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Using Gums in Cake & Batter Systems

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Often, creating the ideal texture and crumb in commercial cake systems requires the use of food gums and stabilizers. Depending on the stabilizer chosen, gums can perform any number of functions in cakes including thickening, stabilizing, and emulsifying the batter, suspending inclusions, or increasing water-holding capacity, which creates a moister cake with improved shelf-life and freeze/thaw stability.

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Using Gums in Cake & Batter Systems

  1. 1. Utilizing Gums in Cake Systems 2014 Cake Symposium August 25 & 26, 2014 TIC Gums Steven Baker Texture + Stability Solutions Using Gums in Cake & Batter Systems
  2. 2. How do gums build viscosity? o Build viscosity by interacting with water o Hydrogen bonding with water molecules
  3. 3. Why use gums in cakes? o Thicken and stabilize batter o Hold batter emulsion o Result in an even, consistent crumb structure o Suspend inclusions
  4. 4. Why use gums in cakes? o Manage water o Increase water-holding capacity, leading to a moister and lighter mouthfeel and decreased particulate awareness o Impart freeze/thaw stability o Increase shelf-life o Effective at very low usage levels o 0.1–0.3% based on flour weight
  5. 5. Batter Emulsion Continuous (Water) Phase Dispersed (Fat) Phase Interfacial Region Water Droplet Air Cell
  6. 6. Creating Batter Balance Batter Stability Ingredient Levels Batter Viscosity • Batter Stability • Stable emulsion ensures a tight, consistent crumb • Batter Viscosity • Batter not too thick or too thin • For dispensing and suspension • Ingredient Levels • Balance between water and gum levels
  7. 7. Considerations When Formulating Batter Systems o pH – neutral to alkaline o Mixing o Medium shear and short time o Temperature o Ambient temperature during mixing o High internal temperatures during baking o Variable ingredients
  8. 8. Gum Combinations Add Functionality o Cellulose gum/Xanthan gum combination o Less likely to impart gumminess o Guar gum/Xanthan gum combination o Synergistic relationship for increased thickening o Gum Arabic o Natural emulsifier and film-former o Alginate o Reactive with calcium
  9. 9. Yellow cake formulation Ingredient Bakers % True %* Cake Flour 100 23.31 Sugar 120 27.97 Baking Powder 5.5 1.28 Salt 4 0.93 Non Fat Dry Milk 8.5 1.98 Gums 0.1 (0% for control) 0.02 Cake Shortening 50 11.65 Whole Eggs 60 13.98 Vanilla Extract 1 0.23 Water 75 (for 0% gum)* 18.65 *levels variable depending on water addition with gums
  10. 10. Yellow cake procedure 1. Add dry ingredients for bowl 2. Using paddle attachment, mix for 1 minute on speed 1 3. Scrape bowl and paddle 4. Add eggs and mix for 4 minutes on speed 1 5. Scrape bowl and paddle 6. Add Stage 3 water and mix for 4 minutes on speed 1 7. Scrape bowl and paddle 8. Add rest of water and mix for 4 minutes on speed 1 9. Deposit 420 grams batter into 8-inch cake pan 10. Bake at 350°F for 22 minutes
  11. 11. Control – no gums
  12. 12. Test Result Specific Gravity 0.91 Bostwick Batter Flow (30 sec) 9.4 cm Shoulder Height 2.15 cm Center Height 3.1 cm Control – no gums An acceptable cake can be achieved without gums, however, moistness, softness of crumb and volume can all be increased by adding gums.
  13. 13. 0.1% Xanthan Gum, no additional water
  14. 14. 0.1% Xanthan Gum, no additional water Test Result Specific Gravity 0.89 Bostwick Batter Flow (30 sec) 8.5 cm Shoulder Height 2.5 cm Center Height 3.0 cmSince gums increase the water holding capacity of the batter, if the level of water added is inadequate, a thicker batter with lower volume will result.
  15. 15. 0.1% Guar Gum, 5 parts additional water
  16. 16. 0.1% Guar Gum, 5 parts additional water Test Result Specific Gravity 0.90 Bostwick Batter Flow (30 sec) 8.4 cm Shoulder Height 2.7 cm Center Height 3.3 cmAt the same gum usage levels, increasing the water also increases the volume and softness of the cake and moistness of the crumb.
  17. 17. 0.1% Guar Gum, 15 parts additional water
  18. 18. 0.1% Guar Gum, 15 parts additional water Test Result Specific Gravity 0.88 Bostwick Batter Flow (30 sec) 8.4 cm Shoulder Height 2.75 cm Center Height 3.3 cm
  19. 19. 0.1% Guar Gum, 30 parts additional water
  20. 20. 0.1% Guar Gum, 30 parts additional water Test Result Specific Gravity 0.89 Bostwick Batter Flow (30 sec) 8.8 cm Shoulder Height 2.85 cm Center Height 3.2 cmWith ideal water: gum ratio, batter flow approaches the control product, volume is greater (especially at the shoulder height), and crumb is moist and soft.
  21. 21. 0.1% Guar Gum, 50 parts additional water
  22. 22. 0.1% Guar Gum, 50 parts additional water Large Air Cells Pockets
  23. 23. 0.1% Guar Gum, 50 parts additional water Test Result Specific Gravity 0.92 Bostwick Batter Flow (30 sec) 9.5 cm Shoulder Height 2.6 cm Center Height 3.4 cmAt the same gum usage levels, increasing the water also increases the volume and softness of the cake, and moistness of the crumb.
  24. 24. 24 Hour Firmness Data 0.1% Guar Gum 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 No Gum Control 5 Parts Added Water 15 Parts Added Water 30 Parts Added Water 50 Parts Added Water Firmness(grams)
  25. 25. 24 Hour Cohesiveness Data 0.1% Guar Gum 0.465 0.470 0.475 0.480 0.485 0.490 0.495 0.500 No Gums Control 5 Parts Added Water 15 Parts Added Water 30 Parts Added Water 50 Parts Added Water Cohesiveness
  26. 26. Tips for Gluten-Free Cakes o In general, gluten-free batter is thinner o Same gums can be used o Higher usage levels, 0.25–0.5% based on flour weight o Guar gum may be limited due to flavor o Added water is less than conventional cakes o 5-10 parts added water for every part gum Download prototype gluten-free formulations
  27. 27. More Information o Using Gums In Commercial Cake Systems o Click here o Gluten-free Prototype Formulations o Bread, muffins, and corn bread o Stabilizers for Bakery Applications o Click here
  28. 28. Talk with a Gum Guru® Our Gum Gurus® are available to talk about your specific texture and stability needs. Call our technical support hotline at (800) 899-3953/+1(410) 273-7300 or chat on our website.

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