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Sabine Hoffmann, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern (DE) “How facades impact thermal comfort – a new methodology for assessment“

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The Future Envelope 12
Interreg IT-AU FACEcamp project
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Conference on Building Envelopes
20-21 May 2019, NOI Techpark, Bolzano (Italy)
"It’s all about performances".

Published in: Technology
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Sabine Hoffmann, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern (DE) “How facades impact thermal comfort – a new methodology for assessment“

  1. 1. The Future Envelope 12 final event 20-21 May 2019, Bolzano How facades impact thermal comfort : A new methodology for assessment Prof. Dr.-Ing. Sabine Hoffmann TU Kaiserslautern
  2. 2. The Future Envelope 12 final event 20-21 May 2019, Bolzano •  Future envelopes need to focus on energy reduction and users’ comfort •  Daylight and solar radiation are main influences on visual and thermal comfort •  Trades-offs are often necessary •  Solar and light management is becoming more and more important •  Detailed assessment methods are necessary Introduction 2
  3. 3. The Future Envelope 12 final event 20-21 May 2019, Bolzano What is new? •  Variable occupant positions in the space, complex room geometries •  Detailed calculation of solar radiation on body parts –  Radiance raytracing calculations –  BSDF for complex fenestration systems (shading systems) •  Transient calculation of the body’s thermo-physiological reaction –  PhySCo: Physiology model •  Transient calculation of thermal sensation and thermal comfort –  PhySCo: Sensation and Comfort model A new methodology for assessment 3
  4. 4. The Future Envelope 12 final event 20-21 May 2019, Bolzano Transient assessment of thermal comfort PhySCo Radiance 4 Building Simulation
  5. 5. The Future Envelope 12 final event 20-21 May 2019, BolzanoThe Future Envelope 12 final event 20-21 May 2019, Bolzano Calculating solar load with Radiance 5 Continuous sky Discretized sky Geometry of room and manikin Solar load on body •  Complex room geometry possible •  Varying postures and positions
  6. 6. The Future Envelope 12 final event 20-21 May 2019, BolzanoThe Future Envelope 12 final event 20-21 May 2019, Bolzano Possible workflows Conventional raytracing The Three-Phase Method with BSDF BSDF 6 •  “Point in time” •  Macro systems •  Annual calculations •  Micro systems
  7. 7. The Future Envelope 12 final event 20-21 May 2019, Bolzano PhySCo: Physiology, sensation, and comfort Skin & Core temperatures Local Solar Load (W) Local + Overall Sensation Overall Comfort T_air (°C) V_air (m/s) RH (%) Local MRT (°C) Metabolic Rate (met) Clothing type (clo) Physiology 7 Sensation Comfort Local Comfort
  8. 8. The Future Envelope 12 final event 20-21 May 2019, Bolzano 1 2 6 8 10 4 12 14 1615 13 11 9 7 5 3 Shortwave Radiation Longwave Radiation Respiration Thermoregulation Vasodilation Vasoconstriction Convection Evaporation Physiology Zhang 2003 Sensation and Comfort •  no-opposite sensation •  opposite sensation •  mean based -> acceptance •  complaint driven -> discomfort θi,j 8 Stolwijk, Tanabe PhySCo: Physiology, sensation, and comfort
  9. 9. The Future Envelope 12 final event 20-21 May 2019, Bolzano Example calculations: Thermal comfort with shading systems under clear sky conditions in Bolzano, Italy 9
  10. 10. The Future Envelope 12 final event 20-21 May 2019, Bolzano Shading systems 1.  No shade (clear glass Tvis = Tsol = 60 %) 2.  Venetian blinds 0° 3.  Venetian blinds 45° 4.  Honeycomb 5.  Prismatic glass 2 3 4 5 1 10 Reference case
  11. 11. The Future Envelope 12 final event 20-21 May 2019, Bolzano Jun 21 Sep 23Mar 20 Dec 22 Sun position 11
  12. 12. The Future Envelope 12 final event 20-21 May 2019, Bolzano 0 50 100 150 200 250 2165 2285 2405 2525 2645 2765 2885 Solarload[W] Time [hr] 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 120 240 360 480 600 720 Solarload[W] Time [hr] 0 50 100 150 200 250 1445 1565 1685 1805 1925 2045 2165 Solarload[W] Time [hr] 0 50 100 150 200 250 725 845 965 1085 1205 1325 1445 Solarload[W] Time [hr] 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 Solar load on all body segments Mar 20 Jun 21Dec 22 Sep 23 12
  13. 13. The Future Envelope 12 final event 20-21 May 2019, Bolzano -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 725 845 965 1085 1205 1325 1445 Overallsensation Time [hr] -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 0 120 240 360 480 600 720 Overallsensation Time [hr] -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 2165 2285 2405 2525 2645 2765 2885 Overallsensation Time [hr] -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 1445 1565 1685 1805 1925 2045 2165 Overallsensation Time [hr] 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 Overall sensation Mar 20 21 °C – Winter clothing Jun 21 23 °C – Summer clothing Dec 22 21 °C – Winter clothing Sep 23 23 °C – Summer clothing 13
  14. 14. The Future Envelope 12 final event 20-21 May 2019, Bolzano -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 0 120 240 360 480 600 720 Overallcomfort Time [hr] -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 725 845 965 1085 1205 1325 1445 Overallcomfort Time [hr] -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 2165 2285 2405 2525 2645 2765 2885 Overallcomfort Time [hr] -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 1445 1565 1685 1805 1925 2045 2165 Overallcomfort Time [hr] 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 Overall comfort Mar 20 21 °C – Winter clothing Jun 21 23 °C – Summer clothing Dec 22 21 °C – Winter clothing Sep 23 23 °C – Summer clothing 14
  15. 15. The Future Envelope 12 final event 20-21 May 2019, Bolzano Annual comfort performance 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Clear Blinds00 Blinds45 HnyCmb PrsmRev89 Overall Sensation -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 -5.000 -2.500 0 2.500 5.000 Clear Blinds00 Blinds45 HnyCmb PrsmRev89 Overall Comfort Weighted Nr. of hours Satisfying Dissatisfying 15
  16. 16. The Future Envelope 12 final event 20-21 May 2019, Bolzano 16 Conclusion •  Solar radiation is a main influence on thermal comfort -> PMV is not sufficient to assess thermal comfort -> Importance of (dynamic) shading systems •  Radiance can be used for detailed solar load calculations on the human body •  Detailed calculation methods are available (PhySCo) -> Human-centered assessment method
  17. 17. The Future Envelope 12 final event 20-21 May 2019, Bolzano •  PhySCo in transient building simulation to control and optimize dynamic shading systems •  Validation of results through human subject tests in the Living Lab smart office space Outlook 17

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