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Higher Education And Economic Development


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Higher Education And Economic Development

  1. 1. Higher Education and Economic Development Linking Higher Education to Market Forces
  2. 2. Introduction • Knowledge economy • Addressing brain drain • Need for intellectual excellence in all areas • Visioning a partnership of training and economic development • Shared vision for the Kurdish Region
  3. 3. Introduction • Importance of general knowledge • Importance of specific knowledge • Human resource demands of global businesses – What do they want?
  4. 4. Importance of Institutional Autonomy that is Accountable • General Public • Higher Education Community • Government • Students • Business
  5. 5. General Public • Contribution to a civil society • Inclusive discourse and debate • Cultural enhancements • Preparing the future generations for robust economic development within a representative governmental structure that will ensure the stability and growth of a nation
  6. 6. Higher Education Community • Offering comparable degrees within a transparent structure of quality • Seeking cooperation in the higher education enterprise that allows mobility of faculty and students • Participating in the global higher education community
  7. 7. Government • Providing accountability for government financial support • Supporting and contributing to the mission and vision of the country • Graduating students in a timely manner equipped with skills necessary to advance the civic, economic, and research strategies
  8. 8. Students • Providing access • Providing for the highest quality education available with existing resources • Offering degrees that match up with interests, passions and skill sets • Providing services and courses necessary for on-time graduation • Providing meaningful practical experiences
  9. 9. Business • Providing highly qualified graduates with the necessary skill-sets to advance business agendas for existing enterprises – Entry level - skilled – Management – Technical • Providing research to create new jobs and industries; fostering the entrepreneurial spirit
  10. 10. Creating a Responsive Higher Education System • Mission Driven Institutions • Engages All Stakeholders • Has Available Resources to Accomplish Mission • Develops Measurable Plans Around the Future of the Kurdish Region • Has Strategies for Student Recruitment
  11. 11. Mission Driven Institutions • Understands clearly strengths and limitations • Careful planning with limited resources • Constantly assess around mission focus • Looks to ultimate goals and outcomes that are congruent with the business and government interests
  12. 12. Engages All Stakeholders • Faculty • Students • Alumni • Board • Ministry • Business
  13. 13. Available Resources to Accomplish Mission • Teaching and Learning • Research • Technology • Sources – Ministry – Business partnerships
  14. 14. Measurable Plans for the Future of the Kurdish Region • Retaining and attracting scholars • Moving research to patents and job creation (i.e. EPSCoR) • Using the university for corporate attraction • Business incubators for entrepreneurial thinking in an emerging economy. – Focus on small to medium enterprises – Support existing business for expansion
  15. 15. Student Recruitment • Adequately prepare students for university level work • Keeping the brightest in the Kurdish region • Utilization of international education (service commitment scholarships) • Attracting some of the best students to all areas of study • Providing opportunity for under-prepared and low- income • Incentive toward certain professions (scholarships – Corporate named scholars)
  16. 16. Partnership Examples • Recent corporate relocations to Tennessee: – Automotive (management and production) – Technology production • Belmont’s leadership institute • Tusculum’s corporate site degree programs • Lipscomb’s institutes for ethics and conflict resolution • Faculty/Student research partnerships • Business incubators
  17. 17. Challenges • Need for open and transparent economic vision and plan • Need for focus in higher education – Program justification – Responsiveness • Scarce resources • Lack of data on education attainment • Strong lower and higher education systems that provide opportunity for everyone
  18. 18. Education Programs Maintaining quality and focus
  19. 19. Education Programs • Each academic program: – Must demonstrate that it is consistent with the university mission – Must be approved by the faculty and administration – Establishes and evaluates programs and learning outcomes • Faculty are empowered and accountable at the university level to adjust curriculum that is cutting edge and responsive to regional, national and global challenges
  20. 20. Education Programs • Decentralized admission decisions at the campus level which are consistent with the mission of the university – Selectivity – Competencies – Program admission aligns with objectives and desired outcomes
  21. 21. Education Programs • University uses technology to enhance student learning appropriate to meeting the program goals and objectives and ensures that the students have access to training and use of technology
  22. 22. Education Programs • Faculty hold the primary responsibility for curricular – Content – Quality – Effectiveness • Faculty hold the responsibility for determining learning outcomes for courses and degree programs • Programs must demonstrate knowledge progression (ratcheting)
  23. 23. Education Programs • First Cycle: Undergraduate Programs – Institution identifies university-level competencies within the general education core and provides evidence that graduates have attained those competencies • Program level • Course level
  24. 24. The Bologna Process for U.S. Eyes: Re-learning Higher Education in the Age of Convergence Clifford Adelman April 2009
  25. 25. Short Cycle • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding that builds upon secondary education • Can apply knowledge to occupational contexts • Ability to identify and use data to formulate responses to well-defined concrete and abstract problems • Communicate about their understanding, skills, and activities, with peers, supervisors, and clients • Possess the learning skills to undertake further studies with some autonomy
  26. 26. First Cycle • Demonstrated knowledge and understanding that builds upon secondary education, and is typically at a level that, whilst supported by advanced textbooks, includes some aspects that will be informed by the forefront of their field of study • Can apply knowledge in a manner that indicates professional approach to their work or vocation, and have competencies typically demonstrated through devising and sustaining arguments and solving problems within their field of study
  27. 27. First Cycle – (Continued) • Have the ability to gather and interpret relevant data (usually within their field of study) to inform judgements that include reflection on relevant social, scientific or ethical issues; • Can communicate information, ideas, problems and solutions to both specialists and non-specialist audiences; and • Have developed those learning skills that are necessary for them to continue to undertake further study with a high degree of autonomy
  28. 28. Education Programs • Second Cycle: Graduate Programs – Demonstrate that graduate programs are progressively more advanced than undergraduate programs – Graduate studies and support should foster • Independent learning • Contribution to profession or field of study – Residency and ECTS requirements should be met
  29. 29. Second Cycle • Have demonstrated knowledge and understanding that is founded upon and extends and/or enhances that typically associated with Bachelor’ s level, and that provides a basis or opportunity for originality in developing and/or applying ideas, often within a research context • Can apply their knowledge and understanding, and problem solving abilities in new or unfamiliar environments within broader (or multidisciplinary) contexts related to their field of study;
  30. 30. Second Cycle (Continued) • Have the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity, and formulate judgments with incomplete or limited information, but that include reflecting on social and ethical responsibilities linked to the application of their knowledge and judgments; • Can communicate their conclusions, and the knowledge and rationale underpinning these, to specialist and non- specialist audiences clearly and unambiguously; and • Have the learning skills to allow them to continue to study in a manner that may be largely self-directed or autonomous.
  31. 31. Tuning Model • Subject specific – Multi-institutional – Faculty driven – All key stakeholders – Does not determine 100% of content, just general learning outcomes • Thematic Networks – Deal with specific cross border issues and curriculum solutions
  32. 32. Subject Dependent Outcomes First Cycle • Demonstrate knowledge of the foundation and history of that major field; • Demonstrate understanding of the overall structure of the discipline and the relationships both among its sub- fields and to other disciplines; • Communicate the basic knowledge of the field (information, theories) in coherent ways and in appropriate media (oral, written, graphic, etc.); • Place and interpret new information from the field in context;
  33. 33. Subject Dependent Outcomes First Cycle • Demonstrate understanding and execution of the methods of critical analysis in the field; • Execute discipline-related methods and techniques accurately; and • Demonstrate understanding of quality criteria for evaluating discipline-related research.
  34. 34. Subject Dependent Outcomes Second Cycle • Within a specialized field in the discipline, demonstrates knowledge of current and leading theories, interpretations, methods, and techniques; • Can follow critically and interpret the latest developments in theory and practice in the field; • Demonstrates competence in the techniques of independent research, and interprets research results at an advanced level;
  35. 35. Subject Dependent Outcomes Second Cycle • Makes an original, though limited, contribution within the canons and appropriate to the practice of a discipline, e.g. thesis, project, performance, composition, exhibit, etc.; and • Evidences creativity within the various contexts of the discipline.
  36. 36. European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) • Focuses on student workload • Learning outcomes • Course Grades – Credits do not have to be the same, just comparable
  37. 37. Diploma Supplement • Information about the credential awarded • Information on the level of the credential – Provides narrative about the overall education experience to provide degree context in the international community • Information on the contents of the course of study and results gained – Full time/part time; internships; theses; etc.
  38. 38. Diploma Supplement • Statement of the purpose and function of the credential – Labor force or research preparation? – Confer status in a regulated profession? • Additional information; such as: – Academic honors – External examinations or licenses – Institution or community service – Student research – Language proficiency
  39. 39. Quality Enhancement • Institutions are to demonstrate that they are seeking to improve • Institutions are allowed to determine the best process to accomplish ongoing quality • Regional bodies have adopted Quality Enhancement Processes (QEP) • Examples of PDCA and Deming
  40. 40. Quality Enhancement • PDCA – Walter Shewhart and later adopted by Edwards Deming – Plan – Do – Check – Act
  41. 41. PDCA • Plan – Define the problem or opportunity; Determine what it is that you are trying to improve – Identify who owns the process – Limit your investigation – Include all the stakeholders – Analyze the situation • Fully assess your current process • Brainstorming techniques • Data driven analysis • Qualitative analysis
  42. 42. PDCA • Plan (continued) – Benchmarking • Comparative processes • Aspiring processes – Objectify the process (drive out fear and institute pride) • Do – Implement corrective actions – Document the procedures of implementation – Monitor and measure changes (collect data)
  43. 43. PDCA • Check – Analyze information collected on the change actions and outcomes – Monitor trends (discount for special cause variations) – Compare results against expected results • Act – Expected results? Yes, congratulations! – Additional improvement? PDCA
  44. 44. Quality Enhancement • Additional Tools: – Flow Charts – Brainstorming – SWOT • Strengths • Weaknesses • Opportunities • Threats • Examples – Student Services
  45. 45. Edwards Deming • Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service • Adopt a new philosophy of a global age • Cease inspection of the end product as a substitute for true quality • Use quality improvement to reduce cost • Improve constantly and forever • Institute life-long learning/training on the job
  46. 46. Edwards Deming • Institute leadership; not merely supervision • Drive out fear so that everyone may contribute to the betterment of the university • Break down barriers between departments and universities • Do not rely on slogans to institute change • Eliminate quotas and institute leadership
  47. 47. Edwards Deming • Eliminate management by objective and instill pride in work; for all levels of the university staff, administration, and faculty • Institute programs of improvement for processes and individuals • Engage everyone at the university to implement and sustain quality improvement