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UNDERSTANDING CONSUMER PURCHASING BEHAVIOUR AND CONSUMPTION IN THE ORAL CARE PRODUCT INDUSTRY (1)

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UNDERSTANDING CONSUMER PURCHASING BEHAVIOUR AND CONSUMPTION IN THE ORAL CARE PRODUCT INDUSTRY (1)

  1. 1. MKT2004 Research Methods for Business and Marketing Group Project Report Secondary Data Analysis and Qualitative Research Understanding Consumer Purchasing Behaviour and Consumption In The Oral Care Product Industry Researcher Members: CHEN CHEN – 110558091 CHING HANG HO (MIKE) – 110558231 ZIXIANG KENNETH KAN – 110558275 AMY LOUISE SCOTT – 110177940 ANGELINE TJANDRA – 110562630 ROXANNE MELISSA TUCK – 110471871 CHRISTIE LOUISE WOODHOUSE – 110108391 TIEZHENG YUAN – 110562836 Date: 3rd December 2012 Word Count: 6423 words
  2. 2. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 2 Table of Contents 5 Executive Summary 6 Introduction 6 Research Background 8 Research Problem 8 Research Aim and Objectives 9 Research Methodology 11 Analysis and Findings 11 Findings from Secondary Research 21 Findings from Focus Group 31 Findings from Personal Experience Record 32 Conclusion & Recommendations 35 Limitations 36 References 39 Appendices 39 Appendix 1 – Focus Group Moderator Guide 42 Appendix 2 – Focus Group Result Coding 57 Appendix 3 – Group Members’ Personal Experience Records
  3. 3. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 3 List of Tables 11 Table 1.1 – Most popular oral care benefits sought 21 Table 2.1 – Demographic variables 22 Table 2.2 – Functions sought after in toothpaste 23 Table 2.3 – Consumer behaviour & influence of functionalities (toothbrush) 23 Table 2.4 – Consumer behaviour & influence of functionalities (mouthwash) 23 Table 2.5 – General trends in packaging, aesthetics and flavour 24 Table 2.6 – Consumer behaviours & packaging, aesthetics and flavour (toothpaste) 25 Table 2.7 – Consumer behaviours & packaging, aesthetics and flavour (toothbrush) 26 Table 2.8 – Consumer behaviours & packaging, aesthetics and flavour (mouthwash) 27 Table 2.9 – Consumer behaviours and influence of advertisements 28 Table 2.10 – Consumer behaviours and influence of price (general trend) 29 Table 2.11 – Consumer behaviours and influence of price (toothbrush) 29 Table 2.12 – Consumer behaviours and influence of price (toothbrush) 30 Table 2.13 – Consumer behaviours and influence of price (mouthwash)
  4. 4. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 4 List of Figures 15 Figure 1.1 – Main monitored media advertising 16 Figure 1.2 – Toothpaste Brand Shares 2008 – 2011 17 Figure 1.3 – Mouthwash Brand Shares 2008 – 2011
  5. 5. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 5 Executive Summary Modern consumerism is getting increasingly sophisticated as consumers indulge in emotional buying motives. This, coupled with the competitive business landscape, makes it vital for oral care product manufacturers to gain a thorough understanding of consumer behavior in order to develop effective marketing strategies. This report seeks to understand the consumer behavior of young adults (ages 18-30) in this industry by critically analyzing two rational (Price and Product functionality) and two irrational (Advertisement and Packaging/Aesthetics) factors. Research for this report included reviews of literature on academic papers, online marketing research databases, a focus group and personal experience records. The key findings indicates that young adults are especially interested in oral care products with teeth whitening benefits, packed to be modern and professional looking, with a professional sounding name. It is also established that effective advertisements for young adults are those that has the ability to draw an association with them. Lastly, young adults have strong brand loyalty to oral care products. This report recommends that oral care product manufactures review their product naming and packaging policies whilst emphasizing on their products’ teeth whitening benefits. For more effective advertising, they could consider hiring celebrities who appeal to young adults to be their brand ambassadors in advertisements.
  6. 6. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 6 Introduction 1. Research Background “Consumer behaviour is most frequently modelled as a cognitive process, intellectual sequence of thinking, evaluating and deciding” (Foxall, 2005). As such, consumers would first be made aware of a need or want and how they can go about to fulfil it. The behavioural aspect of the consumer would then be determined by a series of thought processes. This process ranges from mentally calling on information they have on hand to acquiring information from sales people and even friends (Baker, 2003). On the other hand, Baines (2011) believes that consumer behaviour contains both rational and irrational components. In today’s age, Baines (2011) argues that consumers are more likely to “indulge in emotional buying motives” which are influenced by a buyer’s “social and psychological interpretation of the product and its performance.” Although the current marketing literature is dominated by rational theories as seen in Foxall’s definition above, it is now equally as important to consider irrational components in today’s modern world. The oral care industry is an increasingly saturated and competitive one. The difficulty faced by oral healthcare manufactures to expand or consolidate their market share is exacerbated by the dynamic marketing environment and changes in lifestyle of consumers. Vani (2010) states that “the study of consumer behaviour is concerned not only with what consumer buy, but also with why they buy it, when and how they buy it and how often they buy it”. Understanding the motives of consumers’ purchasing behaviour is thus key for oral care manufacturers to achieve their respective targets. As modern consumerism gets increasingly sophisticated, there is a gradual shift in emphasis on the markets to become more customer oriented. The significance of understanding consumer behaviour is thus made all the more important (Jain, 2010). By means of analysing two rational (Price and Product functionality) factors and two irrational (Advertisements and Packaging and aesthetics) factors, this report seeks to gain a better understanding of consumers’ behaviour in the oral healthcare products industry across three product categories; Toothbrush, Toothpaste and Mouthwash. Pricing and product functionalities are two rational factors which affects consumer behaviour. Diamantopolous (1995) suggests that price has a strong influence on consumer behaviour
  7. 7. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 7 while Euromonitor (2012) indicated that consumers are increasingly looking for value-added product functionality. The oral care industry has products with a wide selection of substitute goods (eg. numerous brands of toothpaste). In traditional economic sense, this will dictate that oral care products are highly price elastic, and therefore a lower price will bring in more profits (Baines, 2011). Yet, Euromonitor (2012) has indicated that the top 5 selling brands in the industry are all manufacturers of relatively medium-high price range products. The delicate balance of price and product functionalities will be researched in later chapters. The packaging and aesthetics factors are significant emotional elements in consumer behaviour. Euromonitor has observed that premium looking oral care products are becoming increasingly popular (2012). It is therefore imperative to explore consumer behaviour towards different forms of packaging and aesthetics to determine the right formula for the perceived “premium looking” product. Advertising is also vital to raising brand profile and promoting new products features to the market, appealing to the emotional consciousness in consumers (Mintel, 2012). Understanding the different level of impacts between the emotional and the rational aspect of an advertisement can help the industry to produce more effective marketing materials. Despite the economic downturn, oral care sector in the United Kingdom is valued at £981 million in 2011, a growth of 5% on 2010 (Euromonitor, 2012). The industry is projected to grow by a compound annual growth rate of 2% until 2016. Industry observers believe that this momentum for growth is derived from the rise in demand of oral care products due to decreasing dentist visits (Mintel, 2012). In 2011, Procter & Gamble UK Ltd re-entered the toothpaste market with the launch of the Oral-B Pro-Expert range, leading to a supermarket shelf space war. The total industry advertising expenditure reached £120 million, a 300% increase on 2010, making the oral care sector one of the most competitive among the beauty and personal care industry (Euromonitor, 2012). Youth and young adults are groups of highly innovative consumers, and revenue from new products adopted by them is a pivotal success for oral care firms (Cowart et al., 2008). Being a highly competitive landscape, oral care firms should be actively adjusting themselves to an increasingly aware consumer base (Alain, S. et al., 2001). Consumers may alter their buying
  8. 8. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 8 behaviours of oral care base on a variety of factors, including the functionalities, price, advertising materials, packaging and aesthetics. 2. Research Problem The task of consolidating and expanding market share remains a puzzling conundrum to oral healthcare manufacturers (Zuckerman, 2005). This could primarily be attributed to two reasons. Firstly, the dynamic marketing environment means that manufacturers have to be constantly kept abreast of the latest changes (Keegan, 2013). Secondly, different product categories of the oral healthcare industry are dominated by different manufacturers who have carved out a niche market in each category (Mintel, 2012). Amarchand et al (1979) argues that marketing success depends upon the company’s ability to find and satisfy customers. It is thus imperative that oral healthcare manufacturers have a succinct understanding of the consumers’ purchasing behaviour in order to develop effective marketing strategies. 3. Research Aims and Objectives This report seeks to discern consumers’ purchasing behaviour, particularly young adults (ages 18-30) in United Kingdom, of the following oral care products: toothpaste, toothbrush, and mouthwash. Four main factors (Product Functionality, Aesthetics/Packaging, Advertising, and Price) which influence consumer behaviour would be critically examined in this report and appropriate recommendations would be made from the results of this research. The key objectives of this study are outlined as follows: 1. Which function in oral care products consumers prefer the most, hygiene or cosmetic benefit? 2. How does aesthetics/packaging affect consumer behaviour? 3. How advertising can be utilised to capture consumers? 4. Is price the deciding factor in consumer purchasing behaviour?
  9. 9. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 9 Research Methodology Secondary Research The data collected in this research was mainly external secondary data from published materials and computerized databases. Books and business sources were the two main types of published materials used. Books regarding marketing research and consumer behaviour were used to provide more understanding about this study. Business source used came from mainly three categories which are directories, indexes and non-government statistics, such as Newcastle University library guides, Financial Times, and Euromonitor. Internet full-text database such as e-journals was the main type of computerized database used. The main focus of secondary research was four key factors which influences consumer behaviour in purchasing oral care products: price, advertisement, product functionality, and packaging/aesthetics. Focus Group An experiencing focus group was conducted in Newcastle University Business School room 2.10 on 14th November 2012. The focus group consists of 7 participants (4 females and 3 males) and a moderator, all personnel are researchers involved in this report. A moderator guide containing open and non-leading questions was used by the moderator to facilitate the discussion. The topics of discussion were delivered in accordance to the following themes: general pattern of consumption, top of the mind imaging, consumption of oral care products and the factors affecting purchase. The focus group lasted sixty minutes; video and audio recording was used with the approval of the participants. Four steps were taken in the analysis of focus group data. They were data assembly, data reduction, data display, and data verification. Theoretical support from secondary research, photographs, audiotape recording, and transcript were used in the process of data assembly. The transcript was then coded according to question categories in order to facilitate data reduction. Next, the organised and compressed data was displayed in table form to permit conclusion drawing. Lastly, data was verified through participant validation.
  10. 10. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 10 Personal Experience Record The personal experience records were collected from a sample size of 8 (4 males and 4 females), who are members of this research project. In this study, the duration of personal experience recorded was 2 weeks. Informants were asked to make record of their consumption in personal care and beauty products listed in the form. In the record, informants recorded the number of usage, brand name, and whether they would like to keep, change, or recommend the current brand they are using to others. Informants were asked to hand in their completed personal experience record forms at the end of study. Lastly, some trends and findings were drawn from the analysis of the records. Data Analysis Data collected from the three methods of research would then be critically examined. By means of triangulation, conclusive findings could be drawn to gain a succinct understanding of consumer behaviour. Appropriate recommendations can thus be made for oral care products manufacturers.
  11. 11. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 11 Analysis and Findings 1. Findings based on Secondary Research Functionality General Trends Hygiene and cosmetic properties are the features that can be considered in purchasing decision when looking at different oral care brands and products. Daily Mail (2009) stated that most people want to have dazzling teeth in an age when image is everything. Toothpaste has always been used since 5000BC (BBC, 2012) primarily to maintain oral hygiene. ‘Recipes for preserving and whitening teeth are everywhere, everyone from Hildegard of Bingen to Nostradamus - fennel, lovage, mint, rubbing with salt and sage, rinsing with alcohol, all have recognisable elements of modern mouth hygiene, though pulverising crystal, marble, glass, cuttlefish bone, fragmented pearls and riverbed stones into a paste makes one doubt Nostradamus' accuracy in others area of prediction’ (BBC, 2012). This reveals that while taking care of oral hygiene, teeth whitening has always been in the forefront of consumers’ minds and is a way in which people can boost their own self esteem. Table 1.1 Most popular oral care benefits sought, by demographic, November 2012 Base: 1,490 adults age 16+ who use branded item Whitens teeth Prevents cavities Kills germs and bacteria Strengthens enamel Gum disease control Tartar control % % % % % % All 66 51 49 45 40 37 Gender: Male 65 50 48 41 41 35 Female 67 53 50 49 39 38 : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
  12. 12. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 12 Whitens teeth Prevents cavities Kills germs and bacteria Strengthens enamel Gum disease control Tartar control % % % % % % All 66 51 49 45 40 37 Gender: Male 65 50 48 41 41 35 Female 67 53 50 49 39 38 Age: 16-24 75 43 53 49 26 14 25-34 76 45 51 42 35 32 (source: Mintel, 2012) Hygiene There are many functions which fall under the heading of hygiene which include decay prevention, protection against gum disease, and enamel protection. These functions can be found not only in toothpaste, but also in mouthwash and toothbrushes which have been created in order to help prevent teeth from decaying or eroding. Decay prevention is one of the most important factors within the hygiene function, as this is one of the most common features within all toothpastes and dental care. Nowadays, oral care products, such as toothpaste, mouthwash, and toothbrushes, are specialized to meet consumers’ needs. In terms of toothpaste, there are wider varieties in products which focus on decay prevention. Cosmetic Mintel (2011) suggested that when purchasing toothpaste, consumers are more likely to search for cosmetic benefits, such as teeth whitening, as opposed to hygiene benefits, such as plaque and tartar control, despite plaque and tartar build-up being the nation’s key oral health concern. This could be evident in the increasing number of teeth whitening products available to benefit the consumer’s needs, as opposed to taking into account the major concerns of tooth decay. To date, Colgate produces twelve different teeth whitening toothpastes (Colgate, 2012), compared with Sensodyne who specialize in teeth whitening for sensitive teeth, producing only four teeth whitening toothpastes (Sensodyne, 2012). Although this doesn’t
  13. 13. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 13 seem like a high number it is relatively high due to the specialized nature of Sensodyne, causing it to sell fewer products. Oral B produces only four toothpastes specifically targeting people who seek for teeth whitening (Oral B, 2012). The popularity of teeth-whitening increased tenfold in the past five years and at least 100,000 people have some form of treatment every year (Daily Mail, 2012). This is not only in toothpastes that have an increased focus on teeth whitening, but also mouthwashes that have seen advancements to appeal to the consumers wants. Listerine, who currently is the market leader in mouthwash sector, currently produces three mouthwash products which have teeth whitening function (Listerine, 2012). Colgate only produces one mouthwash, also features whitening function. Oral B attempts to meet the needs of the consumers by combining toothpaste and mouthwash which is more effective to produce whiter teeth. However, it failed to meet the high demand for mouthwash and therefore is losing out to their competitors. Oral-B’s functionality in toothbrushes is generally better that their competitors, as Oral-B is currently the leading brand within the UK toothbrush market and the top toothbrush brand recommended by dentists (Pharmacy Business, 2012). It can be seen that Oral-B sell three different types of manual and electric toothbrushes that mainly have teeth whitening function. In comparison, Colgate only sells two toothbrushes that help towards teeth whitening and Sensodyne do not sell any products specialising in this aspect. Aesthetic/Packaging General Trends Between 2006 and 2011, the oral healthcare market grew by only 2% (Mintel, 2012). In this highly saturated market, product differentiation is becoming increasingly crucial to sales. This section of the report studies the effects of aesthetics, packaging and flavour on consumer buying behaviour. As manufacturers are increasingly trying to reposition products as premium item in-store, huge attention is directed to the aesthetics of the packaging (Euromonitor, 2012). Increasingly, outer cartons and labels are designed with foil textures, embossing and holographic printing, as manufacturers believe that the luxury look will add value to the brand and that consumers are willing to pay higher prices. This belief is backed by sales reports, as the top 10 brands by
  14. 14. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 14 sales in 2011 are high cost premium products rather than cheap retailer brands (Euromonitor, 2012). The majority of non-mint oral care products are targeted at the children market, leaving very limited mint-free choices for the adult consumers (Mintel, 2012). While this may be indicative of the lack of demand for non-mint products, opportunities may be present for innovation. Toothpaste For toothpaste, the packaging device has not experience much changes in the last century. Since 1892, the tube packaging dominated consumer market (Elliott, 2010). Consumers resist new innovations in the market. Houghton, a leading UK supplier, experienced with cartonless toothpaste for 15 years nationwide in the UK to no success. Dented tube was cited as a main factor putting consumers off (Elliott, 2010). Toothbrush The manual toothbrush market is segmented into two tiers – the high end and the low end. Toothbrushes are heavily differentiated through aesthetics and packaging. The high end ones looking complex with multi-material brush heads, and the low end ones simple (Euromonitor, 2012). Manufacturers are also attempting to adopt environmental friendly packaging in an attempt to capture consumers (Packaging-Gateway, 2012). For electronic toothbrushes, packaging are increasingly designed to persuade non-users to try this branch of products, as evident in the increasing usage of packaging that allows consumers to power on the motor before purchasing (Ziobro, 2011). Mouthwash According to market data, Listerine has the widest range of packaging design and flavours in the market (Euromonitor, 2012). The top brands have very different packaging and aesthetics philosophies, with Oral-B packaged to look clinical, and Colgate and Listerine looking modern and appealing to youth.
  15. 15. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 15 Advertising General Trend Advertising is defined as ‘promotion of a product, service, or message by an identified sponsor using paid-for media’ (Marketing, 2012). In this section, the report studies the usage of advertising in the oral care industry. Advertising is vital to raising awareness of a particular brand or product. Advertising also helps to promote new products and allow consumers to appreciate their product benefits (Mintel, 2012). Some £59 million was spent on promoting oral healthcare products in 2010, with TV and press remaining the key media used by advertisers (Mintel, 2012). Big oral care product manufacturers are spending huge sum of money on advertisement to maintain and gain market share (Mintel, 2012). Figure 1.1 – Main monitored media advertising (source: Mintel, 2012) Based on the graph above, the top 4 advertisement spending companies are GlaxoSmithKline Plc, Colgate Palmolive Ltd, Johnson & Johnson Ltd and Oral B Laboratories Ltd. They occupy 40%, 22%, 14% and 10% of total advertisement expenditure in the industry respectively. GlaxoSmithKline Plc 40% Colgate Palmolive Ltd 22% Johnson & Johnson Ltd 14% Oral B Laboratories Ltd 10% Church & Dwight UK Ltd 4% Fresh Breath Ltd 2% Others 8% Main monitored media advertising, by company, 2010
  16. 16. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 16 Besides that, toothpaste sector accounts for 49% of advertisement-spending (adspend) (Mintel, 2012). Mouthwash occupies a third of total adspend in 2010, with expenditure rising by a third in 2010. (Mintel, 2012). Figure 1.2 – Toothpaste Brand Shares 2008 – 2011 (source: Euromonitor, 2012) From the graph, Colgate has the highest brand share of 45.4% in 2011, followed by Sensodyne at 16.7% and Oral-B has 3.1%. The sales of toothpaste have increased by almost 3% in 2011, which is the fastest of all sectors. This is primarily driven by the launch of Oral-B Pro-Expert Toothpaste in August 2011 (Mintel, 2012). Toothpaste sector accounts for 43% share of oral care sales in 2011, ahead of the toothbrush sector’s 29%. However, the fastest growing sector is mouthwash, it grew by 27% between 2006 and 2011 (Mintel, 2012). 14.3 15.5 16.7 16.7 42.5 41.7 46.5 45.4 0 0 0 3.1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 2008 2009 2010 2011 %retailvaluersp Year Toothpaste Brand Shares 2008-2011 Sensodyne Colgate Oral-B
  17. 17. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 17 Figure 1.3 – Mouthwash Brand Shares 2008 – 2011 (source: Euromonitor, 2012) From the graph, Listerine has the highest brand share of 43.4%, followed by Colgate at 12.2% and Oral-B at 2.7%. Characteristics of Oral Care Market Mintel discovered that over 50% of adults are concerned about stained teeth, with two thirds looking for toothpastes which have teeth-whitening properties. Under-35s are more concerned about their physical appearance than older consumers and they are more likely to try teeth-whitening treatments. Besides that, single adults are more likely to be interested in trying professional teeth-whitening treatments compared to married adults. Furthermore, advertisement featuring Hollywood superstars with whitened teeth makes most people to aspire to have their teeth whitened (Mintel, 2012). Sensitive teeth and cavities are adults’ other major oral health concerns. A survey done by Oral-B in 2011 found that four in ten patients cancelled dental appointments because they could not afford. The survey also reviewed that consumers are turning to their pharmacists for dental advice to avoid the cost of visiting their dentist (Mintel, 2012). The Oral-B survey identifies that around 10% of consumers said they were consulting a pharmacist, with almost a third of these consumers doing so because the advice was free. 41.5 44.5 45.7 43.4 12.6 11.5 12.1 12.2 1.4 2.1 2.4 2.7 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 2008 2009 2010 2011 %retailvaluersp Year Mouthwashes Brand Shares 2008-2011 Listerine Colgate Plax Oral-B
  18. 18. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 18 Advertisement activities by company 1. GlaxoSmithKline In August 2010, Sensodyne launched a three-week national television campaign, featuring Sensodyne Total Care Gentle Whitening, Sensodyne Rapid Relief and Sensodyne Total Care Extra Fresh. The campaign used endorsement from dentists for the first time. Besides that, GlaxoSmithKline also allocated 17% (£4 million) of its advertising budget to promote its Corsodyl mouthwash with its ‘gorgeous’ TV ad. 2. Colgate-Palmolive Colgate’s Sensitive Pro-Relief brand, which was launched in August 2010, was backed by £5.4 million in advertising support during 2010, giving it the highest adspend in the oral care category in 2011. July 2011, Colgate introduced a £4 million TV campaign to promote the launch of Colgate Total Advanced Enamel Protection. The TV push was backed by press and digital activity. As part of the campaign, 50ml packs of Total Advanced Enamel Protection were given away with selected Colgate 360° toothbrushes. Furthermore, Colgate also uses Facebook to raise its brand awareness. For example, it encourages Facebook users to upload photos on their page. It also encourages people to comment or ‘like’ these photos. As part of its advertisement effort, Colgate also sponsored breakfast shows across the radio network in May 2011. In September 2012, Colgate is making aggressive efforts to maintain its market share against the return of Oral-B in toothpaste sector (Euromonitor, 2012a). A £1 million “Oral health month” campaign was organised to drive awareness of dental healthcare and hygiene. The campaign was supported by social networking sites and TV. It also included roadshows in 50 retailer locations across the UK, also supported by dental practitioners and in-store sampling. 3. Johnson & Johnson Brand communications activity included the use of illuminated panels on buses to complement TV and radio activity, to support its Listerine Total Care Sensitive range, which was launched in May 2010. In June 2011, Listerine rolled out its ‘Mouth vs. Life’ video campaign on YouTube to promote the importance of oral care.
  19. 19. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 19 4. Oral-B In May 2010, Oral-B launched ‘Seize Power Today’ TV campaign to promote its power toothbrush. The TV campaign was supported by print, online and in-store activity, which included a 50% discount offer on a number of Oral-B power toothbrushes. In February 2011, Oral-B signed Dr James Russell, Director of the British Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (BACD), as brand ambassador. The partnership is likely to add more weight to Oral-B’s positioning of being the ‘the toothbrush brand dentists recommend and use worldwide’. Oral-B re-entered the toothpaste category in 2011 with its Oral-B Pro-Expert range after spending 15 years in R&D and being approved after more than 70 scientific studies. In July 2011, the company gave away 10 million samples through dentists and another 10 million samples through on-line and retail channels (Euromonitor, 2012b). Price General Trend Despite the current sluggish economic climate, consumers are unlikely to cut back on their oral hygiene spending as people view this as a grooming necessity. However, research has suggested that nearly a quarter (22% for both toothpaste and mouthwash and 26% for toothbrush) of respondents surveyed, purchases whatever brands that are on promotion (Mintel, 2012). This could be attributed to the reason that consumers strive to keep to their household budget low. This research also shows that 20% of consumers purchase the cheapest available oral care product. There are many factors which affect consumer behaviour. However, pricing is believed to be one of the most important aspects of consumer motives (Kin and Jin, 2001). This part of the report seeks to address the relevance of this factor in the oral healthcare industry by means of comparisons with other determinants of consumer behaviour such as product functionality, brand loyalty and socioeconomic group standing.
  20. 20. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 20 Functionality The functionality of the product (whitening, plaque and tartar control, strengthening enamel etc.) is also a key consideration made by consumers when purchasing oral care products. According to the British dental health, electric powered toothbrushes removes plaque 25% more efficiently as compared to conventional brushes while a study conducted by Mintel has forecasted the sales of electric powered toothbrush to increase. Brand Loyalty A recent study revealed that 80% of respondents’ consumer behaviour is likely to be influence by brand loyalty (Batra et al, 2012). Batra’s research findings has been substantiated by market research results gathered by Mintel where more than a quarter of those surveyed choose to always purchase the same brand when shopping for oral care products (38% for toothpaste, 30% for toothbrush and 25% for mouthwash). Socio-economic Group Mintel (2012) reports that brand switching occur prominently among those who belong to the income-squeezed group and stay in the North West of the country and this purchasing behaviour is most prevalent in the socio-economic group with household income < £9,500. On the contrary, 53% of the respondents surveyed disagreed, when asked if they would purchase the cheapest product available.
  21. 21. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 21 Analysis and Findings 2. Findings based on Focus Group Functionality Majority of participants are more concerned with teeth whitening than decay prevention. Responses from the focus group found that consumers do not just look for teeth whitening function at the point of purchase, but will also consult in friends who have significantly whiter teeth. In addition, those who do not look for both functions, whitening and decay prevention, naturally assume that all toothpastes prevent decay. However, they consciously seek out whitening properties as an extra benefit. Table 2.1 – Demographic Variables Demographic variable Number of respondents Percentage Age (Years) 18 – 20 21 – 23 24 – 26 26 – 30 4 1 2 0 57% 14% 29% 0% Gender Male Female 3 4 43% 57% Educational Qualification Up to primary Up to secondary Up to tertiary 0 0 7 0% 0% 100% Monthly Income Below £500 £500 - £800 £801 - £1000 £1000 or more 2 3 2 0 29% 42% 29% 0%
  22. 22. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 22 When considering toothbrushes, the majority of participants use manual toothbrush. The significantly higher cost of electrical toothbrush is cited as a main reason why consumers are hesitant in its purchase. However, they agree that electrical toothbrushes are generally better at cleaning teeth, and will try them when given more disposal income. This implies that unlike the case with toothpaste, consumers are primarily concerned with the decay prevention functions of toothbrush. Participants too stated that their most wanted new functionality for toothbrush is teeth whitening. Table 2.2 – Functions sought after in toothpaste Functions (multiple selections) Number of responses Percentage Whitening Hygiene Sensitivity Fresh Breath 7 0 3 1 100% 0% 43% 14% Table 2.3 – Consumer behaviour & influence of functionalities (toothbrush) Variables Number of respondents Percentage Electrical Toothbrush Usage Yes No 1 6 14% 86% Reason for non-usage of electrical toothbrush Too expensive Not significantly better Same as manual toothbrush Worse than manual toothbrush 5 1 0 1 72% 14% 0% 14% Is electrical toothbrush better than manual toothbrush (any degree) Yes No 6 1 86% 14% New functions wanted in toothbrush Whitening Personalisation More brush head sizes More grip sizes 4 1 1 1 58% 14% 14% 14%
  23. 23. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 23 For mouthwash, none of the participants use it for cosmetic effects. It is used for hygiene concerns (decay prevention and enamel protection) and fresh breath. Those who do not use mouthwash have reported a variety of reason including the burning feelings. Aesthetic, Packaging & Flavour General Trends The focus group found that consumers will pay a higher price for premium products. When shown a variety of toothpastes and mouthwashes, products with premium packaging are often stated as the preferred choice over basic budget products. The naming of products is also a deciding factor for consumers, as premium-sounding products are preferred. Table 2.4 – Consumer behaviour & influence of functionalities (mouthwash) Variables Number of respondents Percentage Regular usage of mouthwash Yes No 4 3 57% 43% Reason for regular usage Hygiene Fresh breath Like the feeling Cosmetics 2 2 0 0 50% 50% 0% 0% Reason for non-regular usage Burning feeling Effects not significant No habit Too expensive 1 1 1 0 33% 33% 33% 0% Table 2.5 – General trends in packaging, aesthetics and flavour Variables Number of respondents Percentage Preferred flavours Mint Strong mint Mild Mint Non-mint 4 1 2 0 57% 14% 29% 0%
  24. 24. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 24 In term of flavours, consumers prefer familiarity to innovation. The focus group found that all consumers prefer mint-based flavours for their oral care products, and majority will be hesitant to try out a new innovative flavour. The focus group participants cited “not clean enough feeling” as a primary concern for non-mint products. Therefore, there is a speculative demand for a new flavour that is robust at bacteria killing and can offer consumers this desired ‘clean feel’. Toothpaste The focus group found that innovations such as pump mechanisms are not catching on with consumers, who generally find it more of a hassle than convenience. Table 2.6 – Consumer behaviours & packaging, aesthetics and flavour (toothpaste) Variables Number of respondents Percentage Preference of toothpaste based on name of product Smile Whitening Freshmint Toothpaste Total Advanced Whitening Pro Expert Whitening Gentle Whitening 0 3 4 0 0% 43% 57% 0% Preference of toothpaste based on packaging of product Boots Smile Whitening Freshmint Toothpaste Colgate Total Advanced Whitening Oral-B Pro Expert Whitening Sensodyne Gentle Whitening 0 2 4 1 0% 29% 57% 14% Preference for pump mechanism Yes No No interest in trying 0 4 3 0% 57% 43%
  25. 25. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 25 Toothbrush When shown product samples from two price tiers, focus group participants are overwhelmingly favouring the more lush looking toothbrushes. The flagship product lines from top brands, such as the Colgate 360°® and the Oral-B CrossAction® toothbrushes, are characterised by their complex looking coloured bristles, mixtures of materials used, and thick rubber grips. These are more than simply functionality features. Majority of participants agree that these toothbrushes brush better than simple budget toothbrushes, basing their judgement on only visuals. They too generally agree that they will pay the premium price for these products. Other than the aesthetics factors, participants also judge toothbrushes based on their packaging. Singly packed toothbrushes are agreed to be more functional than multi-packs, as the latter is deemed to be of the budget range. Participants also generally agree that the design and aesthetics of electronic toothbrushes make them look superior to manual toothbrush at maintaining oral hygiene. However, they find the better looks do not justify the significantly higher price. Mouthwash In the aesthetic and packaging section, focus group participants are equally split in opinions. When shown a variety of products, participants generally agree on the point that the Oral-B mouthwash packaging is designed to look clinical and professional, while the Listerine mouthwash packaging is designed to be cool and modern. However, while half the Table 2.7 – Consumer behaviours &packaging, aesthetics and flavour (toothbrush) Variables Number of respondents Percentage Preference of toothbrush based on visual Oral-B CrossAction® (complex looking) Colgate budget range (plain looking) 7 0 100% 0% Willingness to purchase after discovery of price Oral-B CrossAction® (£3.5) Colgate budget range (3 for £1.5) 7 0 100% 0%
  26. 26. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 26 participants stated their preference for the clinical look, the other half are more supportive of the modern look. Mouthwash colour is also found to be an important part of aesthetics that determine consumer behaviour. Majority of the participants reject colours such as yellow or purple, typically found in Listerine products. They do not find such colours to be in line with the mouthwash’s cleaning and hygiene purposes. Overwhelmingly, the preferred colour for mouthwash is clear blue or green. Table 2.8 – Consumer behaviours & packaging, aesthetics and flavour (mouthwash) Variables Number of respondents Percentage Preference of mouthwash based on product names Plax Mouthwash Multi Protection Multi-Protection Mouthwash Total Care Mouthwash 0 5 2 0% 71% 29% Preference of mouthwash based on product packagings Colgate Plax Mouthwash Multi Protection Oral-B Multi-Protection Mouthwash Listerine Total Care Mouthwash 0 3 4 0% 43% 57% State the more clinical/ professional looking packaging Colgate Plax Mouthwash Multi Protection Oral-B Multi-Protection Mouthwash Listerine Total Care Mouthwash 1 6 0 14% 86% 0% Preference of colour Blue Green Purple, yellow, others 5 2 0 71% 29% 0%
  27. 27. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 27 Advertisement Major oral care companies, such as Colgate, Sensodyne, and Oral-B, use dentist recommendation as one of their primary advertisement. From the focus group result, it is found that dentist recommendation gives big impact on consumer behaviour while purchasing oral care product as majority of the participants agreed that they will buy a brand that is recommended by their dentist. However, using dentist as primary advertisement is not effective because none has been actively recommended any oral care product brands by the dentist. Variables (multiple selections) Number of responses Percentage Reasons for switching brand Peer recommendation 0 0% Effects seen on peers 5 71% Price 1 14% Advertisement 0 0% Dentist recommendation 7 100% Interest in advertisements Oral-B 6 86% Colgate 0 0% Sensodyne 1 14% Listerine 3 43% Most seen form of advertisement TV 3 43% Internet 3 43% In-store 1 14% Print media 0 0% On the other hand, TV and Internet are the types of advertisement most participants come across most of the time. Whilst the participants have been showed some sample of TV commercial from some major brands (Colgate, Sensodyne, Oral-B, and Listerine), Oral-B toothpaste advertisement which featured by "All By Myself" song interests the majority. Another important aspect is effects seen on peers play a role in consumers’ decision to switch brand as majority tend to choose the product that can guarantee whitening effect. Table 2.9 – Consumer behaviours and influence of advertisements
  28. 28. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 28 Price General Trend The result of our focus group indicate similar findings: price is a huge consideration when buying most of the oral care products. When asked about the prices that members are willing to pay for toothpaste and toothbrush, the majority will pay between £1.5 and £3.5. However, the majority will spend more on toothbrush and mouthwash but not for toothpaste if they have a higher disposable income (DI). This could be because toothpaste in the price category that most respondents would pay for would already sufficiently satisfy them. Functionality is the reason behind the preference of using electrical toothbrush instead of a manual one as the majority of the focus group’s respondents felt that it would clean their teeth more effectively. This was evident in the mouthwash category as well as it was stated that one would purchase a mouthwash with teeth whitening functionality should he have a higher DI. Table 2.10 – Consumer behaviours and influence of price (general trend) Variables Number of responses Percentage Usual price paid for toothpaste (75-100ml) <£1.5 £1.5 - £3 £3 - £4.5 >£4.5 0 6 1 0 0% 86% 14% 0% Usual price paid for toothbrush <£1.5 £1.5 - £3.5 >£3.5 1 5 1 14% 72% 14% Usual price paid for mouthwash (500ml) <£1.5 £1.5 - £3.5 >£3.5 0 4 3 0% 57% 43%
  29. 29. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 29 Toothbrush Findings from the report suggests that people would be willing to pay more for a toothbrush that provided better product functionality (e.g. ability to clean teeth more effectively) given a higher disposable income. Toothpaste The majority believe that more expensive toothpaste provides better functionality. Contrary to the general trend, the majority of members opt not to purchase more expensive toothpastes if they have a higher disposable income and are only willing to pay for toothpaste in the price range from £1.50 to £4.50. This shows that respondents believe that toothpaste in this price range would clean their teeth just as effectively as any other more premium priced toothpaste. Table 2.11 – Consumer behaviours and influence of price (toothbrush) Variables Number of responses Percentage Willingness to spend more when disposable income rises Yes No 7 0 100% 0% Table 2.12 – Consumer behaviours and influence of price (toothpaste) Variables Number of responses Percentage More expensive toothpaste will come with better functionalities Yes No 5 2 72% 28% Willingness to spend more when disposable income rises Yes No 1 6 14% 86%
  30. 30. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 30 Mouthwash The findings show that half of the members don’t use mouthwash. The reason varies but none mentioned that the price of mouthwash is so expensive that it hinders them using it. In this perspective, price is not a large concern for members. Those who use mouthwash, choose to use Listerine instead of other brands. Furthermore, the majority rejected the situational promotion offer by Oral-B when asked if they would choose to buy a toothpaste and mouthwash packaged together at a promotional price. Even with an incentive of price reduction, members still choose not to purchase Oral-B mouthwash together with the toothpaste. It can thus be seen that brand loyalty plays a significant role in the mouthwash category. Participant Validation All participants of the focus group have verified the transcript and result coding, and agree that the findings used in this report is representative of their opinions. Table 2.13 – Consumer behaviours and influence of price (mouthwash) Variables Number of respondents Percentage Willingness to purchase an Oral-B promotional package (toothpaste & mouthwash) Yes No 2 5 57% 43%
  31. 31. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 31 Analysis and Findings 3. Findings based on Personal Experience Record From the personal experience records, it can be seen that majority of the members, who use mouthwash either regularly or occasionally, choose Listerine and are more likely to keep using that brand. It is also found that Oral-B is the brand that majority use for toothbrush, followed by Colgate. In toothpaste sector, majority of the members use Colgate. Ultimately, it is found that majority choose to stay with their current and less likely to change. It also can be seen that in different product category (toothbrush, toothpaste, and mouthwash), the brands that majority use are different.
  32. 32. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 32 Conclusion & Recommendations Conclusion Several conclusions can be made regarding the purchasing behavior of young adults (18-30 years old) on oral care products, after studying the data collected from secondary research, focus group and personal experience record. This section of the report will answer the research questions by drawing on the findings in all three sections of the research. Firstly, young adults are looking for teeth whitening attribute, which is one of cosmetic benefits, in oral care products. From secondary research, 75% of those age 16 – 25 and 76% of those age 25 - 34 are interested in whitening benefit in oral care products. In addition, more than 50% of adults are concerned about stained teeth. This is further supported by focus group, where majority of participants chose teeth whitening as the most important function. Hence, cosmetic benefit is preferred over hygiene. Secondly, modern looking packaging and professional product name for oral care products have a big impact on consumer behaviour. Under the aesthetic section of secondary research it mentioned that sophisticated looking packaging adds value to the brand. The findings from focus group substantiate this point, where majority participants favouring lush looking toothbrush over those with simple design. Besides that, participants also associate modern design with quality. In addition, from focus group findings, product name with phrase such as total advance and pro expert are preferred by young adults. This is because they sound professional and gives the impression that they are of good quality. Thirdly, young adults are more interested in advertisements that they can associate with and they are more likely to purchase these products. Both data from secondary research and focus group supports this point. From secondary research, it discovered that most people would aspire to have their teeth whitened after watching advertisement featuring Hollywood star with whitened teeth. In addition, findings from focus group suggested that majority participants preferred the advertisement with the theme song ‘All By Myself’. In both scenarios, young adults were attracted to advertisement featuring something/someone that they are familiar and able to associate with. Lastly, it is found that young adults have strong brand loyalty on oral care products. Based on secondary research findings, more than a quarter of young adults always purchase the same brand when shopping for oral care products. This finding is further supported by focus group,
  33. 33. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 33 where majority of participants rarely switch brand however when they do it is due to certain factors such as creative advertisements and improved functionality. Furthermore, the data from personal experience record also shows that majority of participants did not switch brand for a substantial period of time. Apart from that, price is not a major concern for young adults. This can be seen from secondary research where 53% of the population disagreed when asked if they would purchase the cheapest product available. In addition, majority of participants said ‘no’ when asked will they buy a package of toothpaste and mouthwash at promotional price. Overall, price is not the deciding factor in consumer purchasing behaviour. Recommendations Based on the research findings, four recommendations were made for oral care industry to enhance their marketing effort. Firstly, there could be more advertisement targeting young single adults. It would be advantageous to capture consumers from 18-30 years old category. This is because they tend to be brand loyal and would form a regular customer base for oral care product manufacturers, such as Oral-B. Besides that, young single adults are more images conscious and are more likely to try products that have cosmetic benefits. Manufacturers could focus their advertising efforts in trade areas with high concentration of young people. For example, advertisements could be put up on university newspaper and radio. There could also be some on-campus promotion where samples are given away. In addition, manufacturers could target single adults by advertising their products on online dating websites such as match.com, datingdirect.com and speeddater.co.uk. Furthermore, manufacturers could also advertise at pubs and nightclubs where there are more image conscious single adults. Next, oral care product manufacturers, such as Oral-B, could advertise through celebrities in its television and online advertisements, emphasizing cosmetic benefits. As stated in conclusion, young adults are interested in advertisements that they can associate with. Furthermore, findings from focus group show that young adults come across television and online advertisements most often. Facebook and Youtube are some good online advertisement channels however based on secondary research findings, manufacturers, such as Oral-B, under-utilized these channels. Most importantly, celebrities in the advertisement should emphasis on the cosmetic benefits of the product for instance whitening effect. This is primarily because young adults sought after oral care products that have cosmetic benefits.
  34. 34. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 34 Oral care product manufacturers could balance between modern and professional design for its packaging and product design. Based on focus group research, 50% of participants find packaging that looks clinical and professional boring and dull. Hence, by striking a balance between looking modern and professional, majority of young adults would welcome it. Besides that, it is also recommended that manufacturers have clear blue and green as their mouthwash color. Based on focus group finding, clear blue and green are the two most preferred colors for mouthwash and young adults are more likely to purchase it. Lastly, manufacturers could choose a professional name for its products. It is advisable to use words such as advance, professional and expert in its product name. Based on focus group finding, participants preferred more professional sounding product name. This is simply because young adults associate professional product name with good quality.
  35. 35. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 35 Limitations Secondary research was majorly based on external secondary source, as there is a lack of internal secondary data from the oral care manufacturers in the market. As a result it was difficult to gather valuable information on the manufacturers’ marketing strategy and their understanding of consumer behaviour in the oral care industry. There is a problem of fit with the secondary data collected. Some of the data collected were for other purposes and there is no direct link to the study of consumer behaviour on oral care products. As a result, the data collected did not fit the research problem perfectly. Besides that, it was difficult to find information specifically targeting 18-30 years old age category. There was only one focus group conducted in this study. There were no later groups to generate additional insight into the phenomenon under study. As a result, the finding developed lack representation with regard to the target population. More focus group should be conducted in order to give a better representation of the target population. There was no screening done during the selection of focus group participants. As a result, the focus group was too heterogeneous, compromising a mixture of males and females of different cultural background. More focus groups with differences maximized between groups and minimized within groups will produce richer information about every demographic group. Result triangulation, a process of cross-checking focus group results with prior researches in the industry and conduct further interviews to verify any contradictions, was not conducted in this research report due to time limitation. Conducting this process can ensure the validity of results and discover new finding. The sample size of the personal experience record was too small and it did not provide an accurate representation of the target population. In addition, the time period of the record was too short. Furthermore, the questions asked were too few and too general. Due to all these factors, limited information was being extracted; as a result, comparisons with secondary and focus group findings were limited.
  36. 36. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 36 References Alain, S. et al. (2001) ‘New developments in marketing communications and consumer behavior’, Journal of Business Research, 53 (2), pp.59-61. [online] Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com.libproxy.ncl.ac.uk/science/article/pii/S0148296399000752 (Accessed: 22 November 2012) Baines, P., Fill, C., & Page, K. (2011) Marketing. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Baker, M. J. (2003) The Marketing Book. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann. BBC (2012) A point of View: Mouthing off. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-19748199 (Accessed: 6 November 2012) Boots (2012) Electric Toothbrushes . [online] Available at: http://www.boots.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/CategoryDisplay?langId=- 1&Ntk=DIM_PARENT_CATEGORY_IDS&Nr=AND%28DIM_PREMIUM_BRAND_FL AG%3aN%2cDIM_PARENT_PRODUCT_ID%3aIS_PARENT%29&catalogId=11051&cat egoryParentId=15292695&Ne=2&Rpp=12&Ntt=4682&storeId=10052&Ntx=mode%2bmatc hall&Ns=P_IS_HERO_PRODUCT%7c1%7c%7cCAT_SEQ_4682&N=478&categoryId=46 82&st=category. (Accessed: 1 November 2012) Boots (2012) Toothbrushes . [online] Available at: http://www.boots.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/EndecaSearchListerView?storeId=10052& searchTerm=toothbrush&catalogId=11051&langId=- 1&searchTerm=toothbrush&t1_N=4294949821_4#container. (Accessed: 1 November 2012) Chartered Institute Marketing (CIM) (2012) Glossary: Advertising. [online] Available at: http://www.cim.co.uk/Resources/JargonBuster.aspx (Accessed: 1 November 2012 ) Colgate (2012) Tooth Whitening. [online] Available at: http://www.colgate.com/app/CP/US/EN/OC/Information/Articles/Cosmetic-Dentistry/Tooth- Whitening/Tooth-Whitening-Basics/article/Tooth-Whitening.cvsp (Accessed: 5 November 2012) Cowart, K. O., Fox, G. L. and Wilson, A. E. (2008) ‘A structural look at consumer innovativeness and self-congruence in new product purchases’, Psychology & Marketing, 25(12), pp. 1111-1130.
  37. 37. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 37 Daily Mail (2009) Teeth-whitening sales soar 15% as Britons grow more image conscious. [online] Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1157482/Teeth-whitening- sales-soar-15-Britons-grow-image-conscious.html (Accessed: 6 November 2012) Diamantopoulos, A. and Mathews, B. (1995) Making pricing decisions: a study of managerial practice. London: Chapman & Hall. Elliott, D. (2010) Markets: Toothpaste seeks fresh ideas. [online] Available at: http://www.packagingnews.co.uk/news/markets-toothpaste-seeks-fresh-ideas/ (Accessed: 11 November 2012) Euromonitor International (2012a) Colgate-Palmolive UK Ltd In Beauty and Personal Care (United Kingdom). Euromonitor International (2012b) Oral Care in the United Kingdom. Jain, A. (2010) Principles of Marketing. India: Victory of Knowledge. Keegan, W. J. and Green, M. C. (2013) Global marketing. London: Pearson. Kim, J. O. and Jin, B. (2001) ‘Korean Consumers’ Patronage of Discount Stores: Domestic vs. Multinational Discount Stores Shoppers’ Profile’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18(3), pp. 236-255. Mintel (2011) A breath of fresh air as sales of mouthwash boom. [online] Available at: http://www.mintel.com/press-centre/press-releases/688/a-breath-of-fresh-air-as-sales-of- mouthwash-boom (Accessed: 6 November 2012) Mintel (2012) Oral Healthcare - UK - January 2012. United Kingdom: Mintel. Packaging-Gateway (2012). P&G adopts sustainable packaging for toothbrush - Packaging Gateway. [online] Available at: http://www.packaging-gateway.com/news/newspg-adopts- sustainable-packaging-for-toothbrush (Accessed: 27 November 2012) Pharmacy Business (2011) Oral B - the leading brand in the UK toothbrush market. [online] Available at: http://www.pharmacy.biz/Newsdetails.aspx?HeadlineID=959 (Accessed: 5 November 2012) Rajeev, Batra (2012) ‘Brand Love’, Journal of Marketing, 2(76), pp.1-16. [online] Available at: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=9&sid=df02805d-2e70-4c47-91ed-
  38. 38. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 38 982f79108768%40sessionmgr14&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=buh& AN=71960581 (Accessed: 1 November 2012) Vani, G. and Babu, M. G. (2010) Toothpaste Brands – A Study of Consumer Behavior in Bangalore City. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 1(1), pp.27-39. Available at: http://www.ifrnd.org/JEBS/1(1)%20Dec%2010/Toothpaste%20Brands_A%20Study%20of% 20consumer%20behavior.pdf (Accessed: 21 November 2012) Ziobro, P. (2011) Church & Dwight Sues Colgate Over Toothbrush Packaging. [online] Available at: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704615504576172360509745644.html (Accessed: 27 November 2012) Zuckerman, A. (2005) ‘Growth in the trenches: increasing market share’, Healthcare Financial Management, 59(2), pp.106-108.
  39. 39. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 39 Appendices 1. Appendix 1 – Focus Group Moderator Guide i) General Patterns • Do you use toothpaste and toothbrush as your primary tools for cleaning? • How often do you brush your teeth? • How much do you usually spend on toothpaste? • How much are you willing to spend on toothpaste? • Which form of oral care product advertisement do you come across most often? e.g. TV, Magazine, Social Media ii) Top of the Mind Image • What brand comes to mind when you hear the word "toothpaste"? • State your preference/ what do you think about these toothpastes? (words) o Colgate Total Advanced Whitening o Oral-B Pro Expert Whitening o Boots Smile Whitening Freshmint Toothpaste o Sensodyne Gentle Whitening • State your preference/ what do you think about these toothpastes? (picture) iii) Consumption • How often do you buy toothpaste • Have you ever discussed toothpaste with your friends? • How often do you visit a dentist? • Did any dentist recommend you any brand? • Which brand? • Did you follow dentist recommendation? • If no, why? iv) Factors affecting purchase/non-purchase
  40. 40. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 40 • What functions do you look for in toothpaste? • What is the most important function? • Are there any other properties that interest you when you are purchasing toothpaste? • Do you have a preferred flavour? Why and why not? • Have you seen/ used toothpaste with pump packaging mechanism before? a. What do you think is good/ bad about this type of packaging? b. If you like it, how much more will you be willing to pay for it? c. Will you switch brand just for this type of packaging? • Show advertisement video o Which advertisement most interests you? o Why? o Would you switch brand after watching the advertisement (if the brand is different from what u are using)? • Have you ever discussed oral care products with your friends? o If yes. Which brand is most widely mentioned? o Have any of your friend/s recommend oral care products to you? o If yes. Which brand? o Would you switch brand if the brand recommended is different from what you are using currently? o Yes/no. Why? v) Perceived Outcomes • What factor with regards to packaging/flavour would make you stop using toothpaste? • Have you ever switch brand? • Yes. Why? • No. why do you carry on with your current brand? • Of the oral care advertisements you watched, which brand is most credible to you?
  41. 41. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 41 • Why? • Is it the same with the brand you are using? vi) Future Behavior If you have more disposable income, will you buy better but more expensive oral care product?
  42. 42. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 42 2. Appendix 2 – Focus Group Result Coding Participants Number Code Kenneth 1 Roxanne 2 Amy 3 Christie 4 Mike 5 Angeline 6 Tiezheng 7 Do you use toothbrush and toothpaste as your primary tool for cleaning? Participant Yes No 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Do you use toothbrush and toothpaste as your primary tool for cleaning Participant Number of times 1 or 2 2 or 3 3 or more 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  How often do you buy toothpaste? Participant Once in 2 weeks Once in 4 weeks Once in 6 weeks or > 1  2  3  4  5  6  7 
  43. 43. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 43 Whom have you discussed toothpaste with? Participant Friend Family Dentist Colleague No one 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Whom have you discussed toothpaste with? (Cross-Tabulation) Participant Friend Family Dentist Colleague No one Boy 0 1 0 0 2 Girl 1 1 1 0 1 How often do you buy toothbrush? Participant Once in 1–2 mths Once in 3 mths Once in > 3 mths Whenever it is worn out 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Whom have you discussed toothbrush with? Participant Friend Family Dentist Colleague No one 1  2  3  4  5  6  7 
  44. 44. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 44 Do you use mouthwash regularly? Participant Yes No 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  For those who do use mouthwash regularly, why? Participant Hygiene Fresh Breath Like the feeling Cosmetics 2  4  5  6  For those who do not use mouthwash regularly, why? Participant Burns No significantly added hygiene Do not have the habit Too expensive 1  3  7  How often do you buy mouthwash? Participant Once in 1–2 mths or more Once in >= 3 mths Not at all 1  2  3  4  5  6  7 
  45. 45. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 45 Whom have you discussed mouthwash with? Participant Friend Family Dentist Colleague No one 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Do you all agree that Listerine is the preferred brand of mouthwash? Participant Yes No 1  2  3 NA NA 4  5  6  7  What do you look for in functions of toothpaste? Participant Whitening Hygiene Sensitivity Fresh Breath 1   2   3  4  5  6   7   What do you look for in functions of toothpaste? (Cross-Tabulation) Participant Whitening Hygiene Sensitivity Fresh Breath Males 3 0 1 1 Females 4 0 2 0
  46. 46. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 46 Do you expect all toothpaste to kill bacteria, therefore not looking for that function in toothpastes specifically? Participant Yes No 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Do you use an electrical toothbrush? Participant Yes No 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Why do you not use an electrical toothbrush? Participant Too expensive Not significant better Same as manual Worse than manual 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Do you think electrical toothbrush is better than manual toothbrush? Participant Yes No 1  2  3  4  5  6  7 
  47. 47. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 47 What new functions/ improvements do you want to see in toothbrushes? Participant Whitening Personalization More brush head sizes More grip sizes 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Just looking at the names of these toothpaste, which one will you prefer the least? Participant Smile Whitening Freshmint Toothpaste Total Advanced Whitening Pro Expert Whitening Gentle Whitening 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Just looking at the names of these toothpaste, which one will you prefer? Participant Smile Whitening Freshmint Toothpaste Total Advanced Whitening Pro Expert Whitening Gentle Whitening 1  2  3  4  5  6  7 
  48. 48. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 48 Now after seeing the packaging of these toothpaste, which one will you prefer? Participant Boots Smile Whitening Freshmint Toothpaste Colgate Total Advanced Whitening Oral-B Pro Expert Whitening Sensodyne Gentle Whitening 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Now after seeing the packing of these toothpaste, which one will you prefer? Participant Boots Smile Whitening Freshmint Toothpaste Colgate Total Advanced Whitening Oral-B Pro Expert Whitening Sensodyne Gentle Whitening 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Now after seeing the packing of these toothpaste, which one will you prefer least? Participant Boots Smile Whitening Freshmint Toothpaste Colgate Total Advanced Whitening Oral-B Pro Expert Whitening Sensodyne Gentle Whitening 1  2  3  4  5  6  7 
  49. 49. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 49 Do you have any preferred flavours? Participant Mint Strong Mint Mild Mint Non-Mint 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Do you like the pump mechanism? Participant Yes No No interest in trying 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  What brand comes to mind when you think of toothbrush? Participant Oral-B Colgate Sensodyne Others 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Looking at these 2 sample toothbrushes, which one do you think is better? Participant Oral-B (more complex looking) Colgate (plain) 1  2  3  4  5  6  7 
  50. 50. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 50 Will you pay £3.5 for product one after learning that product is 1/3 the price? Participant Yes No 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Just looking at the product names, which one do you prefer? Participant Plax Mouthwash Multi Protection Multi-Protection Mouthwash Total Care Mouthwash 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Now looking at the product, which one do you prefer? Participant Colgate Plax Mouthwash Multi Protection Oral-B Multi- Protection Mouthwash Listerine Total Care Mouthwash 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Ignoring the purple colours, which one do you prefer? Participant Colgate Plax Mouthwash Multi Protection Oral-B Multi- Protection Mouthwash Listerine Total Care Mouthwash 1  2  3  4  5  6  7 
  51. 51. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 51 Which product looks more clinical, something you will see in a dentist’s lab? Participant Colgate Plax Mouthwash Multi Protection Oral-B Multi- Protection Mouthwash Listerine Total Care Mouthwash 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Which form of oral care product advertisement do you come across most of the time? Participant TV Internet In-store Print media 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  What brand comes to mind when you hear the word toothpaste? Participant Colgate Oral-B Sensodyne Others 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  How often do you visit a dentist? Participant Once in 6 months Once a year <Once a year 1  2  3  4  5  6  7 
  52. 52. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 52 Did the dentist recommend any oral care product brands? Participant Yes No 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  If your dentist recommends a brand, will you buy it? Participant Yes No 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  If you only saw products in your dentist’s office, but without his active recommendation. Will you buy it? Participant Yes No 1  2  3  4  5  6   7  Which of these advertisements interests you? Participant Oral B Colgate Sensodyne Listerine 1   2  3  4  5   6  7  
  53. 53. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 53 Which of these advertisements interests you (Cross-Tabulation)? Participant Oral B Colgate Sensodyne Listerine Males 3 0 0 3 Females 3 0 1 0 Will you be interested in switching to the product which has an interesting advertisement? Participant Yes No 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  What will make you switch brand? Participant Peer recommendation Effects seen on peers Price Advertisement Dentist Recommendation 1   2   3   4   5  6   7   What will make you switch brand? (Cross-Tabulation) Participant Peer recommendation Effects seen on peers Price Advertisement Dentist Recommendation Males 0 3 0 0 3 Females 0 3 1 0 4
  54. 54. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 54 How much do you usually pay for toothpaste? Participant <£1.5 £1.5 - £3 £3 - £4.5 >£4.5 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Will you be willing to spend more on toothpaste if you have more disposable income? Participant Yes No 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Do you think more expensive toothpaste will come with better functionalities? Participant Yes No 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  How much do you spend on toothbrush? Participant <£1.5 £1.5 - £3.5 >£3.5 1  2  3  4  5  6  7 
  55. 55. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 55 How much do you spend on toothbrush? Participant <£1.5 £1.5 - £3.5 >£3.5 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Will you spend more on toothbrush if you have more disposable income? Participant Yes No 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  How much do you spend on mouthwash? Participant <£1.5 £1.5 - £3.5 >£3.5 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Will you spend more on mouthwash if you have more disposable income? Participant Yes No 1  2  3 NA NA 4  5  6  7 
  56. 56. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 56 Are you willing to use different brands for mouthwash and toothpaste? Participant Yes No 1  2  3 NA NA 4  5  6  7  Why is there a mixture of brands? Participant Price concerns Quality concerns >£3.5 1  2  3 NA NA NA 4  5  6  7  If Oral-B offers a package for toothpaste and mouthwash at a promotional price, will you buy it? Participant Yes No 1  2  3  4  5  6  7 
  57. 57. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 57 3. Appendix 3 – Group Members’ Personal Experience Records Amy Scott’s Personal Experience Record Item Frequency (For 2 Weeks) Brand Do you want to: Keep it? Change it? Recommend it to others? Cleansing Pads 8 Skin Wisdom Yes No No Facial Tissue 14 Asda Yes No No Shampoo 10 Herbal Essences Yes No Yes Body Wash 16 Palmolive honey Yes No Yes Soap 53 Palmolive No Yes No Conditioner 10 Herbal Essences Yes No Yes Razors 6 Bic Yes No No Shaving Cream NA After Shave NA Colognes 8 1881Cerruti Yes No Yes Deodorant 20 Nivea Yes No No Skin Cream 28 Simple Moisturiser Yes No No Lotion 16 Vaseline / Nivea Yes No Yes Mouthwash NA Toothbrush 32 Colgate No Yes No Toothpaste 32 Colgate Yes No No Other: Floss 7 Asda No Yes No Other: Eye makeup remover 8 Garnier Yes No No
  58. 58. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 58 Angeline Tjandra’s Personal Experience Record Item Frequency (For 2 Weeks) Brand Do you want to: Keep it? Change it? Recommend it to others? Cleansing Pads 28 Body Shop Yes No No Facial Tissue 28 Kleenex Yes No No Shampoo 7 L’oreal Yes No Yes Body Wash 14 Body Shop Yes No Yes Soap 24 Marks & Spencer Yes No Yes Conditioner 7 L’oreal Yes No Yes Razors NA Shaving Cream NA After Shave NA Colognes 14 Body Shop Yes No Yes Deodorant NA Skin Cream 28 Body Shop Yes No Yes Lotion 14 Body Shop Yes No Yes Mouthwash 7 Listerine Yes No No Toothbrush 28 Pepsodent Yes No No Toothpaste 28 Sensodyne No Yes No Other: facial wash 28 Olay No Yes No Other: facial toner 28 Olay Yes No No Other: hair spray (vitamin) 7 L’oreal Yes No Yes
  59. 59. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 59 Chen Chen’s Personal Experience Record Item Frequency (For 2 Weeks) Brand Do you want to: Keep it? Change it? Recommend it to others? Cleansing Pads NA Facial Tissue 7 Kleenex Yes No No Shampoo 28 Body Shop Yes No No Body Wash 28 Body Shop Yes No No Soap 28 Body Shop Yes No No Conditioner NA Razors 2 Gilette Yes No No Shaving Cream NA After Shave 2 Calvin Klein Yes No No Colognes 8 Ralph Lauren Yes No Yes Deodorant 14 Nivea Yes No No Skin Cream NA Lotion NA Mouthwash 5 Listerine Yes No No Toothbrush 28 Oral-B Yes No No Toothpaste 28 Colgate No Yes No
  60. 60. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 60 Christie Woodhouse’s Personal Experience Record Item Frequency (For 2 Weeks) Brand Do you want to: Keep it? Change it? Recommend it to others? Cleansing Pads 28 Johnson Baby Wipes Yes No Yes Facial Tissue NA Shampoo 16 Herbal Essences Yes No Yes Body Wash 16 Imperial Leather Yes No Yes Soap 53 Imperial Leather Yes No Yes Conditioner 16 Herbal Essences Yes No Yes Razors 14 Bic Yes No Yes Shaving Cream NA After Shave NA Colognes 28 Paco Rabanne Yes No Yes Deodorant 28 Nivea Yes No Yes Skin Cream 42 E45 Yes No Yes Lotion NA Mouthwash 28 Listerine Yes No Yes Toothbrush 31 Colgate Yes No Yes Toothpaste 31 Colgate Yes No Yes
  61. 61. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 61 Kenneth Kan’s Personal Experience Record Item Frequency (For 2 Weeks) Brand Do you want to: Keep it? Change it? Recommend it to others? Cleansing Pads NA Facial Tissue 14 Tesco No Yes No Shampoo 14 Head & Shoulders Yes No No Body Wash 14 Original Source Yes No Yes Soap NA Conditioner NA Razors 7 Gillette Yes No No Shaving Cream NA After Shave NA Colognes 14 Ermenegildo Zegna Yes No Yes Deodorant NA Skin Cream NA Lotion NA Mouthwash 5 Listerine Yes No Yes Toothbrush 28 Oral B Yes No Yes Toothpaste 28 Colgate Yes No Yes
  62. 62. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 62 Mike Ho’s Personal Experience Record Item Frequency (For 2 Weeks) Brand Do you want to: Keep it? Change it? Recommend it to others? Cleansing Pads NA Facial Tissue NA Shampoo 14 Dove Yes No Yes Body Wash 14 Johnson Baby Yes No Yes Soap NA Conditioner NA Razors NA Shaving Cream NA After Shave NA Colognes NA Deodorant NA Skin Cream NA Lotion NA Mouthwash 28 Listerine Yes No Yes Toothbrush 28 Colgate Yes No Yes Toothpaste 28 Colgate Yes No Yes
  63. 63. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 63 Roxanne Tuck’s Personal Experience Record Item Frequency (For 2 Weeks) Brand Do you want to: Keep it? Change it? Recommend it to others? Cleansing Pads 24 Johnson Baby Wipes Yes No Yes Facial Tissue NA Shampoo 8 Pantene Pro-V Yes No Yes Body Wash 8 Soap and Glory Yes No Yes Soap 80 Palmolive Catering Soap Yes No No Yes No No Conditioner 8 Pantene Pro-V Yes No Yes Razors 5 Gillette Venus Yes No Yes Shaving Cream 5 Gillette Yes No Yes After Shave NA Colognes 3 Marc Jacobs - Daisy Yes No Yes Deodorant 14 Dove Yes No Yes Skin Cream 18 Clarins Yes No Yes Lotion 8 Bio-Oil Yes No Yes Mouthwash 24 Listerine Yes No Yes Toothbrush 24 Oral B Yes No Yes Toothpaste 24 Sensodyne Yes No Yes
  64. 64. MKT2004 Group Project Report 2012 64 Tiezheng Yuan’s Personal Experience Record Item Frequency (For 2 Weeks) Brand Do you want to: Keep it? Change it? Recommend it to others? Cleansing Pads NA Facial Tissue 14 Kleenex Yes No No Shampoo 14 Pantene Yes No No Body Wash 14 Body Shop Yes No No Soap 14 Marks & Spencer Yes No No Conditioner NA Razors 14 Gilette Yes No Yes Shaving Cream 14 Nivea Yes No No After Shave NA Colognes 14 Burberry Sport Yes No Yes Deodorant NA Skin Cream NA Lotion NA Mouthwash 7 Listerine Yes No No Toothbrush 28 Oral-B Yes No No Toothpaste 28 Colgate Yes No No

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