.Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplates15Dry CleansingMaterialFlushwaterAnal CleansingWaterGreywaterStormwaterU.4 Pour Flush Toilet BlackwaterEffluentGreywater TreatmentD.12 SurfaceDisposalD.5 IrrigationD.6 Soak PitD.10 Disposal/RechargeD.10 Disposal/RechargeSanitation System 3: Pour Flush System with Twin PitsEffluentD.10 Disposal/RechargeStormwater DrainsS.6 Twin Pits forPour FlushU Dry Toilet SCollectionand Storage/TreatmentC Conveyance T(Semi-)CentralizedTreatmentD Use and/orDisposalInputs/OutputsInputs stuptuO/stupnIstuptuO/stupnIFigure 4. Bold lines with arrows are used to link the most appropriate Functional Groups for a given Input or Output.Thin lines indicate other flowstreams which are possible.> The eight System Templates are presented and des-cribed on the following pages. Each System Template isexplained in detail.Steps for selecting a System Template:a) Identify the Products that are generatedand/or are available locally (e.g. Anal CleansingWater or Flushwater).b) Identify the System Templates that processthe defined Productsc) For each template, select a Technology fromeach Functional Group where there is a Techno-logy choice presented (bold coloured box); theseries of Technologies makes up a Systemd) Compare the systems and iteratively changeindividual Technologies or use a differentSystem Template based on user priorities,economic constraints, and technical feasibility.
  15. 15. Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate1–SinglePitSystem16CConveyanceInput/OutputProductsInput/OutputFaecalSludgeC.7S.2SinglePitS.3SinglePitVIPC.8SewerC.2HumanPoweredEmptying&TransportC.3MotorizedEmpty-ExcretaUUserInterfaceSCollectionandStorage/TreatmentCConveyanceT(Semi-)CentralizedTreatmentDUseand/orDisposalInput/OutputProductsInputProductsInput/OutputProductsInput/OutputProductsFaecesAnalCleansingWaterStormwaterEffluentGreywaterTreatmentD.1FillandCoverD.5IrrigationD.8AquacultureD.9MacrophyteD.10Disposal/RechargeD.5IrrigationD.6SoakPitD.10Disposal/RechargeD.10Disposal/RechargeSanitationSystem1:SinglePitSystemFaecalSludgeUrineD.11LandApplicationD.12SurfaceDisposalStormwaterDrainsDryCleansingMaterialU.1DryToiletC.7TransferStationS.2SinglePitS.3SinglePitVIPT.3WSPT.4AeratedPondT.5FWSCWT.6HSFCWT.7VFCWT.8TricklingFilterT.9UASBT.10ActivatedSludgeT.11Sedimentation/ThickeningT.12UnplanteddryingbedsT.13PlanteddryingbedsT.14Co-CompostingT.15BiogasReactorTreatedSludgeC.8SewerDischargeStationEffluentFlushwaterGreywaterC.2HumanPoweredEmptying&TransportC.3MotorizedEmpty-ing&TransportExcretaBlackwaterU.4PourFlushToilet
  16. 16. Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate1–SinglePitSystem17U1: DRY TOILETslaboption 1option 2S3: SINGLE PIT VIP>30cmair currents>11cm vent pipefly screenD1: FILL AND COVER 1171 2System 1: Single Pit SystemThis system is based on the use of a single pit to col-lect and store the excreta. The system can be usedwith or without Flushwater depending on the UserInterface.The inputs to the system can include Urine, Faeces, AnalCleansing Water, Flushwater and Dry Cleansing Materials.The use of Flushwater and/or Anal Cleansing Water willdepend on water availability and local habit.There are two different User Interfaces for this system,which include a Dry Toilet (U1) or a Pour Flush Toilet (U4).The User Interface is directly connected to a Collectionand Storage/Treatment Technology: a Single Pit (S2) or aSingle Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) (S3).When the pit is full there are several options. If there isspace, the pit can be filled with soil and planted with atree, as per the Fill and Cover (D1), and a new pit built.This is generally only possible when the superstructureis mobile. Alternatively, the Faecal Sludge that is gen-erated from the Collection and Storage/TreatmentTechnology has to be removed and transported for fur-ther treatment. The Conveyance Technologies that canbe used include Human Powered Emptying andTransport (E&T) for solid sludge (C2) or Motorized E&Tfor liquid sludge (C3). When the Faecal Sludge is thin-ner, it must be emptied with a vacuum truck. As theFaecal Sludge is highly pathogenic prior to treatment,human contact and agricultural applications should beavoided. When it is not feasible to empty the full pit,(Semi-) Centralized Treatment can be omitted and thepit can be filled and covered with a suitable material fordecommissioning (Fill and Cover: D1). The decommis-sioned pit can be planted with a fruit or flowering treesince it will thrive in the nutrient rich environment.Faecal Sludge that is removed can be transported to adedicated Faecal Sludge treatment facility (TechnologiesT11 to T15). In the event that the treatment facility is noteasily accessible, the Faecal Sludge can be discharged toeither a Sewer Discharge Station (C8) or a Transfer Station(C7). From the Sewer Discharge Station, the FaecalSludge is transported by the sewer and is co-treated withthe Blackwater flowing in the sewer network (Techno-logies T1 to T10). The Faecal Sludge from the Sewer Dis-charge station is released either directly into the sewer orat timed intervals. If sludge is introduced directly into asewer, there must be enough water to adequately diluteand transport the sludge to the treatment facility. From theTransfer Station the Faecal Sludge must be transportedto a dedicated Faecal Sludge treatment facility (Tech-nologies T11 to T15) by a motorized vehicle (C3).All (Semi-) Centralized Treatment Technologies, T1 toT15, produce both Effluent and Faecal Sludge, whichrequire further treatment prior to Use and/or Disposal.Technologies for the Use and/or Disposal of the treat-ed Effluent include Irrigation (D5), Aquaculture (D8),Macrophyte Pond (D9) or Discharge to a water body orRecharge to groundwater (D10).Considerations This system is best suited to ruraland peri-urban areas where there is appropriate soil fordigging and absorbing the Effluent from the pit. Thissystem should be chosen only where there is eitherspace to continuously dig new pits or when there is anappropriate manner of emptying and disposing of theFaecal Sludge. In dense urban settlements, there maynot be sufficient transportation or access to empty ormove to another pit. This system is also best suited toareas that are not prone to heavy rains or flooding,which may cause the pits to overflow. Some Greywaterin the pit may help degradation, but excessive additionsof Greywater may shorten the life of the pit.Although different types of pits are common in mostparts of the world, a well designed pit-based systemwith appropriate transport, treatment and use or dis-posal, is still very rare.This system is one of the least expensive to construct(capital cost) however the maintenance costs may beconsiderable, depending on the depth of the pit andhow often it must be emptied. If the ground is appropri-ate, i.e. good absorptive capacity, the pit may be dugvery deep (e.g. >5m) and can be used for several years(up to 30 years) without emptying.All types of solid cleansing materials can be discardedinto the pit, although they may shorten the life of the pitand make pit emptying more difficult. Whenever possi-ble, solid cleansing materials should be disposed ofseparately.
  17. 17. Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate2–WaterlessSystemwithAlternatingPits18OrganicsAnalCleansingWaterDryCleansingMaterialGreywaterStormwaterU.1DryToiletExcretaEffluentC.2HumanPoweredEmptying&TransportGreywaterTreatmentD.4ApplicationD.12SurfaceDisposalD.5IrrigationD.6SoakPitD.10Disposal/RechargeD.10Disposal/RechargeSanitationSystem2:WaterlessSystemwithAlternatingPitsCompost/EcoHumusFaecesStormwaterDrainsS.4DoubleVIPS.5FossaAlternaS.8CompostingChamberUrineUUserInterfaceSCollectionandStorage/TreatmentCConveyanceT(Semi-)CentralizedTreatmentDUseand/orDisposalInput/OutputProductsInputProductsInput/OutputProductsInput/OutputProducts
  18. 18. This system is designed to produce a dense, compost-like material by using alternating pits without the addi-tion of Flushwater.The inputs to the system can include Urine, Faeces,Organics, Anal Cleansing Water, and Dry CleansingMaterials.A Dry Toilet (U1) is the only recommended User Inter-face for this system. A Dry Toilet does not require waterto function and in fact, water should not be input intothis system; Anal Cleansing Water should be kept to aminimum or even excluded from this system if possible.Depending on the Collection and Storage/TreatmentTechnology, the Dry Cleansing Materials can be addedto the pit, otherwise they should be collected separate-ly and directly transferred for disposal (D12).Excreta is produced at the User Interface. The UserInterface is connected directly to a Collection andStorage/Treatment Technology: a Double VIP (S4),Fossa Alterna (S5) or a Composting Chamber (S8).Alternating the pits gives the material an opportunityto drain, degrade, and transform into a nutrient-rich,hygienically-improved, humic material that can be usedor disposed of safely. While one pit is filling withExcreta (and potentially organic material), the other pitremains out of service. When the first pit is full, it iscovered and temporarily taken out of service. Thedrained and degraded Excreta within the second pit isemptied and the pit is put back into service. The sec-ond pit collects Excreta until it is filled, covered andtaken out of service and the cycle is repeated indefi-nitely. Although a ‘Composting Chamber’ is not strictlyan alternating pit technology, it can have multiplechambers and produces a safe, useable compost-Product. For these reasons it is included in this SystemTemplate.The Compost/EcoHumus that is generated from theCollection and Storage/Treatment Technology can beremoved and transported for Use and/or Disposalmanually using a Human Powered E&T (C2) Convey-ance Technology. Since it has undergone significantdegradation, the humic material is quite safe to handleand use in agriculture. If there are concerns about thequality, it can be composted further in a dedicatedcomposting facility but there is no need to transportthe Compost/EcoHumus to a (Semi-) Centralized Treat-ment facility as decomposition of the Excreta takesplace onsite.For the Use and/or Disposal of Compost/EcoHumus,the Application of Compost/EcoHumus (D4) Techno-logy is utilized.This system is different than System 1 because of theConveyance and Use and/or Disposal options: in theprevious system, the sludge requires further treatmentbefore it can be used, whereas the Compost/EcoHu-mus produced in this system is ready for Use and/orDisposal following Collection and Storage/Treatment.Considerations Because the system is permanentand can be used indefinitely (as opposed to some sin-gle pits, which may be filled and covered), it can beused where space is limited. Additionally, because theProduct must be removed manually, this system isappropriate for dense areas that do not have access tomechanical emptying/trucks.The success of this system depends on an extended stor-age period. If a suitable and continuous source of soil,ash or organic matter (leaves, grass clippings, coconut orrice husks, woodchips, etc.) is available, the decomposi-tion process is enhanced and the storage period can bereduced. The storage period can be minimized if thematerial in the pit remains well aerated and not toomoist. Therefore, the Greywater must be collected andtreated separately. Too much moisture in the pit will fillthe air-voids and deprive the microbes of oxygen, whichmay impair the degradation process.This system is especially appropriate for water-scarceareas and where there is an opportunity to use thehumic material. Dry cleansing materials can be discard-ed into the pit/chamber, especially if they are carbona-ceous (e.g. toilet paper, newsprint, corncobs, etc.) asthis may help with degradation and airflow.Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate2–WaterlessSystemwithAlternatingPitsSystem 2: Waterless System with Alternating Pits19U1: DRY TOILETslaboption 1option 2D4: APPLICATION OF COMPOST/ECO-HUMUSS5: FOSSA ALTERNA1 2 3
  19. 19. Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate3–PourFlushSystemwithTwinPits20DryCleansingMaterialUrineFlushwaterAnalCleansingWaterGreywaterStormwaterU.4PourFlushToiletBlackwaterEffluentC.2HumanPoweredEmptying&TransportGreywaterTreatmentD.12SurfaceDisposalD.11ApplicationD.12SurfaceDisposalD.5IrrigationD.6SoakPitD.10Disposal/RechargeD.10Disposal/RechargeSanitationSystem3:PourFlushSystemwithTwinPitsEffluentTreatedSludgeFaecesD.10Disposal/RechargeStormwaterDrainsS.6TwinPitsforPourFlushS.12BiogasReactorUUserInterfaceSCollectionandStorage/TreatmentCConveyanceT(Semi-)CentralizedTreatmentDUseand/orDisposalInput/OutputProductsInputProductsInput/OutputProductsInput/OutputProducts
  20. 20. This is a water-based system utilizing the Pour FlushToilet (pedestal or squat pan) to produce a partiallydigested, humus-like Product, which can be used as asoil amendment. If water is not available, please refer toSystems 1, 2 and 4. Greywater can be used in systemand does not require separate treatment.The inputs to the system can include Faeces, Urine,Flushwater, Anal Cleansing Water, Dry CleansingMaterials and Greywater.The User Interface Technology for this system is a PourFlush toilet (U4). A Urinal (U3) should only be used inaddition to, and not instead of, the Pour Flush Toilet.Twin Pits for Pour Flush (S6) is one of the technologiesused for the Collection and Storage/Treatment of theBlackwater output from the User Interface. The TwinPits are lined with a porous material that allows theEffluent to infiltrate into the ground while solids accu-mulate and degrade at the bottom of the pit. While onepit is filling with Blackwater, the other pit remains out ofservice. When the first pit is full, it is covered and tem-porarily taken out of service. It should take a minimumof two (2) years to fill a pit. When the second pit is full,the first pit is re-opened and the contents are removed.The Treated Sludge that is generated in the pit after two(2) years is removed and transported for Use and/orDisposal manually using a Human Powered E&T (C2)Conveyance Technology. Since it has undergone signi-ficant degradation, it is not as pathogenic as raw, undi-gested sludge. There is no need to transport the treat-ed sludge to a (Semi-) Centralized Treatment facility astreatment of the Blackwater takes place onsite.Dry Cleansing Materials may clog the pit and preventwater from infiltrating into the soil and so it should becollected separately and transferred for SurfaceDisposal (D12).Alternatively, the blackwater can be directed towardsan Anaerobic Biogas Reactor (S12). The reactor willfunction better if animal manure and organic waste arealso added; liquid imputs like Greywater should be keptto a minimum. The Biogas that is generated (not shown)can be used for cooking, and the Treated Sludge can beused as a soil amendment.For the Use and/or Disposal component of the SystemTemplate, the Application of Sludge (D11) Technologyis utilized. Effluent from the Twin Pits for Pour Flush(S6) is directly Infiltrated into the soil (D10) onsite fromeach pit. Therefore, this system should only be installedwhere there is a low groundwater table that is not atrisk of contamination from these pits.Considerations Depending on the Collection andStorage/Treatment technology chosen, the system willdepend on different criteria. In the case of the doublepits, the system will depend on soil which can continu-ally and adequately absorb moisture; clayey or denselypacked soils are not appropriate. The material that isremoved should be in a safe, useable form, although thetask of removing, transporting and using it may not befavourable in some circumstances. The use of a house-hold biogas digester is best suited to peri-urban or ruralareas where there is a source of organic and/or animalwaste material and a need for the digested sludge. Thepiping system for the gas must be well maintained toprevent leaks and potential explosions.This system is well-suited for anal cleansing withwater. Dry cleansing materials should be disposed ofseparately because they could easily clog the pit orthe reactor (D12).Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate3–PourFlushSystemwithTwinPitsSystem 3: Pour Flush System with Twin Pits21U5: CISTERN FLUSH TOILET U5: CISTERN FLUSH TOILETS6: TWIN PIT POUR-FLUSH LATRINE (TPPFL)leach pitleach pitD4: APPLICATION OF COMPOST/ECO-HUMUS
  21. 21. Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate4–WaterlessSystemwithUrineDiversion22DryCleansingMaterialFaecesUrineC.2HumanPoweredEmptying&TransportStormwaterDrainsC.1JerrycanC.2HumanPoweredEmptying&TransportD.12SurfaceDisposalD.3ApplicationD.12SurfaceDisposalD.2ApplicationD.5IrrigationD.6SoakPitD.10Disposal/RechareSanitationSystem4:WaterlessSystemwithUrineDiversionS.7DoubleDehy-drationVaultsAnalCleansingWaterDriedFaecesStoredUrineEffluentD.2ApplicationGreywaterTreatementAnalCleansingWaterUrineUUserInterfaceSCollectionandStorage/TreatmentCConveyanceT(Semi-)CentralizedTreatmentDUseand/orDisposalInput/OutputProductsInputProductsInput/OutputProductsInput/OutputProductsGreywaterStormwaterU.2UrineDivertingDryToiletU.3UrinalFaecesS.1StorageTankD.6SoakPit
  22. 22. This system is designed to separate Urine and Faecesto allow Faeces to dehydrate and/or recover the Urinefor beneficial use. This system can be used anywhere,but it is especially appropriate for rocky areas wheredigging is difficult, where there is a high groundwatertable, or in water-scarce regions.The inputs to the system can include Faeces, Urine, AnalCleansing Water and Dry Cleansing Materials.There are two User Interface Technologies for this sys-tem; a Urine Diverting Dry Toilet (UDDT) (U2) or a Urinal(U3). UDDTs with a third diversion for Anal CleansingWater are not common, but can be manufactured local-ly or ordered depending on local washing customs. Drycleansing materials will not harm the system, but theyshould be collected separately from the UDDT (U2) anddirectly transferred for Surface Disposal (D12).Double Dehydration Vaults (S7) are used for the Col-lection and Storage/Treatment Technology for Faeces.Anal Cleansing Water should never be put into Dehy-dration Vaults, but it can be diverted and put into a SoakPit (D6). When storing the Faeces in chambers, theyshould be kept as dry as possible to encourage dehydra-tion and hygienization. Therefore, the chambers shouldbe watertight and care should be taken to ensure that nowater is introduced during cleaning.Also important is a constant supply of ash, lime, or dryearth to cover the Faeces to minimize odours and pro-vide a barrier between the Faeces and potential vectors(flies). The pH increase will also help to kill organisms.A separate Greywater system is required since it shouldnot be introduced into the Dehydration Vaults andpreferably not into the pits.Urine can be disposed of easily and without risk to theenvironment because it is generated in relatively smallvolumes and is nearly sterile. The Urine can be diverteddirectly to the ground for Use and/or Disposal as LandApplication (D2), Irrigation (D5) or soil infiltrationthrough a Soak Pit (D6). Storage Tanks (S1) can be usedfor the Collection Storage/Treatment of Urine.The Dried Faeces that are generated from the Col-lection and Storage/Treatment Technology can beremoved and transported for Use and/or Disposal. TheConveyance Technology that can be used is HumanPowered E&T (C2). The Dried Faeces pose little humanhealth risk. Stored Urine can be transported for Useand/or Disposal using either the Jerrycan (C1) or Moto-rized E&T (C3) Technologies.Guidelines for the safe use of Excreta, Faecal Sludgeand Urine have been published by the World HealthOrganization (WHO) and are referenced on the relevantTechnology Information Sheets.Considerations The success of this system de-pends on the efficient separation of urine and faecesas well as the use of a suitable drying agent; a dry, hotclimate can also contribute considerably to the rapiddehydration of the faeces. The system can be usedregardless of the users’ acceptance to Urine use; itcan be adapted to suit the agricultural and culturalneeds of the users.All types of solid cleansing materials can be used,although they should be discarded separately. AnalCleansing Water must be separated from the Faecesalthough it can be mixed with the Urine before it istransferred to the Soak Pit (not shown in the SystemTemplate). If Urine is used in agriculture, Anal CleansingWater should be kept separate and treated along withGreywater.Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate4–WaterlessSystemwithUrineDiversion23System 4: Waterless System with Urine DiversionD6: SOAK PIT 131inletS1: URINE STORAGE TANK/CONTAINERU2: URINE DIVERTING DRY TOILET (UDDT)option 2option 2option 1option 1 urine urine
  23. 23. Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate5–BlackwaterTreatmentSystemwithInfiltration24StormwaterGreywaterFaecesUrineFlushwaterAnalCleansingWaterDryCleansingMaterialU.4PourFlushToiletU.5CisternFlushBlackwaterFaecalSludgeStormwaterDrainsC.7TransferStationT.3WSPT.4AeratedPondT.5FWSCWT.6HSFCWT.7VFCWT.8TricklingFilterT.9UASBT.10ActivatedSludgeT.11Sedimentation/ThickeningT.12UnplanteddryingbedsT.13PlanteddryingbedsT.14Co-CompostingT.15BiogasReactorEffluentTreatedSludgeD.10Disposal/RechargeD.5IrrigationD.8AquacultureD.9MacrophyteD.10Disposal/RechargeD.11LandApplicationD.12SurfaceDisposalD.12SurfaceDisposalSanitationSystem5:BlackwaterTreatmentSystemwithInfiltrationS.9SepticTankS.10ABRS.11AnaerobicFilterEffluentD.6SoakPitD.7LeachFieldC.8SewerDischargeStationUUserInterfaceSCollectionandStorage/TreatmentCConveyanceT(Semi-)CentralizedTreatmentDUseand/orDisposalInput/OutputProductsInputProductsInput/OutputProductsInput/OutputProductsC.2HumanPoweredEmptying&TransportC.3MotorizedEmpty-ing&Transport
  24. 24. This is a water-based system that requires a flush toiletand a Collection & Storage/Treatment Technology thatis appropriate for storing large quantities of water.The inputs to the system can include Faeces, Urine,Flushwater, Anal Cleansing Water, Dry Cleansing Mate-rials and Greywater.There are two User Interface Technologies that couldbe used for this system: a Pour Flush Toilet (U4) or aCistern Flush Toilet (U5). In the event that DryCleansing Materials are collected separately from theflush toilets, they can be directly transferred forSurface Disposal (D12).The User Interface is directly connected to aCollection and Storage/Treatment Technology for theBlackwater generated: either a Septic Tank (S9), aAnaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) (S10), or anAnaerobic Filter (S11) may be used. The anaerobicprocesses reduce the organic and pathogen load, butthe Effluent is still not suitable for direct use.Greywater should be treated along with Blackwater inthe same Collection & Storage/Treatment Technology,but if there is a need for water-recovery, it can betreated separately (not shown on the SystemTemplate).Effluent generated from the Collection and Storage/Treatment can be diverted directly to the ground forUse and/or Disposal through a Soak Pit (D6) or a LeachField (D7). For these Technologies to work there mustbe sufficient space available and the soil must have asuitable capacity to absorb the Effluent. If this is not thecase, refer to System 6: Blackwater Treatment Systemwith Sewerage. Although it is not recommended, theEffluent can also be discharged into the StormwaterDrainage network for Use and/or Disposal as Ground-water Recharge (D10). This should only be considered ifthe quality of the Effluent is high and there is not capac-ity for onsite infiltration or transportation offsite.The Faecal Sludge that is generated from the Collectionand Storage/Treatment Technology must be removedand transported for further treatment. The ConveyanceTechnologies that can be used include Human PoweredE&T (C2) or Motorized E&T (C3). As the Faecal Sludge ishighly pathogenic prior to treatment, human contactand direct agricultural applications should be avoided.Faecal Sludge that is removed can be transported to adedicated Faecal Sludge treatment facility (Techno-logies T11 to T15). In the event that the treatment facili-ty is not easily accessible, the Faecal Sludge can be dis-charged to either a Sewer Discharge Station (C8) or aTransfer Station (C7). From the Sewer Discharge Station,the Faecal Sludge is transported by the sewer and is co-treated with the Blackwater flowing in the sewer net-work (Technologies T1 to T10). The Faecal Sludge fromthe Sewer Discharge station is released either directlyinto the sewer or at timed intervals (to optimize the per-formance of the (Semi-) Centralized Treatment facility).If sludge is introduced directly into a sewer, there mustbe enough water to adequately dilute and transport thesludge to the treatment facility. From the TransferStation, the Faecal Sludge must be transported to a ded-icated Faecal Sludge treatment facility by a motorizedvehicle (Technologies T11 to T15).All (Semi-) Centralized Treatment Technologies, T1 toT15, produce both Effluent and Faecal Sludge, whichrequire further treatment prior to Use and/or Dis-posal. Technologies for the Use and/or Disposal of thetreated Effluent include Irrigation (D5), Aquaculture(D8), Macrophyte Pond (D9) or Discharge to a waterbody or Recharge to groundwater (D10). Technologiesfor the Use and/or Disposal of the treated FaecalSludge include Land Application (D11) or Surface Dis-posal (D12).Considerations This system is only appropriate inareas where desludging services are available andaffordable and where there is an appropriate way to dis-pose of the sludge. This system can be adapted for usein colder climates, even where there is ground frost.The system requires a constant source of water.The capital investment for this system is considerable(excavation and installation of an onsite storageTechnology), but the costs can be shared by a numberof households if the system is designed for a largernumber of users.This water-based system is suitable for Anal CleansingWater, and since the solids are settled and digestedonsite, easily degradable Dry Cleansing Materials canalso be used.Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate5–BlackwaterTreatmentSystemwithInfiltration25System 5: Blackwater Treatment System with InfiltrationU4: POUR FLUSH TOILETslabwater sealS9: SEPTIC TANKsludgesettlement zonescumoutletinlet inlettee liquid levelaccess coversD7: Leach Fieldsettling tankssettled effluent
  25. 25. Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate6–BlackwaterTreatmentSystemwithSewerage26StormwaterGreywaterFaecesUrineFlushwaterAnalCleansingWaterDryCleansingMaterialU.4PourFlushToiletU.5CisternFlushBlackwaterC.4SimplifiedSewerC.5Solids-freeSewerStormwaterDrainsTT.3WSPT.4AeratedPondT.5FWSCWT.6HSFCWT.7VFCWT.8TricklingFilterT.9UASBT.10ActivatedSludgeT.11Sedimentation/ThickeningT.12Unplanteddry-ingbedsT.13PlanteddryingbedsT.14Co-CompostingT.15BiogasReactorEffluentTreatedSludgeD.10Disposal/RechargeD.5IrrigationD.8AquacultureD.9MacrophyteD.10Disposal/RechargeD.11LandApplicationD.12SurfaceDisposalD.12SurfaceDisposalSanitationSystem6:BlackwaterTreatmentSystemwithSewerageEffluentFaecalSludgeC.8SewerDischargeStationC.2HumanPoweredEmptying&TransportC.3MotorizedEmpty-ing&TransportC.7TransferStationUUserInterfaceSCollectionandStorage/TreatmentCConveyanceT(Semi-)CentralizedTreatmentDUseand/orDisposalInput/OutputProductsInputProductsInput/OutputProductsInput/OutputProductsS.9SepticTankS.11ABRS.10AnaerobicFilterT.15BiogasReactor
  26. 26. This system is characterized by the use of a household-level Technology to remove and digest settleable solidsfrom the Blackwater, and a simplified or settled sewersystem to transport the Effluent to a (Semi-) CentralizedTreatment facility.The inputs to the system can include Faeces, Urine,Flushwater, Anal Cleansing Water, Dry CleansingMaterials and Greywater. This system is comparable toSystem 5: Blackwater Treatment System with Infil-tration except the management and processing of theEffluent generated during Collection and Storage/Treatment of the Blackwater is different. As such,please refer to System Template for System 5: Black-water Treatment System with Infiltration, for a detaileddescription of the components.There are two transport pathways for the Effluent gen-erated from the Collection and Storage/Treatment ofthe Blackwater. Similar to System 5, Effluent can be dis-charged into the Stormwater Drainage network for Useand/or Disposal as Groundwater Recharge (D10),although this is not the recommended approach. TheEffluent should be transported from a Collection andStorage/Treatment facility to a (Semi-) CentralizedTreatment facility via a Simplified Sewer network (C4)or a Solids-Free Sewer network (C5). An interceptortank is required before the Effluent enters the sewer, oralternatively, this system can be used as a way of up-grading under-performing onsite Technologies (e.g. sep-tic tanks) by providing improved, (Semi-) CentralizedTreatment. Effluent transported to a (Semi-) CentralizedTreatment facility is treated using one of the Tech-nologies T1 to T10.All (Semi-) Centralized Treatment Technologies, T1 toT15, produce both Effluent and Faecal Sludge, whichrequire further treatment prior to Use and/orDisposal. Technologies for the Use and/or Disposal ofthe treated Effluent include Irrigation (D5), Aqua-culture (D8), Macrophyte Pond (D9) or Discharge to awater body or Recharge to Groundwater (D10). Tech-nologies for the Use and/or Disposal of the treatedFaecal Sludge include Land Application (D11) or Sur-face Disposal (D12).Considerations With the offsite transport of theEffluent to a (Semi-) Centralized Treatment facility, thecapital investment for this system is moderate to con-siderable. Excavation and installation of the onsite stor-age technology as well as the infrastructure required forthe simplified sewer network may be costly (althoughcosts would be considerably less than the design andinstallation of a conventional sewer network). As well, ifthere is no pre-existing treatment facility, one must bebuilt to ensure that discharge from the sewer is notdirectly input to a water body.The success of this system depends on high user com-mitment to operation and maintenance of the sewernetwork; alternatively, a person or organization can bemade responsible on behalf of the users. There must bean accessible, affordable and systematic method fordesludging the interceptor (or septic) tanks since oneuser’s improperly kept tank could adversely impact theentire community. Also important is a well-functioningand properly managed Centralized Treatment facility; insome cases this will be managed at the municipal /re-gional level, but in the case of a more local solution (e.g.wetland), there must also be a well-defined structure foroperation and maintenance.This system is especially appropriate for dense, urbansettlements where there is little or no space for onsitestorage technologies or emptying. Since the sewer net-work is shallow and (ideally) watertight, it is also appli-cable for areas with high groundwater tables.This water-based system is suitable for Anal CleansingWater inputs, and, since the solids are settled anddigested in one of the Collection and Storage/Treat-ment Technologies, easily degradable Dry CleansingMaterials can also be used. However, durable materials(e.g. leaves, rags) could clog the system and causeproblems with emptying and therefore, should not beused.Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate6–BlackwaterTreatmentSystemwithSewerage27System 6: Blackwater Treatment System with SewerageU5: CISTERN FLUSH TOILET U5: CISTERN FLUSH TOILETC4: SIMPLIFIED SEWERSinspection chamberD8: Aquaculture Pondssludgeinletoutlet
  27. 27. Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate7–(Semi-)CentralizedTreatmentSystem28StormwaterGreywaterFaecesUrineFlushwaterAnalCleansingWaterU.4PourFlushToiletU.5CisternFlushBlackwaterC.4SimplifiedSewerC.6GravitySewerStormwaterDrainsT.1ABRT.2Anaer.FilterT.3WSPT.4AeratedPondT.5FWSCWT.6HSFCWT.7VFCWT.8TricklingFilterT.9UASBT.10Act.SludgeT.11Sedimentation/ThickeningT.12Unplanteddry-ingbedsT.13PlanteddryingbedsT.14Co-CompostingT.15BiogasReactorEffluentTreatedSludgeD.10Disposal/RechargeD.5IrrigationD.8AquacultureD.9MacrophyteD.10Disposal/RechargeD.11LandApplicationD.12SurfaceDisposalD.12SurfaceDisposalSanitationSystem7:(Semi-)CentralizedTreatmentSystemUUserInterfaceSCollectionandStorage/TreatmentCConveyanceT(Semi-)CentralizedTreatmentDUseand/orDisposalInput/OutputProductsInputProductsInput/OutputProductsInput/OutputProductsUSCollectionandStorage/TreatmentCConveyanceT(Semi-)CentralizedTreatmentDUseand/orDisposalDryCleansingMaterial
  28. 28. This is a water-based sewer system in which Blackwateris transported to a centralized treatment facility. Theimportant characteristic of this system is that there isno Collection and Storage/Treatment.The inputs to the system include Faeces, Urine, Flush-water, Anal Cleansing Water, Dry Cleansing Materials,Stormwater, and Greywater.There are two User Interface Technologies that can beused for this system, a Pour Flush Toilet (U4) or aCistern Flush Toilet (U5). Dry Cleansing Materials canbe handled by the system or they can be collectedseparately and directly transferred for SurfaceDisposal (D12).The Blackwater generated at the User Interface is di-rectly connected to a (Semi-) Centralized Treatmentfacility by a Simplified Sewer network (C4) or a GravitySewer network (C6). Greywater is co-treated with theBlackwater. Stormwater collected within the Storm-water drains can be input to the Gravity Sewer network,although Stormwater overflows are required.As there is no Collection and Storage/Treatment, all ofthe Blackwater is transported to a (Semi-) CentralizedTreatment facility. The inclusion of Greywater in theConveyance Technology helps to prevent solids fromaccumulating in the sewers. One of the TechnologiesT1 to T10 is required for the treatment of the trans-ported Blackwater. The Faecal Sludge generated fromthe treatment of the Technologies T1 to T10 must befurther treated in a dedicated Faecal Sludge treatmentfacility (Technologies T11 to T15) prior to Use and/orDisposal.All (Semi-) Centralized Treatment Technologies, T1 toT15, produce both Effluent and Faecal Sludge. Techno-logies for the Use and/or Disposal of the treated Effluentinclude Irrigation (D5), Aquaculture (D8), MacrophytePond (D9) or Discharge to a water body or Recharge togroundwater (D10). Technologies for the Use and/or Dis-posal of the treated Faecal Sludge include Land Appli-cation (D11) or Surface Disposal (D12).Considerations The capital investment for this sys-tem can be high; gravity sewers require extensive exca-vation and installation can be expensive, whereasSimplified Sewers are generally less expensive if thesite conditions permit a condominial design. This sys-tem is only appropriate when there is a high willingnessto pay for the capital investment and maintenancecosts and where there is a pre-existing treatment facil-ity that has the capacity to accept additional flow.Depending on the type of sewers used, this system canbe adapted for both dense urban and peri-urban areas.It is not well-suited to rural areas. There must be a con-stant supply of water to ensure that the sewers do notbecome blocked. Users may be required to pay user-fees to pay for the centralized treatment and mainte-nance.Depending on the sewer type and management struc-ture (simplified vs gravity, city-run vs community oper-ated) there are varying degrees of operation or main-tenance responsibilities for the homeowner.Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate7–(Semi-)CentralizedTreatmentSystem29System 7: (Semi-) Centralized Treatment SystemU5: CISTERN FLUSH TOILET U5: CISTERN FLUSH TOILETC6: CONVENTIONAL GRAVITY SEWERsewer mainstreet drainageT8: TRICKLING FILTER 99feed pipeeffluent channelairfiltersprinklercollectionfilter support
  29. 29. Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate8–SewerageSystemwithUrineDiversion30StormwaterGreywaterAnalCleansingWaterDryCleansingMaterialFaecesFlushwaterUrineBrownwaterUrineStoredUrineC.4SimplifiedSewerC.6GravitySewerStormwaterDrainsC.1JerrycanC.3MotorizedEmpty-ing&TransportT.1ABRT.2Anaer.FilterT.3WSPT.4AeratedPondT.5FWSCWT.6HSFCWT.7VFCWT.8TricklingFilterT.9UASBT.10ActivatedSludgeT.11Sedimentation/ThickeningT.12UnplanteddryingbedsT.13PlanteddryingbedsT.14Co-CompostingT.15BiogasReactorEffluentTreatedSludgeD.10Disposal/RechargeD.5IrrigationD.8AquacultureD.9MacrophyteD.10Disposal/RechargeD.11LandApplicationD.12SurfaceDisposalD.2ApplicationSanitationSystem8:SewerageSystemwithUrineDiversionS.1StorageTankUUserInterfaceSCollectionandStorage/TreatmentCConveyanceT(Semi-)CentralizedTreatmentDUseand/orDisposalInput/OutputProductsInputProductsInput/OutputProductsInput/OutputProductsU.6UrineDivertingFlushToiletU.3Urinal
  30. 30. This is a water-based sewer system that requires aUrine Diverting Flush Toilet (UDFT). The UDFT is a spe-cial User Interface that allows for the separation andcollection of Urine without water, but that also useswater to flush Faeces.The inputs to the system can include, Faeces, Urine,Flushwater, Anal Cleansing Water, Dry CleansingMaterial, Stormwater, and Greywater.There are two User Interface Technologies that can beused for this system, a UDFT (U6) and a Urinal (U3). TheUrinal however, should be used in conjunction with theUDFT, as an alternative for men who do not wish to siton the pedestal.Both Brownwater and Urine are separated at the UserInterface. Brownwater bypasses a Collection and Sto-rage/Treatment facility and is conveyed directly to a(Semi-) Centralized Treatment facility using a SimplifiedSewer network (C4) or a Gravity Sewer network (C6).Greywater is also transported in the sewer and is nottreated separately. In some circumstances, Stormwatercan be connected to a Gravity Sewer network, althoughStormwater overflows are required.Urine separated at the User Interface is directly linked to aStorage Tank (S1). The Stored Urine is transferred for Useand/or Disposal using a Jerrycan (C1) or Motorized E&T(C3) for Urine Application to agricultural lands (D2).Brownwater is treated at a (Semi-) Centralized Treat-ment facility using one of the Technologies T1 to T10.The Faecal Sludge generated from the treatment of theTechnologies T1 to T10 must be further treated in a de-dicated Faecal Sludge treatment facility (TechnologiesT11 to T15) prior to using the Land Application (D11) orSurface Disposal (D12) Use and/or Disposal technolo-gies. Technologies for the Use and/or Disposal of thetreated Effluent collected from one of the TechnologiesT1 to T10 include Irrigation (D5), Aquaculture (D8),Macrophyte Pond (D9) or Discharge to a water body orRecharge to Groundwater (D10).Considerations UDFTs are not common and thecapital cost for this system can be high. This is partlydue to the fact that there is limited competition in themarket and also because high quality plumbing isrequired for the dual plumbing system. The GravitySewers require extensive excavation and installation canbe expensive, whereas Simplified Sewers are generallyless expensive if the site conditions permit a condo-minial design. This system is only appropriate whenthere is a need for the separated Urine and/or whenthere is a desire to limit water consumption by collectingUrine without flushing water. The system still requires aconstant source of water and uses significantly morethan a waterless system.Depending on the type of sewers used, this system canbe adapted for both dense urban and peri-urban areas.It is not well-suited to rural areas. There must be a con-stant supply of water to ensure that the sewers do notbecome blocked. This system is appropriate where thereis a need and a desire to collect, transport and use theUrine. There may also be benefits to the treatment plantif it is normally overloaded; the reduced nutrient load (byremoving the Urine) could optimize treatment. However,if the plant is currently, underloaded (i.e. the plant hasbeen overdesigned) then this system could furtheraggravate the problem.Depending on the sewer type and management struc-ture (simplified vs gravity, city-run vs community oper-ated) there will be varying degrees of operation or main-tenance responsibilities for the homeowner.Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsSystemTemplate8–SewerageSystemwithUrineDiversion31System 8: Sewerage System with Urine DiversionU6: FLUSH TOILET WITH URINE SEPARATIONS1: URINE STORAGE TANK/CONTAINERD11: LAND APPLICATION 137sludge
  31. 31. Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsFunctionalGroups32
  32. 32. Reading the Technology Information SheetsFor each Technology described in the System Tem-plates, there is a Technology Information Sheet whichincludes a summary of the Technology, appropriateapplications and limitations. The page is not intended tobe a design manual or technical reference; rather it is astarting point for further detailed design. Moreover, theTechnology descriptions are meant to serve as a sourceof inspiration and discussion amongst engineers andplanners who may not have previously considered oneor several of the feasible options.Each Technology Information Sheet is colour codedaccording to the associated Functional Group. The let-ter code (e.g. U for User Interface) also indicates theFunctional Group to which the Technology belongs.Figure 5 on the following page presents and explains anexample of a Technology Information Sheet heading.Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsFunctionalGroupsPart 2: Functional Groups with Technology Information Sheets33
  33. 33. S.9 Septic TankApplicable to:System 5, 6Application LevelHouseholdNeighbourhoodCityManagement LevelHouseholdSharedPublicInputs: Blackwater GreywaterOutputs: Faecal Sludge Effluent23 4561Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsFunctionalGroups34Figure 5. Heading and subheading of a Technology Information Sheet1) The title with colour, letter and number code. Thecolour-code (orange) and the letter (S) indicate that theTechnology belongs to the Functional Group ‘Collection andStorage/Treatment (S). The number (9) indicates that it is theninth (9th) technology within that Functional Group.Each Technology description page has a similar colour, letterand number code for easy access and cross-referencing.2) Applicable to System 5, 6. This indicates in whichSystem Template the Technology can be found. In this case,the Septic Tank can be found (and only found) in System 5and 6. Other Technologies may be found in only one or inseveral systems.3) Application Level. Three spatial levels are defined underthis heading:•Household implies that the technology is appropriate forone or several households•Neighbourhood implies that the technology is appropriatefor several up to several hundred households•City implies that the technology is appropriate at thecity-wide level (either one unit for the whole city, or manyunits for each part of the city or household)Stars are used to indicate how appropriate each level is forthe given technology:•two stars means suitable,•one star means less suitable; and•no star means not suitable.It is up to the Compendium user to decide on the appropraitelevel for the specific situation that he/she is working on.The ‘Application Level’ graphic is only meant as a rough guideto be used in the preliminary planning stage.The technologies within the Functional Group ‘User Interface’do not include an Application Level since they can only ser-vice a limited number of people.4) Management Level describes the organizational stylethat is best used for the operation and maintenance (O&M)of the given Technology:•Household implies that the household, e.g. the family, isresponsible for all O&M•Shared implies that a group of users (e.g. school, marketvendors, community-based organization) assumes the O&Mthemselves either by ensuring that a person or committeeis responsible on behalf of all the users. Shared facilites aredefined by the fact that the community of users decideswho is allowed to the use the facility and what their respon-sibilities are; it is a self-defined group of users.•Public implies institutional or government run facilities. AllO&M is assumed by the agency that operates the facility.Usually, only users who can pay for the service are per-mitted to use public facilities.The Septic Tank in this example can be managed in all threestyles.The technologies within the Functional Group ‘User Interface’do not include a Management Level since maintenance isdependent on the subsequent technologies, and not simplythe User Interface.5) Inputs: refers to the Products that flow into the givenTechnology. The icons shown are those Products that can pos-sibly go into the Technology, but not all of them MUSTenter the technology. In this example, Blackwater and Grey-water can be processed by the Septic Tank6) Outputs: refers to the products that flow out of the givenTechnology. The icons show those Products that can beexpected to flow out of the technology. In this example, theSeptic Tank produces Faecal Sludge and Effluent.
  34. 34. Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsFunctionalGroupU:UserInterfaceUUser Interface35This section describes the technologies with which the user interacts.The User Interface is the way in which the sanitation system is accessed.©GTZ
  35. 35. Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsFunctionalGroupU:UserInterface36U
  36. 36. A Dry Toilet is a toilet that operates without water.The Dry Toilet may be a raised pedestal that the usercan sit on, or a squat pan that the user squats over.In both cases, excreta (both urine and faeces) fallthrough a drop hole.In this Compendium, a Dry Toilet refers specificallyto the device that the user sits or squats over. Inother literature, a Dry Toilet may refer to a variety oftechnologies, or combinations of technologies (espe-cially pits).The Dry Toilet is usually placed over a pit; if two pits areused, the pedestal or slab should be designed in such away that it can be lifted and moved from one pit toanother.The slab or pedestal base should be well sized to the pitso that it is both safe for the user and preventsstormwater from infiltrating the pit (which may cause itto overflow).Adequacy Dry Toilets are easy for almost everyoneto use. Because there is no need to separate urineand faeces, they are often the most physically com-fortable and natural option.Pedestals and squatting slabs can be made locally withconcrete (providing that sand and cement are avail-able). Wooden or metal molds can be used to produceseveral units quickly and efficiently. When dry toiletsare made locally, they can be specially designed tomeet the needs of the target users (e.g. smaller onesfor children). Fibreglass, porcelain and stainless steelversions may also be available. They are appropriate foralmost every climate.Health Aspects/Acceptance Squatting is a natu-ral position for many people and so a well-kept squat-ting slab may be the most acceptable option.Since Dry Toilets do not have a water seal, odours maybe a problem depending on the Collection and Storage/Treatment technology to which it is connected.Maintenance The sitting or standing surface shouldbe kept clean and dry to prevent pathogen/diseasetransmission and to limit odours.There are no mechanical parts and so the Dry Toiletshould not need repairs except in the event that itcracks.slaboption 1option 2Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsFunctionalGroupU:UserInterfaceU.1U.1 Dry ToiletApplicable to:System 1, 237Inputs: Faeces UrineAnal Cleansing WaterOutputs: Excreta
  37. 37. Pros & Cons:+ Does not require a constant source of water+ Can be built and repaired with locally availablematerials+ Low capital and operating costs+ Suitable for all types of users (sitters, squatters,washers, wipers)- Odours are normally noticeable (even if the vaultor pit used to collect excreta is equipped with a ventpipe).- The excreta pile is visible, except where a deeppit is usedReferences_ Brandberg, B. (1997). Latrine Building. A Handbook forImplementation of the Sanplat System. Intermediate Tech-nology Publications, London. pp 55–77(Describes how to build a squatting slab and the mouldsfor the frame, footrests, spacers, etc.)_ Morgan, P. (2007). Toilets That Make Compost: Low-cost,sanitary toilets that produce valuable compost for crops in anAfrican context. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.(Excellent description of how to make support rings andsquatting slabs (pages 7–35) and pedestals (39–43) usingonly sand, cement, plastic sheeting and wire.)Available: www.ecosanres.org_ Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) (2006). SmartSanitation Solutions. Examples of innovative, low-costtechnologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatmentand use of sanitation products. NWP, Netherlands.(Provides country specific data and links for furtherinformation.)Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsFunctionalGroupU:UserInterface38U.1
  38. 38. A Urine Diverting Dry Toilet (UDDT) is a toilet thatoperates without water and has a divider so that theuser, with little effort can divert the urine away fromthe faeces.The UDDT toilet is built such that urine is collected anddrained from the front area of the toilet, while faeces fallthrough a large chute (hole) in the back. Depending onthe Collection and Storage/Treatment technology thatfollows, drying material such as lime, ash or earth shouldbe added into the same hole after defecating.It is important that the two sections of the toilet arewell separated to ensure that a) faeces do not fallinto, and clog the urine collection area in the front,and that b) urine does not splash down into the dryarea of the toilet.There are also 3-hole separating toilets that allow analcleansing water to be separated from the urine and thefaeces into a third, dedicated hole. It is important thatthe faeces remain separate and dry. When the toilet iscleaned with water, care should be taken to ensure thatthe faeces are not mixed with water.Both a pedestal and a squat slab can be used to sepa-rate urine from faeces depending on user preference.Adequacy The UDDT is simple to design and buildusing such materials as concrete and wire mesh or plas-tic. The UDDT design can be altered to suit the needs ofspecific populations (i.e. smaller for children, peoplewho prefer to squat, etc.) They are appropriate foralmost every climate.Health Aspects/Acceptance The UDDT is not in-tuitive or immediately obvious to some users. At first,users may be hesitant about using it and mistakes (e.g.faeces in the urine bowl) may deter others from accept-ing this type of toilet as well. Education and demonstra-tion projects are essential in achieving good accept-ance with users.Maintenance A UDDT is slightly more difficult to keepclean compared to other toilets because of both the lackof water and the need to separate the solid faeces and liq-uid urine. For cleaning, a damp cloth may be used to wipedown the seat and the inner bowls. Some toilets are eas-ily removable and can be cleaned more thoroughly. Nodesign will work for everyone and therefore, some usersmay have difficulty separating both streams perfectlywhich may result in extra cleaning and maintenance.option 2option 2option 1option 1 urine urineEawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsFunctionalGroupU:UserInterfaceU.2U.2 Urine Diverting Dry Toilet (UDDT)Applicable to:System 439Inputs: Faeces UrineAnal Cleansing WaterOutputs: Faeces UrineAnal Cleansing Water
  39. 39. Faeces can be accidentally deposited in the urine sec-tion, causing blockages and cleaning problems. As well,urine pipes/fittings can become blocked over time andmay require occasional maintenance.This is a waterless technology and water should not bepoured down the toilet. As well, urine tends to rust mostmetals; therefore, metals should be avoided for the con-struction and piping of the UDDT.Pros & Cons:+ Does not require a constant source of water+ No real problems with odours and vectors (flies) ifused and maintained correctly (i.e. kept dry)+ Can be built and repaired with locally availablematerials+ Low capital and operation costs+ Suitable for all types of users (sitters, squatters,washers, wipers)- Requires education and acceptance to be usedcorrectly- Is prone to clogging with faeces and misuseReferences_ Morgan, P. (2007). Toilets That Make Compost: Low-cost,sanitary toilets that produce valuable compost for crops in anAfrican context. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.Available: www.ecosanres.org(Provides step-by step instruction on how to build aUDDT using a plastic bucket and how to construct a urinediverting squat plate.)_ Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) (2006). SmartSanitation Solutions. Examples of innovative, low-cost tech-nologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatmentand use of sanitation products. NWP, Netherlands.(Provides country specific data and links for furtherinformation.)_ Winblad, U. and Simpson-Herbert, M. (2004). EcologicalSanitation. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.Available: www.ecosanres.org(Provides a good, general overview of different types ofUDDTs – see especially page 59.)Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsFunctionalGroupU:UserInterface40U.2
  40. 40. A Urinal is only used for collecting urine. Urinals aregenerally for men, although Urinals for women havealso been developed.Urinals for women consist of raised foot-steps and asloped channel or catchment area for conducting theurine to a collection technology. For men, Urinals caneither be wall-mounted units that are vertical, or squatslabs that the user squats over.Most Urinals use water for flushing, but waterlessUrinals are becoming increasingly popular.Adequacy The Urinal can be used with or withoutwater and the plumbing can be developed accordingly.If water is used, it is mainly used for cleaning and limit-ing odours (with a water-seal). Water-based Urinals use8 to 12 litres of flushwater, whereas low-flush modelsuse less than 4 litres of flushwater. Because the Urinalis exclusively for urine it is important to also provideanother toilet to be used for faeces.Waterless Urinals are available in a range of styles andcomplexities. Some Urinals come equipped with anodour seal that may have a mechanical closure, a mem-brane, or a sealing liquid. To minimize odours in simpleUrinal designs, each Urinal should be equipped with adedicated pipe that is submerged in the collected urine(or tank) to provide a basic water-seal.Portable waterless Urinals have been developed for useat large festivals, concerts and other gatherings, toimprove the on-site sanitation facilities and reduce thepoint load of wastewater discharged at the site. In thisway, a large volume of urine can be collected (and eitherused or discharged at a more appropriate location ortime) and the remaining urine/faeces toilets can bereduced or used more efficiently. Urinals can be used inhomes as well as within public facilities.By putting a small target, or painted fly near the drain,the amount of spraying or splashing can be reduced;this type of user-guidance can help improve the cleanli-ness of the facility.Urinals are appropriate for every climate.Health Aspects/Acceptance The Urinal is a com-fortable and easily accepted User Interface. In somecases, the provision of a Urinal is useful to prevent themisuse of dry systems (e.g. UDDT). Urinals, althoughsimple in construction and design, can have a largeimpact on the well-being of a community. When menoption 1 option 2Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsFunctionalGroupU:UserInterfaceU.3U.3 UrinalApplicable to:System 4, 841Inputs: Urine FlushwaterOutputs: Urine Flushwater
  41. 41. have access to a Urinal, they may be encouraged torefrain from urinating in public, which reducesunwanted odours and allows women to feel more com-fortable.Men have generally accepted waterless Urinals, as theydo not call for any change of behaviour.Maintenance Maintenance is simple, but should bedone frequently. Minerals and salts may build up inpipes and on surfaces where urine is constantly pres-ent. To prevent scaling, slightly acidic water and/or hotwater can be used to dissolve any minerals that form.All of the surfaces should be cleaned regularly (bowl,slab and steps) to prevent odours and to minimizesolids formation.Pros & Cons:+ Does not require a constant source of water+ Can be built and repaired with locally availablematerials+ Low capital and operating costs- No real problems with odours if used and main-tained correctlyReferences_ Austin, A. and Duncker, L. (2002). Urine-diversion. Ecolo-gical Sanitation Systems in South Africa. CSIR, Pretoria,South Africa.(Directions for making a simple Urinal using a 5L plasticcontainer.)_ CREPA (2008). Promotion de latrines ECOSAN à la 20èédition du FESPACO: Ecosan Info No. 8. Centre Régionalpour lEau Potable et lAssainissement à faible coût(CREPA), Burkina Faso.Available: www.reseaucrepa.org_ GTZ (1999). Technical data sheets for ecosan components:Waterless Urinals. GTZ, Germany.Available: www.gtz.de(Information about specialized urinals, which include stenchtraps and other specialized features.)_ Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) (2006). SmartSanitation Solutions. Examples of innovative, low-cost tech-nologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatmentand use of sanitation products. NWP, Netherlands.(Provides country specific data and links for furtherinformation.)Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsFunctionalGroupU:UserInterface42U.3
  42. 42. A Pour Flush Toilet is like a regular Flush Toilet exceptthat instead of the water coming from the cisternabove, it is poured in by the user. When the watersupply is not continuous, any cistern Flush Toilet canbecome a Pour Flush Toilet.Just like a traditional Flush Toilet, there is a water sealthat prevents odours and flies from coming back upthe pipe.Water is poured into the bowl to flush the toilet of excre-ta; approximately 2 to 3L is usually sufficient. The quan-tity of water and the force of the water (pouring from aheight often helps) must be sufficient to move the exc-reta up and over the curved water seal.Both pedestals and squatting pans can be used in thepour flush mode. Due to demand, local manufacturershave become increasingly efficient at mass-producingaffordable, Pour Flush Toilets and pans.The S-shape of the water seal determines how muchwater is needed for flushing. To reduce water require-ments, it is advisable to collect toilet paper or other drycleansing materials separately.The waterseal at the bottom of the Pour Flush Toilet orpan should have a slope of 25 to 30°. Water seals shouldbe made out of plastic or ceramic to prevent clogs and tomake cleaning easier (concrete may clog more easily if itis rough or textured). The optimal depth of the water sealis approximately 2cm to minimize the water required toflush the excreta. The trap should be approximately 7cmin diameter.Adequacy The water seal is effective at preventingodours and it is appropriate for those who sit or squat(pedestal or slab) as well as those who cleanse withwater. It is only appropriate when there is a constantsupply of water available. The Pour Flush Toilet requires(much) less water than a traditional cistern Flush Toilet.However, because a smaller amount of water is used,the Pour Flush Toilet may clog more easily and thus,require more maintenance.If water is available, this type of toilet is appropriate forboth public and private applications.Pour Flush Toilets are adequate for almost all climates.Health Aspects/Acceptance The Pour Flush Toilet(or squatting pan) prevents users from seeing or smel-ling the excreta of previous users. Thus, it is generallywell accepted. Provided that the water seal is workingslabwater sealEawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsFunctionalGroupU:UserInterfaceU.4U.4 Pour Flush ToiletApplicable to:System 1, 3, 5, 6, 743Inputs: Urine FaecesFlushwater Anal Cleansing WaterOutputs: Blackwater
  43. 43. well, there should be no odours and the toilet should beclean and comfortable to use.Maintenance Because there are no mechanical parts,Pour Flush Toilets are quite robust and rarely requirerepair.Despite the fact that water is used continuously in thetoilet, it should be cleaned regularly to prevent the buildup of organics and or/stains.To prevent clogging of the Pour Flush Toilet, it is recom-mended that dry cleansing materials be collected sepa-rately and not flushed down the toilet.Pros & Cons:+ The water seal effectively prevents odours+ The excreta of one user are flushed away beforethe next user arrives+ Suitable for all types of users (sitters, squatters,wipers and washers)+ Low capital costs; operating costs depend on theprice of water- Requires a constant source of water (can berecycled water and/or collected rain water)- Cannot be built and/or repaired locallywith available materials- Requires some education to be used correctlyReferences_ Mara, DD. (1996). Low-Cost Urban Sanitation.Wiley, Chichester, UK.(Provides detailed drawings of Indian glass-fibre squat panand trap with dimensions and critical design criteria.A description of how to modify a Pour Flush Toilet to acistern Flush Toilet is included.)_ Roy, AK., et al. (1984). Manual on the Design, Constructionand Maintenance of Low-Cost Pour Flush Waterseal Latrinesin India (UNDP Interreg. Project INT/81/047). The WorldBank + UNDP, Washington.(Provides specifications for Pour Flush Toilets andconnections.)Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsFunctionalGroupU:UserInterface44U.4
  44. 44. The Cistern Flush Toilet is usually porcelain and is amass-produced, factory made User Interface. TheFlush Toilet consists of a water tank that supplies thewater for flushing the excreta and a bowl into whichthe excreta are deposited.The attractive feature of the Flush Toilet is that it incor-porates a sophisticated water seal to prevent odoursfrom coming back up through the plumbing. Dependingon the age and design of the toilet, approximately 3 to20L of water may be used per flush.Water that is stored in the cistern above the toilet bowlis released by pushing or pulling a lever. This allows thewater to run into the bowl, mix with the excreta and car-rying them away.There are different low-volume Flush Toilets currentlyavailable that use as little as 3L of water per flush. Insome cases, the volume of water used per flush is notsufficient to empty the bowl and consequently the useris forced to use two or more flushes to adequately cleanthe bowl, which negates the intended water saving.A good plumber is required to install a Flush Toilet. Theplumber will ensure that all valves are connected andsealed properly, therefore minimizing leakage.Adequacy A Cistern Flush Toilet should not be con-sidered unless all of the connections and hardwareaccessories are available locally.The Cistern Flush Toilet must be connected to both aconstant source of water for flushing and a Collectionand Storage/Treatment or Conveyance technology toreceive the blackwater.The Cistern Flush Toilet is suitable for both public and pri-vate applications and can be used in every climate.Health Aspects/Acceptance It is a safe and com-fortable toilet to use provided it is kept clean.Maintenance Although flushwater continuously rin-ses the bowl, the toilet should be scrubbed cleanregularly. Maintenance is required for the replacementor repair of some mechanical parts or fittings.Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsFunctionalGroupU:UserInterfaceU.5U.5 Cistern Flush ToiletApplicable to:System 5, 6, 745Inputs: Urine FaecesFlushwater Anal Cleansing WaterOutputs: Blackwater
  45. 45. Pros & Cons:+ The excreta of one user are flushed away beforethe next user arrives+ No real problems with odours if used correctly+ Suitable for all types of users (sitters, squatters,wipers and washers)- High capital costs; operating costs depend on theprice of water- Requires a constant source of water- Cannot be built and/or repaired locally withavailable materialsReferences_ Maki, B. (2005). Assembling and Installing a New Toilet.Available: www.hammerzone.com(Describes how to install a toilet with full colour photos andstep-by-step instructions.)_ Vandervort, D. (2007). Toilets: Installation and Repair.HomeTips.com.Available: http://hometips.com/content/toilets_intro.html(Describes each part of the toilet in detail as well asproviding links to other tools such as how to install a toilet,how to fix a leaking toilet and other toilet essentials.)Eawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsFunctionalGroupU:UserInterface46U.5
  46. 46. The Urine Diverting Flush Toilet (UDFT) is similarin appearance to a Cistern Flush Toilet except forthe diversion in the bowl. The toilet bowl has twosections so that the urine can be separated fromthe faeces.When the user sits on the toilet, urine is collected in adrain in the front (where there is no water) and faecesare collected in the back (where there is water). Theurine is collected without water, but a small amount ofwater is used to rinse the urine-collection bowl afterthe user stands up. The urine flows into a storage tankfor further use or processing, while the faeces areflushed with water to be treated. The system requiresdual plumbing (i.e. plumbing for the urine and for thebrownwater).Adequacy The toilet should be installed carefully withan understanding of how and where clogs may occur sothat they can be easily removed.A UDFT is adequate when there is a limited supply ofwater for flushing, a treatment technology for the brown-water (i.e. faeces, dry cleansing material and flushingwater) and a use for the collected urine.To improve diversion efficiency, Urinals for men are rec-ommended.UDFTs are suitable for public and private applicationsalthough significant education and awareness is re-quired in public settings to ensure proper use and tominimize clogging.This technology requires dual plumbing (separate forurine and brownwater), which is more complicated thanplumbing for Cistern Flush Toilets.Health Aspects/Acceptance Information cardsand/or diagrams are essential for ensuring proper useand for promoting acceptance; if users understand whythe urine is being separated they will be more willing touse the UDFT properly. Proper plumbing will ensure thatthere are no odours.Maintenance As with any toilet, proper cleaning isimportant to keep the bowl(s) clean and prevent organ-ic residues and stains from forming.Because urine is collected separately, calcium- andmagnesium-based minerals can precipitate out andbuild up in the fittings and pipes. Washing the bowl witha mild acid and/or hot water can prevent the build-upEawag-Sandec–SanitationSystemsFunctionalGroupU:UserInterfaceU.6U.6 Urine Diverting Flush Toilet (UDFT)Applicable to:System 847Inputs: Urine Faeces FlushwaterDry Cleansing Material Anal Cleansing WaterOutputs: Urine Brownwater

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